USS Raleigh (1776)
This article includes a list of general references, but it lacks sufficient corresponding inline citations. (October 2011)
Model of Raleigh in the U.S. Navy Museum
|Namesake||Sir Walter Raleigh|
|Builder||Colonel James Hackett|
|Laid down||21 March 1776|
|Launched||21 May 1776|
|Captured||25 September 1778|
|Fate||Grounded and abandoned|
|Launched||28 September 1778 (refloated)|
|Acquired||25 September 1778|
|Decommissioned||10 June 1781|
|Fate||Sold July 1781|
|Class and type||Hancock Class, 32 gun Frigate|
|Length||131 ft 5 in (40.06 m) keel 110 ft 7 in (33.71 m)|
|Beam||34 ft 5 in (10.49 m)|
|Draft||11 ft (3.4 m)|
|Complement||180 officers and enlisted|
USS Raleigh was one of thirteen ships that the Continental Congress authorized for the Continental Navy in 1775. Following her capture in 1778, she served in the Royal Navy as HMS Raleigh. The ship is featured on the flag and seal of New Hampshire.
As USS Raleigh
Raleigh, a 32-gun frigate, was authorized by Continental Congress on 13 December 1775. Built by Messrs. James Hackett, Hill, and Paul under supervision of Thomas Thompson, the keel was laid on March 21, 1776, at the shipyard of John Langdon on what is now Badger's Island in Kittery, Maine. She was launched on May 21, 1776.
With a full-length figure of Sir Walter Raleigh as figurehead, Raleigh put to sea under Captain Thomas Thompson, who also supervised her construction, on August 12, 1777. Shortly thereafter, she joined Alfred and sailed for France. Three days out they captured a schooner carrying counterfeit Massachusetts money. Burning the schooner and her cargo, except for samples, the frigates continued their transatlantic passage. On September 2 they captured the British brig, Nancy, and from her they obtained the signals of the convoy which the brig had been escorting from the rear. Giving chase, the Americans closed with the convoy on September 4, 1777.
Raleigh, making use of the captured signals, intercepted the convoy and engaged HMS Druid. In the ensuing battle she damaged Druid, but the approach of the other British escorts, HMS Camel and Weazel forced her to retire.
On 28 September she and USS Alfred captured brig Sally.
On December 29, 1777, Raleigh and Alfred, having taken on military stores, set sail from L'Orient, France, following a course that took them along the coast of Africa. After capturing British vessel "Granville" off the Bar of the Senegal River, Raleigh crossed the Atlantic Ocean to the West Indies. On March 9, 1778, in the Lesser Antilles, Alfred, some distance from Raleigh, was captured by the British ships HMS Ariadne and Ceres. Raleigh, unable to reach Alfred in time to assist her, continued north and returned to New England early in April 1778.
Accused of cowardice and dereliction of duty for not aiding Alfred, Captain Thompson was suspended soon after reaching port. On May 30, 1778, the Marine Committee appointed John Barry to replace him as captain.
Barry arrived in Boston to assume command on June 24 only to find his ship without crew or stores and the Navy Board not wholly in support of the manner of his appointment. His reputation and character, however neutralized the ill-will of the Marine Committee, drew enlistments, and helped to obtain the stores.
On September 25, Raleigh sailed for Portsmouth, New Hampshire with a brig and a sloop under convoy. Six hours later two strange sails were sighted. After identification of the ships as British the merchant vessels were ordered back to port. Raleigh drew off the enemy. Through that day and the next the enemy ships HMS Unicorn and Experiment pursued Raleigh. In late afternoon on the 27th, the leading British ship closed with her. A 7-hour running battle followed, much of the time in close action. About midnight, the enemy hauled off and Barry prepared to conceal his ship among the islands of Penobscot Bay.
The British, however, again pressed the battle. As Raleigh opened fire, Barry ordered a course toward the land. Raleigh soon grounded on Wooden Ball Island, part of Matinicus. The British hauled off but continued the fight for a while, then anchored. Barry ordered the crew ashore to continue the fight and to burn Raleigh.
A large party, including Barry, made it to shore. One boat was ordered back to Raleigh to take off the remainder of the crew, and destroy her, however the British again fired on the ship, striking the Continental colors. The battle was over. All three ships had been damaged, Unicorn particularly so. Of the Americans ashore, a few were captured on the island, but the remainder, including Barry, made it back to Boston, Massachusetts, arriving on October 7.
As HMS Raleigh
The British refloated Raleigh at high tide on the 28th, and after repairs, commissioned her into the Royal Navy as HMS Raleigh. They admired her design, and applied it in their new ships. She continued to fight during the War for Independence as a British vessel and took part in the capture of Charleston, South Carolina. In May 1780, she was decommissioned at Portsmouth, England, on June 10, 1781, and was sold in July 1783.
Raleigh is depicted on the flag and seal of New Hampshire.
- ^ Preble, 1892, p.12
- ^ "NAVAL DOCUMENTS OF The American Revolution" (PDF). history.navy.mil. Retrieved 30 October 2021.
- ^ "NAVAL DOCUMENTS OF The American Revolution" (PDF). history.navy.mil. Retrieved 22 November 2021.
- ^ DANFS, USS Raleigh Prgh.6
- Dept U.S.Navy. "USS Raleigh (1776)". Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. Department of the Navy -- Naval Historical Center. Retrieved 27 March 2013.
- Preble, George Henry (1892). History of the United States Navy-yard, Portsmouth, N. H. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington. pp. 12-13.