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From Top to Bottom : Evening view of the city , City Palace complex
|Nickname(s): White City and The City of Lakes and Venice of the east|
|Founded by||Maharana Udai Singh II|
|Named for||Udai Singh|
|• Body||Udaipur Municipal Corporation|
|• Mayor||Chandra Singh Kothari (BJP)|
|• Total||64 km2 (25 sq mi)|
|Elevation||600 m (2,000 ft)|
|• Density||242/km2 (630/sq mi)|
|• Official||Hindi , English|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
|Nearest city||Jodhpur, Kota, Jaipur, Indore, Rajsamand|
Udaipur pronunciation (help·info) is a major city, municipal corporation and the administrative headquarters of the Udaipur district in the state of Rajasthan in western India. It is the historic capital of the kingdom of Mewar in the former Rajputana Agency. Maharana Udai Singh of the Sisodia clan of Rajputs founded the city in 1559 AD and shifted his capital from the city of Chittorgarh to Udaipur. It remained as the capital city till 1818 when it became a British princely state, and thereafter the Mewar province became a part of Rajasthan when India gained independence in 1947.
Udaipur is a very popular tourist destination. Owing to its many lakes, the city is often called the "Venice of the East", and is also nicknamed the "Lake City" or "City of Lakes". Known for its history, culture, scenic locations and the Rajput-era palaces, Udaipur was also voted as the best city in the World in 2009 by the Travel + Leisure magazine.
Udaipur was founded in 1559 by Maharana Udai Singh II in the fertile circular Girwa Valley to the southwest of Nagda, on the Banas River. The city was established as the new capital of the Mewar kingdom. This area already had a thriving trading town, Ayad, which had served as capital of Mewar in the 10th through 12th centuriesThe Girwa region was thus already well-known to Chittaud rulers who moved to it whenever the vulnerable tableland Chittaurgarh was threatened with enemy attacks. Maharana Udai Singh II, in the wake of 16th century emergence of artillery warfare, decided during his exile at Kumbhalgarh to move his capital to a more secure location. Ayad was flood-prone, hence he chose the ridge east of Pichola Lake to start his new capital city, where he came upon a hermit while hunting in the foothills of the Aravalli Range. The hermit blessed the king and guided him to build a palace on the spot, assuring him it would be well protected. Udai Singh II consequently established a residence on the site. In November 1567, the Mughal emperor Akbar laid siege to the venerated fort of Chittor.
As the Mughal empire weakened, the Sisodia rulers, reasserted their independence and recaptured most of Mewar except for Chittor. Udaipur remained the capital of the state, which became a princely state of British India in 1818. Being a mountainous region and unsuitable for heavily armoured Mughal horses, Udaipur remained safe from Mughal influence despite much pressure. At present , Arvind Singh Mewar is the 76th custodian of the Mewar dynasty.
Udaipur is located at  The city covers an area of 37 sq kms and lies at an altitude of 598.00 m (1,962 ft) above sea level. It is located in the southern region of Rajasthan, near the Gujarat border. The city lies 403 kilometres (250 mi) southwest of the state capital, Jaipur and 250 km (155 mi) northeast from Ahmedabad..
Udaipur with its lakes lies on the south slope of the Aravalli Range in Rajasthan. The Northern part of the district consists generally of elevated plateaus, while the eastern part has vast stretches of fertile plains. The southern part is covered with rocks, Hills and dense Forest. There are two important passages in the Aravali ranges viz. Desuri Nal and Saoke which serves as a link between Udaipur and Jodhpur District.
The lakes of the city being interconnected form a lake system which supports and sustains the ground water recharge, water availability for drinking, agriculture, industries and is a source of employment thorugh tourism. The lake system has three main lakes in its upper catchment area, six lakes within its municipal boundary and one lake in the downstream. The Udaipur lake system, arising out of the river Berach (Banas Basin) and its tributaries, is an integral component of the upper Berach basin .The upper Berach basin is a part of the Gangetic river system, wherein the river Berach meets river Ganga through the rivers Banas, Chambal & Yamuna.
