Ufa

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
For other uses, see Ufa (disambiguation).
Ufa (English)
Уфа (Russian)
Өфө (Bashkir)
-  City[1]  -
ӨФӨ-2015-(v2).jpg
Views of Ufa
Map of Russia - Republic of Bashkortostan (2008-03).svg
Location of the Republic of Bashkortostan in Russia
Ufa is located in Bashkortostan
Ufa
Ufa
Location of Ufa in the Republic of Bashkortostan
Coordinates: 54°45′N 55°58′E / 54.750°N 55.967°E / 54.750; 55.967Coordinates: 54°45′N 55°58′E / 54.750°N 55.967°E / 54.750; 55.967
Coat of arms of Ufa.svg
Flag of Ufa.svg
Coat of Arms
Flag
City Day June 12[citation needed]
Administrative status (as of March 2011)
Country Russia
Federal subject Republic of Bashkortostan[1]
Administratively subordinated to city of republic significance of Ufa[1]
Capital of Republic of Bashkortostan[2]
Administrative center of city of republic significance of Ufa,[1] Ufimsky District[3]
Municipal status (as of February 2012)
Urban okrug Ufa Urban Okrug[4]
Administrative center of Ufa Urban Okrug,[4] Ufimsky Municipal District[4]
Head[5] Irek Yalalov[5]
Representative body City Council[6]
Statistics
Area 753.7 km2 (291.0 sq mi)[7]
Population (2010 Census) 1,062,319 inhabitants[8]
Rank in 2010 11th
Density 1,409/km2 (3,650/sq mi)[9]
Time zone YEKT (UTC+05:00)[10]
Founded 1574[11]
City status since 1586[citation needed]
Postal code(s)[12] 450000—450999
Dialing code(s) +7 347[citation needed]
Official website
Ufa on WikiCommons

Ufa (Russian: Уфа́; IPA: [ʊˈfa]; Bashkir: Өфө, Öfö; IPA: [ʏ̞ˈfʏ̞], About this sound pronunciation ) is the capital city of the Republic of Bashkortostan, Russia, and the industrial, economic, scientific and cultural center of the republic. Population: 1,105,667[13] (2015).

History[edit]

Gerardus Mercator's map of Europe with Pascherti (Bashkort) settlement presumably on the position of modern Ufa.[14] Map was compiled in 1554, twenty years before the official date of the foundation of Ufa.

Ancient History[edit]

Early history of the surrounding area of Ufa out in Paleolithic times.[15]

Presumably in V—XVI centuries on the site of Ufa there was a medieval city.[16] On the map of Pizzigano brothers (1367)[17] and on the Catalan Atlas (1375)[18] approximately on the Belaya River was designated a town Pascherti (Bashkort),[19] On the Gerardus Mercator's map (1554) also marked the settlement with the Pascherti name. French orientalist Henri Cordier associates the position of Pascherti with the current location of Ufa.[14]

Ibn Khaldun among the largest cities of the Golden Horde called the town Bashkort.[20]

Russian historian of the XVIII century Peter Rychkov wrote that on the territory of Ufa before the arrival of the Russians there was a great city.[21]

The official of the Orenburg Governorate government Vasily Rebelensky wrote that Ufa was founded by the Bashkirs.[22]

XVI—XIX centuries[edit]

Early color photograph of Ufa taken in 1910 by Sergey Prokudin-Gorsky

By order of Ivan the Terrible on the site of modern Ufa was built fortress in 1574,[23] and originally bore the name of the hill it stood on, Tura-Tau.[24] After the outbreak of the Pugachev's Rebellion, it went through the most brutal events in its early history, as the fortress and the city were in the middle of the military actions. For several months during the winter of 1773–1774, Ufa was under siege by Cossack and Bashkir insurgents until they were fought off by the arrived government forces.[citation needed]

Before becoming the seat of a separate Ufa Governorate in 1781, the city, along with the rest of the Bashkir lands, was under the jurisdiction of the Orenburg governors. And even though the 1796 reform reunited Orenburg and Ufa again, in 1802 the city of Ufa became a new center of the entire Orenburg Governorate that included large territories of modern-day Republic of Bashkortostan, Orenburg Oblast, and Chelyabinsk Oblast. During the 1800-1810s, Scottish Russian architect William Heste developed a general city plan for Ufa as a regional capital shaping the modern outline of its historical center.[citation needed]

XX centure — our days[edit]

The Belaya River Waterway (1870) and the Samara-Zlatoust Railroad (1890) connected the city to the European part of the Russian Empire and stimulated development of the city's light industry. As a result, in 1913 the population of Ufa grew to 100,000.[citation needed]

During World War II, following eastward Soviet retreat in 1941, a number of industrial enterprises of the western parts of the Soviet Union were evacuated to Ufa. The city also became the wartime seat of the Soviet Ukrainian government.[citation needed]

During 9-10 July 2015, Ufa hosted summits of the BRICS group and the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation.

