Udbina

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Udbina
Удбина (Serbian)[1]
Church of Croatian Martyrs built in Udbina in honour of the people who died in the Battle of Krbava.
Church of Croatian Martyrs built in Udbina in honour of the people who died in the Battle of Krbava.
The Udbina municipality within Lika-Senj County
The Udbina municipality within Lika-Senj County
Udbina is located in Croatia
Udbina
Udbina
Location in Croatia
Coordinates: 44°31′50″N 15°45′56″E / 44.5306°N 15.7656°E / 44.5306; 15.7656
Country  Croatia
County Lika-Senj County
Government
 • Mayor Ivan Pešut (HDZ)
Population (2011)
 • Total 1,874
Time zone CET (UTC+1)

Udbina (Serbian Cyrillic: Удбина) is a town and a municipality in historical Krbava, in the Lika region of Croatia. It is an administratively part of in the Lika-Senj County.

Geography[edit]

The village is located in the large karst field called Krbava. The field has a small airport, the only one in Lika.

History[edit]

Udbina was the seat of a medieval bishopric, which however wasn't called after the city (as see) but after the region as Diocese of Corbavia, from 1185, when it was split off from the Archbishopric of Split, which became its Metropolitan, until the Turkish advance caused Rome to suppress this formally but actually shift it to the 'newly erected' Diocese of Modruš on Krbava's former canonical territory.

The Krbava field and Udbina itself were the location of the Battle of Krbava field of 9 September 1493, where the Croats under ban Emerik Derenčin (Hungarian: Imre Derencsényi) and the Frankopans suffered one of the major defeats at the hands of the Ottoman Empire. Udbina was managed by Ottomans between 1527-1689 (nominally to 1699) and included to the Sanjak of Lika in the Eyalet of Bosnia.

In the late 19th and early 20th century, Udbina was part of the Lika-Krbava County of the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia. According to the 1910 census, the town of Udbina was inhabited by a Croat majority and Serb minority; 1,317 were Croats and 621 were Serbs.[2] In 1931, the Udbina municipality had a Serb majority.[3]

During World War II, Udbina was part of the Independent State of Croatia. In December 1942, the Croatian population was expelled from the town.[4][why?] St Nicholas Roman Catholic church was subsequently destroyed.[5] Many local Serbs were killed by Ustaše during the war and many local Croats were killed by Chetniks and Yugoslav Partisans. The Orthodox Church of St. Nicholas (filial of the Church of the Holy Transfiguration of Mutilić) was also destroyed during World War II.[6] St Nicholas Roman Catholic church was destroyed in 1947.[7]

After World War II, ethnic Serbs comprised Udbina's majority, as confirmed by 1961–91 censuses, with smaller numbers of Croats and Muslims. In Yugoslavia, Udbina had a football club named "Krbava". The settlement of Udbina was part of the Korenica municipality. Udbina was under control of the Republic of Serbian Krajina during the Croatian War of Independence (1991–95). The local airport was used as airbase for offensive operations against Croatia and Bosnia, in direct defiance of NATO's Operation Deny Flight. The airstrip was eventually disabled by a 39 aircraft-strong strike on 21 November 1994.[8] It was captured by Croatian forces during the Operation Storm on 7 August 1995. The "Church of Croatian Martyrs" was built in Udbina after the war to commemorate the Battle of Krbava Field in 1493 and the Croatian War of Independence.[citation needed]

Settlements[edit]

The settlements in the municipality are (2011 census):[9]

Demographics[edit]

According to the 2011 census, there were 1,874 residents in the municipality, of which 51% were Serbs and 45% were Croats.[10] In 2016 on the instructions of Vlaho Orepić, Minister of Interior in the Cabinet of Tihomir Orešković, Croatian police started intensive patrols and checking out the residence of local population and that resulted in 71 deletions from the residence register.[11] Voices of criticism of police action were raised, including the one of the Deputy Mayor of Udbina Milan Uzelac, claiming that the action is disproportionately and primarily targeted at the Serbs of Croatia and promoted by a president of a local right wing organization close to the ruling Bridge of Independent Lists.[11] Representatives of local Serb population organized a meeting with Serb National Council to discus the issue.[11] 2011 census was the first post-war census at which Serbs of Croatia, many of whom left the area during the Operation Storm, constituted the majority of local population.[11] Minister Vlaho Orepić in his statements prior to Police activities in Udbina and the rest of the country called out the Serb minority for election manipulation with the fictive residences.[11]

Notable locals[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Government of Croatia (October 2013). "Peto izvješće Republike Hrvatske o primjeni Europske povelje o regionalnim ili manjinskim jezicima" (PDF) (in Croatian). Council of Europe. p. 36. Retrieved 30 November 2016. 
  2. ^ Spezialortsrepertorium der österreichischen Länder I-XII, Wien, 1915–1919
  3. ^ http://pod2.stat.gov.rs/ObjavljenePublikacije/G1931/pdf/G19314001.pdf
  4. ^ "Udbina bi mogla postati snažno središte vjerničkih hodočašća" (PDF). Vjesnik (in Croatian). 6 September 2003. p. 05A5. [dead link]
  5. ^ "SVEČANO BLAGOSLOVLJENO GRADILIŠTE I TEMELJNI KAMEN CRKVE HRVATSKIH MUČENIKA NA UDBINI: »Neka ova crkva bude simbol našega zajedništva«". Glas Koncila (in Croatian). 18 September 2005. Retrieved 29 January 2016. 
  6. ^ Филијални храм Св. оца Николаја на Удбини (срушен у Другом свјетском рату), eparhija-gornjokarlovacka.hr; accessed 13 March 2016. (in Serbian)
  7. ^ http://www.putovnica.net/odredista/hrvatska/udbina
  8. ^ Tim Ripley; Mark Rolfe (2013) [2001]. Conflict in the Balkans 1991-2000. Osprey Publishing. pp. 21–24 (2001). ISBN 978-1-4728-0383-2. 
  9. ^ "Population by Age and Sex, by Settlements, 2011 Census: Udbina". Census of Population, Households and Dwellings 2011. Zagreb: Croatian Bureau of Statistics. December 2012. 
  10. ^ "Population by Ethnicity, by Towns/Municipalities, 2011 Census: County of Lika-Senj". Census of Population, Households and Dwellings 2011. Zagreb: Croatian Bureau of Statistics. December 2012. 
  11. ^ a b c d e Ana Brakus (2 December 2016). "Redarstvena operacija 'Udbina'". Novosti. Retrieved 2 December 2016.