The Udaipur Lake System can be divided into the following categories:
- Upper lakes : Lake Badi, Chhota Madar & Bada Madar.
- City Lakes : Lake Pichola, Fateh Sagar Lake, SwaroopSagar, RangSagar, Kumharia Talab, GoverdhanSagar.
- Downstream Lake : Lake Udai Sagar.
- River : River Ahar.
Watershed or the catchment areas include :
- Bada Madar : 8780.48 ha
- Chhota Madar : 2987.23 ha
- Badi Lake : 1906.55 ha
The city lacks an organised sewerage system and treatment facility for the solid wastes and sewage generated. With an absence of waste segregation, processing and scientific disposal facilities, the city's lakes have been facing increased levels of pollution, thereby threatening an ecological degradation. Five of the major lakes have been included under the restoration project of the National Lake Conservation Plan (NLCP) of the Government of India in order to preserve the cleanliness of the water bodies in the city. These are :
Udaipur city has particularly a tropical climate. The three main seasons, summer, monsoon and winter respectively, dominate the city of Udaipur.Being located in the desert lands of Rajasthan, the climate and weather of Udaipur is usually hot. The summer season runs from mid-March to June and touches temperature ranging from 23 °C (73 °F) to 44 °C (111 °F) in the months of March to June. Monsoons arrive in the month of July heralded by dust and thunderstorms. With lush greenery and enchanting lakes, the sporadic rainfalls enhance the beauty of the city, making it one of the top monsoon destinations of the counntry. The winter season prevails from the month of October till the month of March. Humidity, which prevails during monsoons, diminishes at the arrival of winters. The city observes pleasant sunny days and enjoyable cool nights with the temperature ranging from 5 °C (41 °F) to 30 °C (86 °F).
Udaipur's winter climate is the most appealing time to pay her a visit. Tourists arrive in large numbers, anytime between mid-September to late March or early April. Even in January, the coldest month, the days are bright, sunny and warm with maximum temperature around 28.3 °C (82.9 °F). Mornings, evenings and nights are cold.
|Climate data for Udaipur|
|Average high °C (°F)||24.2
|Average low °C (°F)||7.0
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||3.5
|Population Growth of Udaipur|
According to the 2011 census,the total urban population was 608,426. and the population density was 262/sq.km. As per the data, the male population of the city was 315,485 and the female population was 292,941 in 2011.The total population for the age group of 0–6 years old was 67,068.The sex-ratio of the urban area was 929 while that for the rural area was 966 , the average being 958. The child sex-rato (0–6 years of age) was 865.
Udaipur has an average effective literacy rate of 90.43 percent, as compared to the the national average of 74.04 percent: male literacy rate being 95.41 percent while the female literacy rate being 85.08 percent.
Hinduism is the major religion followed in the city. With a large Jain community , Jainism is amongst the other main religions practised. Jains makes about 10% of the population,as compared to the national average of 0.37%.
Udaipur has a diversified economic base. The major contributions to the city's economy come from tourism, agriculture and mineral industries. The handicraft and cottage industry sectors play an important part in contributing to the growing economy. The city has also been included under the Smart Cities mission initiated by the Government of India.
Udaipur is well known for handicrafts such as paintings, marble articles, silver arts and terracotta. The Shilpgram is a platform where regional handicraft and hand-loom products is developed. Craft bazaars are organized by the Shilpgram, with an aim to encourage the regional arts and crafts and the handicraft and hand-loom works.
Udaipur, with its picturesque landscape, lakes, and historic palaces and architecture, is a major destination for most tourists, both domestic and foreign nationals visiting the state.With numerous hotels to serve visiting tourists,Udaipur is home to some of the world's most renowned and the country's best luxury hotels and resorts. The Oberoi Udaivilas has been ranked as the world's number 1 hotel in 2015 . The Taj Lake Palace and the Leela palace Udaipur are also amongst the most expensive hotels in the country. With various other renowned hotel chains present in the city ,the tourism sector has been a fairly large contributor to the economic growth and fame of Udaipur.
