Udaipur State

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Mewar State
मेवाड़ रियासत
Former Princely State of India
530–1949
Flag Coat of arms
Flag Coat of arms
Location of Udaipur Kingdom
Udaipur State in the Imperial Gazetteer of India
History
 •  Established 530
 •  Independence of India 1949
Area
 •  1941 33,517 km2 (12,941 sq mi)
Population
 •  1941 6,500,000 
Density 193.9 /km2  (502.3 /sq mi)
 •  1901 1,018,805 
Today part of India
"Udaipur State (also called Mewar): History". The Imperial Gazetteer of India. 1909. pp. v. 24, p. 87. 

The Udaipur State, also known as Mewar State,[1] was a princely state in northwestern India prior to the formation of the Indian Republic.

The state of Mewar was founded around 530; the first capital was at Chittorgarh. Later the kingdom would also, and ultimately predominantly, be called Udaipur after the name of its new capital. When Udaipur State joined the Indian Union in 1949 it had been ruled by the Chattari Rajputs of Mori Guhilot Parihar and Sisodia dynasties for over 1,400 years.

Geography[edit]

Since its founding in the 6th century, the geographical boundaries of Mewar have waxed and waned.[2] Since the treaty with the British in 1818 to its accession to the Republic of India in 1949, the boundaries of the state were as follows: the state was bounded on the north by the British district of Ajmer-Merwara; on the west by Jodhpur and Sirohi; on the southwest by Idar; on the south by Dungarpur, Banswara and Pratabgarh; on the east by Bundi and Kotah; and on the northeast by Jaipur.[3]

History[edit]

Maharanas

Treaty with East India Company[edit]

For half a century prior to 1818, the armies of Holkar, Scindia, and Amir Khan had plundered Mewar, pauperising its ruler and people.[2] As early as 1805, Maharana Bhim Singh of Mewar approached the British for assistance but the Treaty of 1803 with Scindia prevented the British from entertaining the request.[2] But by 1817, the British too were anxious to have alliances with Rajput rulers and the Treaty of Friendship, Alliances and Unity was concluded between Mewar and East India Company (on behalf of Britain) on January 13, 1818.[2][6]

Under the treaty, the British Government agreed to protect the territory of Mewar, in return for which Mewar acknowledged British supremacy and agreed to abstain from political associations with other states and to pay one-fourth of its revenues as tribute for 5 years, and three-eight in perpetuity.[6] The British authorities granted the ruler of Udaipur a 19 gun salute.[7]

Accession to Republic of India[edit]

The last ruler of Udaipur Kingdom signed the accession to Independent India on 7 April 1949.[8]

Ruling Dynasties and Personages of Mewar[edit]

Gahlot Dynasty of Mewar[edit]

Kanak-Sen left Koshala in the 2nd century and settled in Saurashtra. His descendents established themselves and became rulers at Vallabhi. Ages later, Prince Guhaditya also known as Guhil obtained the small kingdom of Idar. His name became the patronymic Grahilot, later corrupted to Gahlot.

The Gahlot Dynasty sometimes supported the Pratiharas (the dominant clan in Rajasthan) along with the Chauhans against the Arab invasions of India in the 7th century. Later the wilderness of Idar had to be abandoned and the clan settled at Ahar, and the new name Aharya came into use. Around the 12th century the sons of Karan Singh I included Mahup, who established himself at Dungarpur while his younger brother Rahup established himself near Sisodia village. Later the term Sisodia supplanted both Gahlot and Aharya.[9]

Sisodia Dynasty[edit]

Rana Laksha of the Sisodia Rajput clan with all his 10 sons had rallied in defense of Chittor but in vain. The Sardars decided that it was time to safeguard the royal lineage. There is mention of only two sons of Rana Laksha by name, Ari Singh and Ajay Singh. Ari Singh I had a son named Hammir Singh I who was taken by his uncle Ajay to Kelwara for safety. After the defeat of Mewar at Chittor by Alauddin Khalji, in which Rana Laksha and his son Ari Singh perished, the people began to rally behind Ajay who pursued a guerrilla campaign until he too died in the 1320s. The Sardars now picked Hamir Singh I as head of the Sisodia clan and rightful heir to the throne of Mewar. He married the daughter of Maldeo of Jalore, who now governed Chittor for the Delhi Sultanate. He overthrew his father-in-law and reclaimed his ancestral homeland.[9]

Maharana Bhagwat Singh died on 2 November 1984. He has two sons: elder Maharana Mahendra Singh and younger Arvind Singh. Before his death, he founded a trust named Maharana Mewar Foundation and tasked younger son Arvind Singh to look after the trust. Arvind lives in Udaipur's City Palace.

