Udmurtia

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For other uses of "Udmurtia", see Udmurtia (disambiguation).
Udmurt Republic
Удмуртская Республика (Russian)
Удмурт Элькун (Udmurt)
—  Republic  —

Flag

Coat of arms
Anthem: National Anthem of the Udmurt Republic
Coordinates: 57°17′N 52°45′E / 57.283°N 52.750°E / 57.283; 52.750Coordinates: 57°17′N 52°45′E / 57.283°N 52.750°E / 57.283; 52.750
Political status
Country Russia
Federal district Volga[1]
Economic region Urals[2]
Established December 28, 1934[3]
Capital Izhevsk
Government (as of February 2014)
 • Head[6] Alexander Solovyov[4][5]
 • Legislature State Council[6]
Statistics
Area [7]
 • Total 42,100 km2 (16,300 sq mi)
Population (2010 Census)[8]
 • Total 1,521,420
 • Rank 30th
 • Density[9] 36.14/km2 (93.6/sq mi)
 • Urban 69.2%
 • Rural 30.8%
Time zone(s) SAMT (UTC+04:00)[10]
ISO 3166-2 RU-UD
License plates 18
Official languages Russian;[11] Udmurt[12]
Official website

Udmurtia (Russian: Удму́ртия, tr. Udmurtiya; IPA: [ʊˈdmurtʲɪjə]; Udmurt: Удмуртия), or the Udmurt Republic, is a federal subject of Russia (a republic) within the Volga Federal District. Its capital is the city of Izhevsk. Population: 1,521,420 (2010 Census).[8]

History[edit]

Map of the Udmurt Republic
Part of a series on the
History of Udmurtia
Coat of arms of the Udmurt Republic

On November 4, 1920, Votsk Autonomous Oblast was formed.[3] On January 1, 1932, it was renamed Udmurt Autonomous Oblast,[citation needed] which was then reorganized into the Udmurt ASSR on December 28, 1934.[3] During World War II, many industrial factories were evacuated from Ukraine and western borderlands to Udmurtia.

Geography[edit]

The republic is located in the eastern portion of the Eastern European Plain, between the Kama and Vyatka Rivers.

Borders
Kind Polity or geographical feature Direction
Internal Kirov Oblast SW/W/NW/N
Perm Krai NE/E
Republic of Bashkortostan SE
Republic of Tatarstan S/SW
Water Votkinsk Reservoir E

Rivers[edit]

Major rivers include:

Climate[edit]

The republic has a moderate continental climate, with warm summers and cold winters with a lot of snow.

18.3 °C (64.9 °F)

Average temperatures
Month Average temperature
January −14.5 °C (5.9 °F)
July

Administrative divisions[edit]

Demographics[edit]

Population: 1,521,420 (2010 Census);[8] 1,570,316 (2002 Census);[13] 1,609,003 (1989 Census).[14]

Although as of 2007 the population was declining, the decline was more pronounced in urban areas. Out of the 19,667 births reported in 2007, 12,631 were in urban areas (11.86 per 1000) and 7,036 were in rural areas (14.88 per 1000). Birth rates for rural areas are 25% higher than that of urban areas. Of the total of 21,727 deaths, 14,366 were reported in urban areas (13.49 per 1000) and 7,361 were in rural areas (15.56 per 1000). Natural decline of population was measured at -0.16% for urban areas and an insignificant -0.07% for rural areas (average for Russia was -0.33% in 2007).[15]

Vital statistics[edit]

Source[16]