- Metals and Minerals industries
Udaipur district is particularly rich in mineral resources as a large variety of important minerals are found here.Copper, lead, zinc and silver,industrial minerals like phosphate, asbestos, calcite, lime-stone, Talc(soap stone), barites, wollastonite and marble are the major driving resources behind the industries based in the city. Marble is exclusively mined, processed and exported from here around the world.The marble industry is well set and established with proper infrastructure and technological support for mining and processing. It is the largest sector giving employment to many people of the city and the immigrants from nearby areas. The world's second largest Zinc producer, Hindustan Zinc
Agriculture like most other parts of the country,remains a leading sector in the city's economy.The Major crops of the area are Maize and Jowar in Kharif season and Wheat and Mustard in the Rabi season. Pulses, Groundnut and vegetables like brinjals are some of the major food products grown in the city. The Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture and Technology , along with its affiliated institutions, has been working towards identifying, designing, preparing and adapting new techniques in the field of production technology for agricultural development since its establishment.
With its kaleidoscope of fairy-tale palaces, lakes, temples, gardens and narrow lanes, the city carries the flavor of heroic past, epitomizing valor and chivalry., Udaipur is considered as one of the most romantic cities in India.
|City Palace, Udaipur||1559||Standing on the east bank of Lake Pichola is a massive series of palaces built at different times from 1559.Its main entrance is through the triple-arched gate - the Tripolia, built in 1725 which leads to a series of courtyards, overlapping parations, terraces, corridors and gardens.The palace now houses a museum with many antique articles, paintings, decorative furniture and utensils from the royal era.|
|Lake Palace||1743-1746||Situated over an island in Lake Pichola,the Lake Palace was constructed to serve as a royal summer palace.Built of white marble,the palace is now a luxury 5 Star hotel, operating under the "Taj Hotels Resorts and Palaces" banner.|
|Jag Mandir||1551-1652||Jag Mandir is a palace built on an island in the Lake Pichola. Also called the "Lake Garden Palace", it was constructed by three Maharanas of the Mewar kingdom .The construction, starting in 1551 was completed by 1652.The royal family used the palace as a summer resort and pleasure palace|
|Monsoon Palace||-||Monsoon Palace also known as Sajjan Garh Palace was built as as an astronomical centre to keep track of the movement of monsoon clouds in the area and also served as the summer resort of the Maharanas . Built with white marble,it is located on Bansdara peak of the Aravalli hill range at an elevation of 944 m (3100 ft) above mean sea level.The palace offers a panoramic view of the city's lakes, palaces and surrounding countryside.|
|Jagdish Temple||1651||The Jagdish Temple is a large Hindu temple in the middle of Udaipur, built by Maharana Jagat Singh I. A key tourist place in the city , the temple is an example of Māru-Gurjara Architecture.|
|Fateh Sagar Lake||1678||Lake Fatehsagar is an artificial lake situated in the north-west part of Udaipur.The lake was originally built by Maharana Jai Singh and later reconstructed and extended by Maharana Fateh Singh.It is one of the most popular destinations in the city for tourists and the city residents.|
|Sukhadia Circle||-||Sukhadia Circle (square) is large roundabout in the city's northern suburb and is a popular recreational centre.The square has in its centre,a small pond admist which lies a 21 ft high three-tiered fountain. The fountain ,made of marble is surmounted by a wheat-ear motif,a symbol of prosperity.|
|Saheliyon-ki-Bari||1710-1734||Sahelion ki Bari is a major garden and a popular tourist space in the northern part of the city.The garden with its fountains and kiosks, a lotus pool and marble elephants, was laid for a group of forty-eight young women attendants who accompanied a princess to Udaipur as part of her dowry.|
|Lake Pichola||1362||Lake Pichola is an artificial fresh water lake and is one of the several contiguous lakes in the city of Udaipur.The lake’s surroundings and the several islands within the lake have been developed over the centuries, with palaces, marble temples, family mansions, bathing ghats and chabutaras (a raised platform, normally within a courtyard)|
Udaipur has received a rich cultural heritage from the bygone ages. The lakes, temples, huge forts and palaces boast about the rich legacy of this city.The city has kept a balance between preserving the rituals and traditions of the past while keeping up with the modern advancements and chanes in lifestyle.Like any other place in the state of Rajasthan,folk dance and music find an important place in adding to the city's cultural richness.The dynamic and vibrant dances of Bhavai, Ghoomar, Kachchhi Ghodi , Kalbeliya and Terahtaali add a sparkle to the rich cultural heritage of Udaipur.