Chief Ministers, British Residents and Political Agents[edit]

Jagirdars[edit]

Administrative Structure[edit]

At the time of the 1901 census, the state was divided into 17 administrative sub-divisions - 11 zilas and 6 parganas, the difference between a zila and pargana being that the latter was larger and broken up into further subdivisions.[10] Further, there were 28 principal jagirs and 2 bhumats.[3] Each zila was administered by a hakim, a state official, supported at each tehsil (a zila sub-division) by an assistant hakim.[11]

Land tenure in Mewar State[edit]

The principal forms of land tenure in the state were jagir, bhum, sasan, and khalsa.[12] Jagirs were grants of land made in recognition service of a civil or political nature. Jagirdars, the holders of jagir, usually paid a fixed annual tribute called chhatund on an annual basis, and nazarana on the succession of a new Maharana. On the death of a jagirdar, the jagir reverted to the Maharana until the late jagirdar's successor was recognized by the Maharana. Those holding bhum tenures paid a small tribute or nominal quit-rent (bhum barar), and were liable to be called on for local service. Sasan (also known as muafi) holders were not liable for payments to the Maharana but taxes were sometimes recovered from them. Khalsa (crown lands) holders were cultivators who were undisturbed in their possession as long as they continued to pay land revenue.[12] As of 1912, 38% of the land revenue of the State was from khalsa land, the rest from other forms of tenure.[13]

See also[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • The Kingdom of Mewar: great struggles and glory of the world's oldest ruling dynasty, by Irmgard Meininger. D.K. Printworld, 2000. ISBN 81-246-0144-5.
  • Costumes of the rulers of Mewar: with patterns and construction techniques, by Pushpa Rani Mathur. Abhinav Publications, 1994. ISBN 81-7017-293-4.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Agarwal, B.D. (1979). Rajasthan District Gazetteers: Udaipur. Jaipur: Government of Rajasthan. p. 230. 
  2. ^ a b c d Gupta, R.K.; Bakshi, S.R., eds. (2008). Studies in Indian History: Rajasthan Through the Ages Vol. 5. New Delhi: Sarup & Sons. p. 64. ISBN 978-81-7625-841-8. 
  3. ^ a b Imperial Gazetteer of India : Provincial Series Rajputana. Calcutta: Superintendent of Government Printing. 1908. pp. 106–168. 
  4. ^ Sen, Sailendra (2013). A Textbook of Medieval Indian History. Primus Books. pp. 116–117. ISBN 978-9-38060-734-4. 
  5. ^ John Merci, Kim Smith; James Leuck (1922). "Muslim conquest and the Rajputs". The Medieval History of India pg 67-115
  6. ^ a b Aitchison, C.U. (1909). A Collection of Treaties, Engagements and Sanads Relating to India and Neighbouring Countries Vol. III. Calcutta: Superintendent Government Printing, India. pp. 10–32. 
  7. ^ Udaipur (Mewar) Princely State (19 gun salute).
  8. ^ Princely States of India
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n The Rajputs of Rajputana: a glimpse of medieval Rajasthan by M. S. Naravane ISBN 81-7648-118-1
  10. ^ Agarwal, B.D. (1979). Rajasthan District Gazetteers: Udaipur. Jaipur: Government of Rajasthan. p. 2. 
  11. ^ Ojha, Gaurishankar Hirachand (1999). उदयपुर राज्य का इतिहास. Jodhpur: Rajasthani Granthagar. pp. 15–16. 
  12. ^ a b Erskine, K.D. (1908). Rajputana Gazeteers, Vol II-A (The Mewar Residency). Ajmer: Scottish Mission Industries Co. Ltd. pp. 71–72. 
  13. ^ Administration Report of the Mewar State for the Year 1910-11 (PDF). Ajmer: Scottish Mission Industries Co., Ltd. 1911. p. 1. 

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 24°35′N 73°41′E / 24.58°N 73.68°E / 24.58; 73.68