Ashéninka language

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Ashéninka
Campa
Native to Peru
Ethnicity Ashéninka people
Native speakers
50,000 (2001–2002)[1]
Arawakan
  • Southern
Language codes
ISO 639-3 Variously:
prq – Perené
cpu – Pichis
cpc – Apurucayali
cpb – Ucayali-Yurúa
cjo – Pajonal
cpy – South Ucayali (spurious)
Glottolog ashe1271  Asheninka[2]

Ashéninka (Ashéninca, Ashéninga) is an indigenous American language of the Arawakan family spoken in Peru. According to the indigenous peoples database of the Peruvian Ministry of Education,[3] the Ashéninka people are 9,005 individuals. The Ethnologue gives much higher figures for the different Ashéninka varieties.

The Glottolog distinguishes five different Ashéninka languages (Perené, Pichis, Apurucayali, Pajonal and Ucayali-Yurúa). This classification was established by David Payne in his Apurucayali Axininca grammar,[4] but he referred to these different varieties as dialects and not as different languages.[4]:3–5 Therefore, the present state of research does not allow to know until which extent the different Ashéninka varieties are mutually intelligible among them and with Asháninka.[5][6][7] However, Heitzman[5] says that the Pajonal and Ucayali varieties are mutually intelligible and Payne[6]:14 says that Asháninka speakers can communicate with Ashéninka Perené speakers, but not with Ashéninka Apurucayali speakers.

Ashéninka is a locally official language in Peru, as are all native Peruvian languages. It and its relatives are also known by the largely pejorative term Campa.

Alphabet[edit]

In Asháninka alphabet are 15 letters and 10 diphthongs: Aa, Aa aa, Ch ch, Ee, Ee ee, Ii, Ii ii, Jj, Kk, Mm, Nn, Ññ, Oo, Oo oo, Pp, Rr, Ss, Sh sh, Tt, Th th, Ts ts, Ty ty, Tz tz, Ww and Yy.

Other letters are also used, but only in loanwords and in foreign names.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Perené at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
    Pichis at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
    Apurucayali at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
    Ucayali-Yurúa at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
    Pajonal at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
    South Ucayali (spurious) at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Asheninka". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 
  3. ^ "Base de datos de pueblos indígenas u originarios – Ashéninka". Retrieved 22 March 2016. 
  4. ^ a b Payne, David L. (1981). The Phonology and Morphology of Axininca Campa. Dallas: Summer Institute of Linguistics. 
  5. ^ a b Heitzman, Allene. 1973. Reflexes of some proto-Campa consonants in modern Campan languages and dialects. University of Kansas. MA thesis. p. 1
  6. ^ a b Payne, Judith K. (1989). Lecciones para el aprendizaje del idioma ashéninca (in Spanish). Yarinacocha: Ministerio de Educación & Instituto Lingüístico de Verano. p. 14. 
  7. ^ Mihas, Elena (2015). A Grammar of Alto Perené (Arawak). Berlin: Mouton. 

External links[edit]