- Ghoomar dance is a part of the tribal culture of the Mewar Region of Rajasthan. This is a community dance for women and performed on auspicious occasions where the ladies move gracefully in circles.
- Kalbelia,one of the most sensuous dance forms of Rajasthan, is performed by the Kalbeliya snake charmers’ community with the sapera dancers wearing long, black skirts embroidered with silver ribbons.
- Bhavai dance consists of veiled women dancers balancing up to seven or nine brass pitchers as they dance nimbly, pirouetting and then swaying with the soles of their feet perched on the top of a glass or on the edge of the sword
- Kachchhi Ghodi dance dance is performed on dummy horses where men in elaborate costumes ride the equally well decorated dummy horses. Holding naked swords, these dancers move rhythmically to the beating of drums and fifes.
Following a lineage of age old traditions and adhering to religious significance, the various dances complement the fairs and festivals held in the city. The city's music consists mainly of the use of Morchang, Naad, Tanpura, and Sarangi, among many other instruments, that used to echo in the courts of the erstwhile rulers of the state.
Miniature paintings are amongst the most famous paintings developed under the patronage of the rulers of Rajasthan.The simplest among these are done on walls, and though folk in style, they neverthless have some of the flavour of frescoes one sees in the old palaces. The tradition on painting the wall of houses with scenes from mythological and chivalric tales has been prevalent in Rajasthan for the past many centuries.The people of the city make use of such wall paintings for decorations during wedding celebrations.Noted amongst the miniature style of paintings are particularly the Pichvais,which are those made on cloth, and Phad,made on cloth scroll in folk style.
The Bharatiya Lok Kala Mandal is a cultural institution based in the city. The institute with its museum is a platform which displays a collection of Rajasthani culture. Offering an insight into the lifestyle of the royal era in Udaipur, the museum has a fine collection of dresses, tribal jewellery, turbans, dolls, masks, musical instruments, paintings and puppets. With various cultural events including folk song and dance performances, theatre and puppetry , the institute highlights the different social stigmas , thereby proving to be a powerful education tool for the masses.
- Gangaur Festival
Gangaur is one of the most important local festivals in Rajasthan. In some form or the other it is celebrated all over Rajasthan. “gan” is a synonym for Lord Shiva and “gauri” or “gaur” stands for Goddess Parvati, the heavenly consort of Lord Shiva. Gangaur celebrates the union of the two and is a symbol of conjugal and marital happiness.
It is celebrated in the month of Chaitra (March–April), the first month of the Hindu calendar. This month marks the end of winter and the onset of spring. This festival is celebrated especially by women, who worship clay idols of “Gan” & “Gauri” in their houses. These idols are worshiped by the virgins who seek the blessings of Gan and Gauri for a good spouse, while the married women pray for the good health and long life of their husbands. On the eve of Gangaur festival, women decorate their palms and fingers with henna. The idols of Gan and Gauri are immersed in a pond or in a nearby lake on the last day of the festival.
A traditional procession of Gangaur commences form the City Palace which passes through various areas of the city. The procession is headed by a old palanquins, chariots, bullock carts and performance folk artistes.