Average population (x 1000) Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1000) Crude death rate (per 1000) Natural change (per 1000) Total fertility rate
1970 1,421 23,286 13,265 10,021 16.4 9.3 7.1
1975 1,459 26,497 14,666 11,831 18.2 10.1 8.1
1980 1,508 27,601 16,862 10,739 18.3 11.2 7.1
1985 1,562 29,343 17,553 11,790 18.8 11.2 7.5
1990 1,614 24,345 15,816 8,529 15.1 9.8 5.3
1991 1,619 22,213 16,002 6,211 13.7 9.9 3.8
1992 1,623 20,074 18,063 2,011 12.4 11.1 1.2
1993 1,622 17,126 21,923 −4,797 10.6 13.5 −3.0
1994 1,619 16,874 24,183 −7,309 10.4 14.9 −4.5
1995 1,615 15,484 22,445 −6,961 9.6 13.9 −4.3
1996 1,610 14,877 20,641 −5,764 9.2 12.8 −3.6
1997 1,606 15,368 19,881 −4,513 9.6 12.4 −2.8
1998 1,603 16,130 19,080 −2,950 10.1 11.9 −1.8
1999 1,598 15,793 20,745 −4,952 9.9 13.0 −3.1
2000 1,592 16,256 21,852 −5,596 10.2 13.7 −3.5
2001 1,583 16,636 22,810 −6,174 10.5 14.4 −3.9
2002 1,572 17,746 24,520 −6,774 11.3 15.6 −4.3
2003 1,561 17,982 24,571 −6,589 11.5 15.7 −4.2
2004 1,552 18,238 23,994 −5,756 11.7 15.5 −3.7
2005 1,543 17,190 24,006 −6,816 11.1 15.6 −4.4
2006 1,535 17,480 22,011 −4,531 11.4 14.3 −3.0
2007 1,529 19,667 21,727 −2,060 12.9 14.2 −1.3
2008 1,525 20,421 21,436 −1,015 13.4 14.1 −0.7
2009 1,523 21,109 20,227 882 13.9 13.3 0.6 1,73
2010 1,522 21,684 21,100 584 14.3 13.9 0.4 1.78
2011 1,519 21,905 20,358 1,547 14.4 13.4 1.0 1.83
2012 1,518 23,225 19,526 3,699 15.3 12.9 2.4 1.98
2013 1,517 22,138 19,332 2,806 14.6 12.7 1.9 1.92
2014 1,517 22,060 19,461 2,599 14.5 12.8 1.7 1.96
2015 1,517 22,195 19,533 2,662 14.6 12.9 1.7 2.00(e)

TFR source[17]

Ethnic groups[edit]

According to the 2010 Census,[8] Russians make up 62.2% of the republic's population, while the ethnic Udmurts only make up 28%. Other groups include Tatars (6.7%), Ukrainians (0.6%), Mari (0.6%), and a host of smaller groups, each accounting for less than 0.5% of the republic's total population.

Ethnic
group
1926 Census 1939 Census 1959 Census 1970 Census 1979 Census 1989 Census 2002 Census 2010 Census1
Number  % Number  % Number  % Number  % Number  % Number  % Number  % Number  %
Udmurts 395,607 52.3% 480,014 39.4% 475,913 35.6% 484,168 34.2% 479,702 32.1% 496,522 30.9% 460,584 29.3% 410,584 28.0%
Besermyan 9,200 1.2% 2,998 0.2% 2,111 0.1%
Russians 327,493 43.3% 679,294 55.7% 758,770 56.8% 809,563 57.1% 870,270 58.3% 945,216 58.9% 944,108 60.1% 912,539 62.2%
Tatars 19,248 2.5% 40,561 3.3% 71,930 5.4% 87,150 6.1% 99,139 6.6% 110,490 6.9% 109,218 7.0% 98,831 6.7%
Others 4,716 0.6% 19,481 1.6% 30,314 2.3% 36,794 2.6% 43,061 2.9% 53,435 3.3% 53,408 3.4% 42,558 2.9%
1 54,797 people were registered from administrative databases, and could not declare an ethnicity. It is estimated that the proportion of ethnicities in this group is the same as that of the declared group.[18]

Over two thirds of the world population of Udmurts live in the republic.[19]

Religion[edit]

Circle frame.svg

Religion in Udmurtia (2012)[20][21]

  Russian Orthodox (33.1%)
  Unaffiliated Christian (5%)
  Muslim (4%)
  Other Orthodox (2%)
  Protestant (1%)
  Old Believers (1%)
  Spiritual but not religious (29%)
  Atheist (19%)
  Other or undeclared (3.9%)

