USS S-28 (SS-133)
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|Builder||Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corporation|
|Laid down||16 April 1919|
|Launched||20 September 1922|
|Sponsored by||Mrs. William R. Monroe|
|Commissioned||13 December 1923|
|Fate||Lost to unknown causes, 4 July 1944|
|Class and type||S-class submarine|
|Length||219 ft 3 in (66.83 m)|
|Beam||20 ft 8 in (6.30 m)|
|Draft||15 ft 11 in (4.85 m)|
|Complement||42 officers and men|
|Armament||1 × 4 in (100 mm)/50 deck gun, 4 × 21 inch (533 mm) torpedo tubes|
|Operations:||World War II|
|Awards:||1 battle star|
USS S-28 (SS-133) was an S-class submarine of the United States Navy. A diesel submarine, she served during World War II during which she accounted for the sinking of one Japanese ship. Her keel was laid down on 16 April 1919 by the Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corporation's Fore River Shipyard in Quincy, Massachusetts. She was launched on 20 September 1922, sponsored by Mrs. William R. Monroe, and commissioned on 13 December 1923, Lieutenant Kemp C. Christian in command. She was lost at sea with all hands in July 1944. The remains of the sub were found in 2017 at a depth of 8,500 feet (2,600 m) off the coast of Oahu.
Following shakedown exercises off the southern New England coast, S-28 moved south in March 1924 to join Submarine Division 11 (SubDiv 11), in the final exercises of that year's winter manoeuvres in the Caribbean Sea. In April, she returned to New London, Connecticut, with her division and commenced local exercises which occupied the remainder of the year. With the winter of 1925, she moved south again; transited the Panama Canal, and, after the conclusion of Fleet Problem V, conducted in the vicinity of Guadalupe Island, she arrived in the Hawaiian Islands for a month's stay. In June, she moved east, to San Diego, California, where her division replaced another which had been transferred to the Asiatic Fleet.
Into 1931, the submarine operated primarily off southern California deploying for fleet problems in the Panama Canal area in 1926 and 1929; for summer manoeuvres near Hawaii in 1927 and 1930, and for regularly scheduled overhaul periods at Mare Island Navy Yard throughout the period.
She departed the west coast for Hawaii in mid-February 1931, and on 23 February arrived at Pearl Harbor, whence she operated for the next eight and one-half years. In mid-1939, she was transferred back to San Diego, California, where she was based until after the United States entered World War II.
World War II
On 7 December 1941, S-28 – then a unit of SubDiv 41 – was undergoing overhaul at Mare Island. On 22 January 1942, the work was completed, and she returned to San Diego, where she resumed her prewar training activities for the Underwater Sound Training School. She continued that duty into the spring, then was ordered north to the Aleutian Islands to augment its defences.
On 20 May, S-28 – with other submarines of her division – departed San Diego. Five days later, they stopped off at Port Angeles, Washington, then continued on toward the newly established submarine base at Dutch Harbor, Alaska. On 29 May, however, as preparations were made to minimize a two-pronged Japanese thrust against Midway Island and the Aleutians, the S-boats were directed to proceed to their stations, bypassing Dutch Harbor.
1st war patrol
During a quickly extinguished fire in her port main motor on the morning of 1 June, S-28 suffered minor damage. That evening, she parted company with her sister ships and their escort, and, the next day, she entered her assigned area and commenced patrolling the approaches to Cold Bay on the tip of the Alaskan Peninsula. On 3 June, the Japanese bombed Dutch Harbor to open the war in the Aleutians, and, within the week, they had occupied Kiska and Attu. On 12 June, S-28 arrived at Dutch Harbor, refuelled, took on provisions, and headed west to resume her war patrol.
On 15 June, she crossed the International Date Line, and on 17 June – after a two-day storm – she sighted Kiska and set a course to intercept enemy shipping between there and Attu. On 18 June, she fired on her first enemy target – a destroyer – and was in turn attacked. Eight hours later, sounds of the destroyer's search faded out to the south. S-28 had survived her first encounter with Japanese antisubmarine warfare tactics.
2nd war patrol
Poor weather soon returned, and storms raged during 80% of her remaining time on station. On 28 June, she moored in Dutch Harbor and commenced refit. On 15 July, she got underway and again headed for the Kiska area. On 18 July, she reconnoitred Semisopochnoi, then moved on to Segula. Finding no signs of Japanese activity, she continued westward. On 20 July, she was ordered to take station on an 85 mi (137 km) circle from Sirius Point prior to sunrise on 22 July, at which time the enemy's facilities on Kiska were to be bombarded. The bombardment was delayed, and S-28 remained on that more distant station until 30 July, when she was ordered back into the Kiska area. On 18 August, having been unable to close any of the targets sighted during the latter part of her patrol, she returned to Dutch Harbor.