- Shilpgram Utsav
Shilpgram, a crafts village 3 km west of Lake Fateh Sagar, has displays of traditional houses from Rajasthan, Gujarat, Goa and Maharashtra. There are also demonstrations by musicians, dancers, or artisans from these states. The 10 day festival organised here is a treat for the visitor to an array of exquisite art and craft.One of the important objectives of Shilpgram festival is in the sphere of increasing awareness and knowledge of rural life and crafts, specifically, for the younger generation. Special emphasis is laid on workshops for children on arts, crafts, theatre and music.
- Hariyali Amavasya
Hariyali Amavasya (new moon day of the Sawan / Shravan month) marks the beginning of the monsoons and greenery. It arrvies three days before the famous Hartalika Teej(Shravan shukla tritiya).People worship God Shiva for abundant rains and good agricultural season. Melas and fests are arranged in several places in the city.
- Jagannath Rath Yatra
In udaipur, the third biggest Ratha-Yatra is organised on the auspicious day of Ashadh Shukla Paksha (bright fortnight) Dwitiya according to Indian Vikram Samvat. On this cultural day of summer solstice theme, June 21 of every year, the journey of the lord jagannath to their aunts house is started.The presiding deities of the temple lord Jagannath (Krishna), Balabhadra (Balarama) and their sister Subhadra are taken through the streets in heavily decorated wooden chariots, which are made every year for the purpose. The Chariot of Lord Jagannath , called Nandighosha, has 16 wheels and is draped in red and yellow.
The sanctity of the festival is such that even a touch of the chariot or even the ropes with which these are pulled is considered enough to confer the results of several pious deeds or penance for ages.
- Jal-Jhulni Ekadashi
According to the Hindu calendar, Gyaras, or Ekadashi is basically, the 11th day of each waxing (Shukla paksha ) and waning moon (Krishna paksha).This ekadashi, known as Jal-Jhulni Gyaras, or Jal-Jhulni Ekadashi, like all other festivals, is celebrated with great enthusiasm in Udaipur.Different processions start from the various parts of the city and end at one point i.e. Gangaur Ghat where people swing the idols of Lord Krishna in child form (Baal Gopal) in the Lake Pichola. These procession are called Ram Revdies.
Udaipur in popular culture
Udaipur was voted the Best City in the World in 2009 by the Travel + Leisure magazine, and is now amongst the favourite wedding destinations for Indian as well as foreign nationals. The city is a blend of sights, sounds and experiences, which have made it one of the top destinations for weddings and celebrations.
- Movies and Television
Because of its picturesque and scenic locations, Udaipur has been the shooting location for many Hollywood and Bollywood movies.Indian sections of the James Bond film Octopussy were filmed in the city, the Lake Palace, and the Monsoon Palace. The nearby desert was the backdrop of the remarkable rescue of Octopussy (Maud Adams) by Bond (Roger Moore).Some scenes from the British television series The Jewel in the Crown were also filmed in Udaipur. The Disney channel film, The Cheetah Girls One World, was shot in Udaipur in January 2008. Some of the other non-Indian movies and tv shows filmed in Udaipur include: Darjeeling Limited, Opening Night, Heat and Dust, Indische Ring, Inside Octopussy, James Bond in India, The Best Exotic Marigold Hotel, Gandhi, and The Fall. Jag Mandir, a documentary film directed for television by Werner Herzog in 1991, was also filmed in the city.
Udaipur has been a popular location for Bollywood movies. Some of them shot here include : Guide, Mera Saaya, Phool Bane Angaray, Kachche Dhaage, Mera Gaon Mera Desh, Jalmahal, Yaadein, Return of the thief of the bagdad, Eklavya: The Royal Guard, Dhamaal, Jis Desh Mei Ganga Rehta Hai, Chalo Ishq Ladaaye, Fiza, Gaddaar, Hum Hain Rahi Pyar Ke, Khuda Gawah, Kundan, Nandini, Saajan Ka Ghar,Yeh Jawaani Hai Deewani,Ramleela. Udaipur is also the setting of various Television series like Yeh Rishta Kya Kehlata Hai and Rakhi Ka Swayamwar.