According to a 2012 official survey,[20] 33.1% of the population of Udmurtia adheres to the Russian Orthodox Church, 5% are unaffiliated generic Christians, 2% are Orthodox Christian believers without belonging to any church or members of other Orthodox churches, 4% are Muslims, 2% of the population adheres to the Slavic native faith (Rodnovery) or to Udmurt Vos (Udmurt native faith), 1% adheres to forms of Protestantism, and 1% of the population are Old Believers. In addition, 29% of the population declares to be "spiritual but not religious", 19% is atheist, and 3.9% follows other religions or did not give an answer to the question.[20]

Jews in Udmurtia[edit]

see: History of Jews in Udmurtia and Tatarstan

Udmurt Jews is special territorial group of the Ashkenazi Jews, which started to be formed in the residence areas of mixed Turkic-speaking (Tatars, Kryashens, Bashkirs, Chuvash people), Finno-Ugric-speaking (Udmurts, Mari people) and Slavic-speaking (Russians) population. The Ashkenazi Jews on the territory of the Udmurt Republic first appeared in the 1830s.[22][23][24][25] The udmurt Jewry had formed the local Idiom on the base of the Yiddish of Udmurtia till the 1930s and features of Yiddish of migrants "joined" into it (in the 1930s and 1940s);[26] as a result up to the 1970s and 1980s the Udmurt Idiom (Udmurtish) was divided into two linguistic subgroups: the central subgroup (with centers Izhevsk, Sarapul and Votkinsk) and the southern subgroup (with centers Kambarka, Alnashi, Agryz and Naberezhnye Chelny).[26] One of the characteristic features of the Udmurt Idiom is a noticeable number of Udmurt and Tatar loan words.[27][28]

Culture[edit]

St. Michael's Cathedral is the one of the main churches of Udmurtia

In Udmurtia, there are eight professional theaters, a Philharmonic Society, and more than ten state and numerous public museums, which tell of the history and culture of Udmurtia and its people, like the Museum of History and Culture in Sarapul, or the Tchaikovsky Museum in Votkinsk. One of the oldest arms museums is located in Izhevsk, as well as the newer Kalashnikov Museum (dedicated in November 2004), which has recently become a general small-arms museum.[citation needed]