3rd war patrol
On her third war patrol – 16 September – 10 October – S-28 returned to the Kiska area. She operated to the north of the island until 25 October; then, with the discovery of the enemy's development of Gertrude Cove on Vega Bay, she shifted to the island's southern shore. On the night of 6–7 October, she turned toward Unalaska; and, on the morning of 10 October, as she prepared to fire on an unidentified vessel, a ground in her fire control circuits caused an accidental firing from the No. 1 tube.
That afternoon, S-28 arrived back in Dutch Harbor, whence she headed for home. She reached San Diego on 23 October, and provided training services for the West Coast Sound School and for the Amphibious Forces Training Group from 26 October – 13 November. Then, during an overhaul, she received a fathometer, a Kleinschmidt distilling unit, and SJ radar. On 9 December, she again sailed north. On 16 December, she reported by radio to Task Group 8.5 (TG 8.5); and on 21 December she returned to Dutch Harbor.
4th war patrol
Six days later, S-28 departed on her fourth war patrol. On 3 January 1943, she crossed the International Date Line, and on 5 January she entered her assigned area in the northern Kuril Islands. Moving down the Paramushiro coast, she patrolled in Onekotan Strait; then headed north again, and on 20 January passed Shumushu, whence she set a course for the Aleutians.
5th war patrol
During her fifth war patrol – from 6–28 February – S-28 remained in the western Aleutians, patrolling across the Attu-Buldir-Sirius Point route and along the coast of Attu, particularly off Holtz Bay, Chichagof Harbor, and Sarana Bay. Poor weather and lack of speed, however, impeded her hunting.
On her return to Dutch Harbor, S-28 was ordered south, and on 4 March she got underway for Esquimalt, British Columbia, where – from 15 March – 15 April – she conducted sound tests and antisubmarine warfare exercises with Royal Canadian Navy and Air Force units. She then continued on to the Puget Sound Navy Yard for overhaul and superstructure modification work. On 27 June, she started back to Alaska, and on 13 July she departed Dutch Harbor to return to the northern Kuril Islands for her sixth war patrol.
6th war patrol
Again, she patrolled off Paramushiro and in the straits to the north and south of that island. Again, she was hindered by the weather, obsolete design, and by mechanical failures. On 14 August, she headed east, and on 16 August she moored in Massacre Bay, Attu and commenced refit.
7th war patrol
The late arrival of needed spares from Dutch Harbor delayed her readiness for sea, but on 8 September, S-28 departed the western Aleutians to return to the northern Kuril Islands. On 13 September, she entered her patrol area. On 15 September, severe smoking and sparking from her port main motor necessitated 14 hours of repair work. On 16 September, she transited Mushiru Kaikyo; and, on the afternoon of 19 September, she closed an unescorted freighter off the island of Araito. Her torpedoes missed their mark. The "freighter" turned and within minutes had delivered the first two depth charges of a 10-minute attack. The Japanese ship searched the area for an hour, then departed.
S-28 reloaded and continued her patrol. At 19:16, she contacted a second unescorted enemy vessel. At 19:43, she fired a spread of four torpedoes. At 19:44, two of the four exploded. The target took on a 30° list and began to go down by the bow. At 19:46, the 1,368-long-ton (1,390 t) converted gunboat Katsura Maru Number Two sank, bow first, her stern vertical in the air. Five loud underwater explosions followed her disappearance. S-28 went deep and rigged for a depth charging which did not materialize.
Into October, S-28 hunted just north of Araito and off the coast of Kamchatka. On 5 October, she moved through Onekotan Strait and continued her patrol on the Pacific side of the Kuril Islands. On 10 October, however, a crewman developed severe appendicitis, and she turned toward Attu one day ahead of schedule.
On 13 October 1943, S28 moored at Attu. The next day, she departed for Dutch Harbor, whence, in November, she headed south to Hawaii. She arrived at Pearl Harbor at mid-month, and – after overhaul – commenced training duty. For the next seven months, she remained in Hawaiian waters, providing training services. Then, on 3 July 1944, she began training operations off Oahu with the United States Coast Guard cutter Reliance. The anti-submarine warfare exercises continued into the evening of 4 July. At 17:30, the day's concluding exercise began. Contact between the two became sporadic and, at 18:20, the last, brief contact with S-28 was made and lost. All attempts to establish communications failed.
Assistance arrived from Pearl Harbor, but a thorough search of the area failed to locate the submarine. Two days later, a slick of diesel fuel appeared in the area where she had been operating, but the extreme depth exceeded the range of available equipment. A Court of Inquiry was unable to determine the cause of the loss of S-28.
The remains of the sub were found on 20 September 2017, at a depth of 8,500 feet (2,600 m) off the coast of Oahu by Tim Taylor with the support of STEP Ventures.
- "Expedition S-28", Lost 52 Project website.
- This article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. The entry can be found here.