Udaipur is well connected to the major cities of India by land, rail and air.
Dabok airport, also known as Maharana Pratap Airport, is situated in a satellite town about 20 kilometres from Udaipur. Daily flights connect Udaipur with Jaipur, Mumbai and Delhi. Air India, Jet Airways and Spice Jet are operational at present. The airport has been renovated by the Airport Authority of India for a possible International airport status.
Udaipur City railway station has direct trains on the broad gauge network to most of the major cities in Rajasthan and the rest of India such as Khajuraho, Alwar, Jaipur, Kota, Chittorgarh, Ajmer, Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Ratlam, Indore, Ujjain, Mumbai, Surat, Baroda, Gwalior and Agra and a metre gauge network to Ahmedabad. Famous luxurious trains, The Palace on Wheels, Royal Rajasthan on Wheels, Maharaja Express and The Indian Maharaja have Udaipur as the scheduled stop on their itinerary. The popular trains connecting Udaipur with the Capital of India, Delhi are Mewar Express and Chetak Express.
The city lies on the intersection point of East West Corridor, Golden Quadrilateral, National Highway (NH) 76 and National Highway (NH) 8, midway between Delhi and Mumbai, located around 700 kilometres from either city. The East West Corridor which starts from Porbandar and ends at Silchar is intersecting the Golden Quadrilateral and shares the common space from Udaipur to Chittor. The roads in this part of the country are paved and fit for private vehicles. One can either drive from Jaipur (around 6 hours), Ahmedabad (4.1/2 hours) or Surat (9 hours) on NH 8 or Golden Quadrilateral, from Kota (3 hours - EW Corridor or NH 76). Udaipur City Bus Depot has lines running for majority of other destinations in Rajasthan and farther north and west towards Madhya Pradesh and Gujrat. Apart from Rajasthan State Road Transport Corporation (RSRTC), there are numerous private operators and companies providing bus services to and from the other cities.
- Local transport
Unmetered taxis, Private Taxi, Radio taxi, auto rickshaws, and regular city bus services are available in the city.
Apart from the local attractions within the city, there are several charming places to see around Udaipur. Each place has a great legacy of cultural, spiritual and traditional history. Various such places with rich historical background and importance , lakes and forests and important religious temples and shrines are located nearby the city. Most of them are easily accessible by road and railways.
Popular sports include cricket, football, hockey, tennis, badminton, archery, etc. Gandhi Ground is the main sports venue for various events, like athletics, basketball, field hockey, football, Kho Kho and volleyball. Luv Kush Indoor Stadium is generally used for the indoor sports especially Badminton and TT. Maharana Bhupal Stadium is a multi purpose stadium used for organizing matches of football, cricket and other sports. The lakes provide an opportunity for the water sports.
For Encouraging Sports in the city and even for encouraging International Sports in the city, a step has been put forward by establishing ‘Khel Gaon (village)’or Maharana Pratap Khel Gaon in Chitrakoot Nagar. It will be committed to 12 sports namely like Basketball, Volleyball, Tennis, Kho-Kho, Kabaddi, Handball, Archery, Rifle shooting, Judo – Karate, Boxing, Swimming, Squash. The sum of 7.53 crore has already been spent on the main stadium. At present it has an audience capacity of 15000.
Kayaking and Canoeing Sport Camps have also been started at the Fateh Sagar Lake.
Udaipur International Cricket Stadium is a proposed cricket stadium in Udaipur. In 2013, after dispute between Rajasthan State Sports Council and Rajasthan Cricket Association over the availability of Sawai Mansingh Stadium during the Indian Premier League, the RCA decided to have plans of having their own stadium. RCA president CP Joshi puts plan that RCA will have three venues in Jaipur, Udaipur and Jodhpur for IPL matches. RCA has gained land in Udaipur with 9.67 acres from the Udaipur Improvement Trust on a 99-year lease and stadium will have a capacity of 35,000.