Since the breakup of the Soviet Union a new, pan-Uralic cultural movement has evolved called "Ethnofuturism".[29]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Президент Российской Федерации. Указ №849 от 13 мая 2000 г. «О полномочном представителе Президента Российской Федерации в федеральном округе». Вступил в силу 13 мая 2000 г. Опубликован: "Собрание законодательства РФ", №20, ст. 2112, 15 мая 2000 г. (President of the Russian Federation. Decree #849 of May 13, 2000 On the Plenipotentiary Representative of the President of the Russian Federation in a Federal District. Effective as of May 13, 2000.).
  2. ^ Госстандарт Российской Федерации. №ОК 024-95 27 декабря 1995 г. «Общероссийский классификатор экономических регионов. 2. Экономические районы», в ред. Изменения №5/2001 ОКЭР. (Gosstandart of the Russian Federation. #OK 024-95 December 27, 1995 Russian Classification of Economic Regions. 2. Economic Regions, as amended by the Amendment #5/2001 OKER. ).
  3. ^ a b c Administrative-Territorial Structure of the Union Republics. 1987., p. 57
  4. ^ "The Udmurt Republic". Kalashnikov Izhevsk State Technical University. 28 April 2015. Retrieved 23 May 2016. 
  5. ^ "Михаил Бабич представил исполняющего обязанности Главы Удмуртии". Official website of the Udmurt Republic. Retrieved February 20, 2014. 
  6. ^ a b Constitution, Article 9.1
  7. ^ "GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION". Udmurtia Official. Archived from the original on November 23, 2012. Retrieved November 18, 2012. 
  8. ^ a b c d Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved June 29, 2012. 
  9. ^ The density value was calculated by dividing the population reported by the 2010 Census by the area shown in the "Area" field. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox is not necessarily reported for the same year as the population.
  10. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Федеральный закон №107-ФЗ от 3 июня 2011 г. «Об исчислении времени», в ред. Федерального закона №271-ФЗ от 03 июля 2016 г. «О внесении изменений в Федеральный закон "Об исчислении времени"». Вступил в силу по истечении шестидесяти дней после дня официального опубликования (6 августа 2011 г.). Опубликован: "Российская газета", №120, 6 июня 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Federal Law #107-FZ of June 31, 2011 On Calculating Time, as amended by the Federal Law #271-FZ of July 03, 2016 On Amending Federal Law "On Calculating Time". Effective as of after sixty days following the day of the official publication.).
  11. ^ Official on the whole territory of Russia according to Article 68.1 of the Constitution of Russia.
  12. ^ Constitution, Article 8
  13. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian). Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  14. ^ Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  15. ^ Statistics
  16. ^ http://www.gks.ru/wps/wcm/connect/rosstat_main/rosstat/ru/statistics/publications/catalog/doc_1137674209312
  17. ^ http://www.gks.ru/bgd/regl/b12_111/Main.htm
  18. ^ http://www.perepis-2010.ru/news/detail.php?ID=6936
  19. ^ "General Information". Land and People. Udmurtia Official. Retrieved 22 March 2014. [dead link]
  20. ^ a b c Arena - Atlas of Religions and Nationalities in Russia. Sreda.org
  21. ^ 2012 Survey Maps. "Ogonek", № 34 (5243), 27/08/2012. Retrieved 24-09-2012.
  22. ^ Шумилов Е.Ф., "Евреи: элита инженерная, торговая, медицинская..." Свое дело. 2001. №11. С. 18. (Russian)
  23. ^ Карпенко И., "В окрестностях Хаимграда". Лехаим. 2009. №1 (201). (Russian)
  24. ^ Шумилов Е.Ф., "Евреи на Ижевском оружейном заводе". (Russian)
  25. ^ Ренев Е.,"Шалом. Народ Торы в старом Ижевске. Инвожо. 2012. № 8. С. 47. (Russian)
  26. ^ a b Altyntsev A.V., "The Concept of Love in Ashkenazim of Udmurtia and Tatarstan", Nauka Udmurtii. 2013. no. 4 (66), p. 131. (Алтынцев А.В., "Чувство любви в понимании евреев-ашкенази Удмуртии и Татарстана". Наука Удмуртии. 2013. №4. С. 131: Комментарии.) (Russian)
  27. ^ Goldberg-Altyntsev A.V., "A short ethnographic overview of the Ashkenazic Jews' group in Alnashsky District of Udmurt Republic". Die Sammlung der wissenschaftlichen Arbeiten der jungen jüdischen Wissenschaftler. Herausgegeben von Artur Katz, Yumi Matsuda und Alexander Grinberg. München, Dachau, 2015. S. 51.
  28. ^ Гольдберг-Алтынцев А.В., "Краткий этнографический обзор группы ашкеназских евреев в Алнашском районе Удмуртской Республики / пер. с англ. яз. А.Й. Каца." Jewish studies in the Udmurt Republic: Online. Part 1. Edited by A. Greenberg. February 27, 2015 published. P. 3. (Russian)
  29. ^ Ethnofuturism

Sources[edit]

  • №663-XII 7 декабря 1994 г. «Конституция Удмуртской Республики», в ред. Закона №62-РЗ от 22 ноября 2007 г. (#663-XII December 7, 1994 Constitution of the Udmurt Republic, as amended by the Law #62-RZ of November 22, 2007. ).
  • "СССР. Административно-территориальное деление союзных республик. 1987." (USSR. Administrative-Territorial Structure of the Union Republics. 1987) / Составители В. А. Дударев, Н. А. Евсеева. — М.: Изд-во «Известия Советов народных депутатов СССР», 1987. — 673 с.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]