U language

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Native speakers
40,000 (2000)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3uuu

The U language or P'uman, 濮满, is spoken by 40,000 people in the Yunnan Province of China and possibly Myanmar. It is classified as an Austroasiatic language in the Palaungic branch. In China, U speakers are classified as ethnic Bulang.


U is spoken in Shuangjiang County of Yunnan and other nearby counties.[3]

  • Wang & Chen (1981) covers the dialect of Pengpan 碰拚, Dafengshan Township 大凤山乡, Shuangjiang County.
  • Zhou & Yan (1983) covers the dialect of Pangpin 胖品,[4] Yongge Township 永革乡, Shuangjiang County.
  • Yan & Zhou (2012) cover U of Gantang 甘塘,[5][6] Yongde County as well as U of Pangpin 胖品.
  • Svantesson (1991:67) documents the U dialect of Paɑ̃ Xɛp (Bangxie, 邦协), Shahe Township 沙河乡, Shuangjiang County.[7]

There 2 main dialects of U in Shuangjiang County: one spoken in Gongnong 公弄 (now part of Mengku Town, 勐库镇) and one spoken in Bangbing 邦丙 and Dawen Mangga 大文乡忙嘎; the Dawen dialect is reportedly mutually intelligible with that of Shidian County (Shuangjiang County Ethnic Gazetteer 1995:160).

Avala (autonym: a21 va21 la21) is spoken in Bangliu 邦六,[8] Manghuai Township 芒怀乡, Yun County 云县, Yunnan, China.[9][10]


U has four tones, high, low, rising, falling, which developed from vowel length and the nature of final consonants.


  1. ^ U at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "U". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. ^ http://sealang.net/sala/archives/pdf8/svantesson1988u.pdf
  4. ^ http://www.ynszxc.gov.cn/villagePage/vindex.aspx?departmentid=100393
  5. ^ http://www.ynszxc.gov.cn/villagePage/vindex.aspx?departmentid=124591
  6. ^ http://www.ynszxc.gov.cn/villagePage/vindex.aspx?departmentid=124563
  7. ^ http://www.ynszxc.gov.cn/villagePage/vIndex.aspx?departmentid=178409
  8. ^ http://www.ynszxc.gov.cn/villagePage/vIndex.aspx?departmentid=34085
  9. ^ Hsiu, Andrew. 2015. The Angkuic languages: a preliminary survey. Paper presented ICAAL 6 (6th International Conference on Austroasiatic Linguistics), Siem Reap, Cambodia. doi:10.5281/zenodo.1127808
  10. ^ Hsiu, Andrew. 2017. Avala audio word list. Zenodo. doi:10.5281/zenodo.1123297

Further reading[edit]

  • Simao Prefecture Ethnic Minority Affairs Bureau [思茂行署民族事务委员会编]. 1991. A study of the Bulang people [布朗族研究]. Kunming: Yunnan People's Press [云南人民出版社]. ISBN 7-222-00803-9
  • Svantesson, Jan-Olof. 1988. "U." In Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area, 11, no. 1: 64-133.
  • Tao, Chengmei 陶成美. 2016. Bulangyu Lawahua de zhicheng daici i55 布朗语拉瓦话的指称代词i55. In Minzu Fanyi 民族翻译. doi:10.13742/j.cnki.cn11-5684/h.2016.01.010
  • Tao, Chengmei 陶成美. 2016. Bulangyu duoxiang dingyu ji qi yuxu yanjiu 布朗语多项定语及其语序研究. M.A. dissertation. Beijing: Minzu University 中央民族大学.
  • Tao Yuming [陶玉明]. 2012. The Bulang people of China [中国布朗族]. Yinchuan: Ningxia People's Press [宁夏人民出版社].
  • Wang Xingzhong [王兴中] & Zhao Weihua [赵卫华]. 2013. Geography and multilingualism in Lincang [临沧地理与双语使用]. Kunming: Yunnan People's Press [云南人民出版社]. ISBN 978-7-222-08581-7
  • Yan Qixiang [颜其香] & Zhou Zhizhi [周植志]. 2012. Mon-Khmer languages of China and the Austroasiatic family [中国孟高棉语族语言与南亚语系]. Beijing: Social Sciences Academy Press [社会科学文献出版社].

Gazetteers and other Chinese government sources with lexical data

  • Nanjian County Gazetteer Commission [南涧县志编纂委员会编] (ed). 1993. Nanjian County Gazetteer [南涧彝族自治县志]. Chengdu: Sichuan Reference Press [四川辞书出版社].
  • Na Ruzhen [納汝珍], et al. (eds). 1994. Zhenkang County Ethnic Gazetteer [镇康县民族志]. Kunming: Yunnan People's Press [云南民族出版社].
  • Simao Prefecture Ethnic Minority Affairs Bureau [思茅行暑民族事务委员会] (ed). 1990. A study of the Bulang people [布朗族研究]. m.s.
  • Xiao Dehua [萧德虎], et al. (eds). 1992. Zhenkang County Gazetteer [镇康县志]. 1992. Chengdu: Sichuan People's Press [四川民族出版社].
  • Yunnan Gazetteer Commission [云南省地方志编纂委员会] (ed). 1998. Yunnan Provincial Gazetteer, Vol. 59: Minority Languages Orthographies Gazetteer [云南省志. 卷五十九, 少数民族语言文字志]. Kunming: Yunnan People's Press [云南人民出版社].

External links[edit]