Udaipur has a well-established education infrastructure. There are a number of universities, colleges and schools meeting the requirements of not only the city but the region and country as well. The main universities in Udaipur include IIM Udaipur, Mohan Lal Sukhadia University, Sir Padampat Singhania University and Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture and Technology. Other educational institutes include College of Technology And Engineering, College of Dairy & Food Science Technology, RNT Medical College,Pacific Medical College and Hospital,Udaipur ,Pacific Institute of Medical Sciences,Bhupal Nobles' College, J.R.N.Rajasthan Vidyapeeth(Deemed), S S College Of Engineering, Techno India NJR Institute of Technology, Geetanjali Medical College and Hospital, Pacific Commerce college, Pacific ENG College, Pacific Dental College & Hospital, Geetanjali Institute of technical studies, Institute of Hotel Management Catering and Tourism.
Udaipur is now the first district in Rajasthan to have implemented a smart class system in all the government schools, enabling them with information and communication technologies(ICT) infrastructure. This model of ICT in education is getting replicated in all government schools of ICT infrastructure of Rajasthan State. This ICT based initiation was started on 4 December 2013 by Dept of Education, Udaipur in joint initiative with Moinee Foundation, Jaipur and is popularly known as Project Utkarsh
Newspapers in Udaipur include Hindi dailies Rajasthan Patrika, Dainik Bhaskar, Navbharat Times, Pratahkal and Hindi News Portal Udaipurist. The Times of India, The Economic Times, The Hindustan Times, The Hindu are the English language newspapers circulated in the city.
The national ,state-owned All India Radio is broadcast both on the medium wave and FM bands (101.9 MHz) in the city. Also broadcast in the city are three private local FM stations - Big FM(92.7 MHz) , My FM (94.3 MHz) and Radio Tadka (95 MHz). The public broadcaster Doordarshan (Prasar Bharati) provides a regional channel besides the mainstay channels.
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- "उदयपुर की योजना अब पूरे प्रदेश में, साढ़े 6 हजार स्कूलों में चलेगा "उत्कर्ष"". Dainik Bhaskar. Aug 20, 2014.
- "List of newspapers circulated in Udaipur".
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- "Cable TV digitalisation Phase III cities" (PDF).
- "Udaipur State (also called Mewar)" 24. The Imperial Gazetteer of India. 1909. p. 85.
- Masters, Brian (1990). Maharana: the story of the rulers of Udaipur. Mapin Pub. ISBN 0-944142-28-1.
- Mehra, S, Mehra, S. P. & Sharma, K. K. (2012). Importance of aquatic avifauna in southern Rajasthan, India. Pg. 159-183. (In: Rawat., M. & Dookia, S. (eds.) Biodiversity of Aquatic Resources, Daya Publishing House, Delhi, 2012) (978-81-7035-789-6)
- Mehra, S, Mehra, S. P. & Sharma, K. K. (2012). Aquatic Avifauna: Its Importance for Wetland conservation in Rajasthan, India. Pg. 179-190. (In: Mathur, S. M.; Shrivastava, V. K. & Purohit, R. C. (eds.) Conservation of Lakes and Water Resources Management strategies, Himanshu Publications, Udaipur, 2011) (978-81-7906-263-0) Mehra, S, Mehra, S. P. & Sharma, K. K. (2011). Aquatic avifauna of Aravalli Hills Rajasthan, India. pp. 145–167 (In Gupta, V. K. & Verma, A. K. (eds.) Animal Diversity, Natural History and Conservation Vol. I, Daya Publishing House, Delhi, 2011) (ISBN 978-81-7035-752-0)
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- Islam, M. Z. & Rahmani, A. R. (2004). Important Bird Areas of India: Priority Sites for Conservation. Indian Bird Conservation Network: Bombay Natural History Society and BirdLife International (UK). Pp. xviii + 1133. (ISBN 019-567333-6)