Administrative and municipal status[edit]

Ufa is the capital of the republic and, within the framework of the administrative divisions, it also serves as the administrative center of Ufimsky District,[3] even though it is not a part of it.[1] As an administrative division, it is, together with twenty-four rural localities, incorporated separately as the city of republic significance of Ufa, an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts.[1] As a municipal division, the city of republic significance of Ufa is incorporated as Ufa Urban Okrug.[4]

Economy[edit]

National Bank of Bashkortostan

According to Forbes Ufa is the best city in Russia for business among cities with population over one million.[25]

Industry[edit]

Many urban enterprises engaged in oil refining, chemistry, mechanical engineering reside in Ufa. Additionally, the economy of Ufa is composed of many fuel, energy and engineering complexes.

The value of goods, services, and manufacturing in Ufa totaled 185.0 billion rubles in 2009 ((DB regions of the Volga district))[citation needed]

Ufa is home to about 200 large and medium industrial enterprises.[26]

Some important enterprises in Ufa include:

Finance[edit]

Ufa is a donor of the republic's and federal budgets. About 62.8% of tax revenues accumulated on the territory of Ufa City municipal district of Bashkortostan Republic are directed to the federal budget and 29% to the republic's budget.[citation needed]

Transportation[edit]

Ufa International Airport. Inscription "ӨФӨ" is a name of Ufa on Bashkir language

Ufa is linked by railways to the rest of Russia, having a railway station on a historic branch of the Trans-Siberian Railway. Ufa is the only city connected to Moscow by more than one federal highway. The M7 motorway links the city to Kazan and Moscow and the M5 motorway links Ufa to Moscow and to the Asian part of Russia.

The Ufa International Airport has international flights to the United Arab Emirates, Turkey, Greece, Egypt, Azerbaijan, Uzbekistan, as well as domestic flights to many Russian cities and towns.

The Ufa Metro is a planned and oft-delayed subway system, discussed since the late 1980s. On May 30, 1996, there was a ceremony marking the beginning of preparatory construction work, attended by then-President Boris Yeltsin.[28]

Public transportation in Ufa includes trams (since 1937) and trolleybuses (since 1962) systems, as well as bus and marshrutka (routed cabs) lines.[citation needed]

Demographics[edit]

Monument to Salavat Yulaev. National hero is depicted on the coat of arms of Bashkortostan

Population[edit]

The population of Ufa exceeded one million in 1980 year.

Year Population
1886 27,000
1956 265,000
1970 770,905
1989 1,082,052
2002 1,042,437
2010 1,062,319
2015 1,105,667[13]

Ethnic structure[edit]

As of the 2010 Census, the ethnic composition of the Capital of Republic of Bashkortostan was:

Ethnicity Percentage
Russians 48.9%
Tatars 28.3%
Bashkirs 17.1%
Ukrainian 1.2%

Other ethnicities include Armenians (2,822 people), Germans (2,213 people), Jews (2,082 people), and Azeris (2,075 people).[29]

Geography and climate[edit]

Autumn Ufa. 2008 year.

Ufa is situated in eastern Europe near its land boundary with Asia, at the confluence of the Belaya (Agidel) and Ufa Rivers, on low hills forming the Ufa Plateau to the west of the southern Urals.

Climate data for Ufa
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 5.8
(42.4)
9.2
(48.6)
16.2
(61.2)
30.9
(87.6)
36.2
(97.2)
38.3
(100.9)
38.6
(101.5)
38.5
(101.3)
33.4
(92.1)
26.8
(80.2)
15.4
(59.7)
5.0
(41)
38.6
(101.5)
Average high °C (°F) −8.2
(17.2)
−6.8
(19.8)
0.2
(32.4)
10.9
(51.6)
19.9
(67.8)
24.6
(76.3)
25.9
(78.6)
23.5
(74.3)
17.2
(63)
8.7
(47.7)
−1
(30)
−6.9
(19.6)
9.0
(48.2)
Daily mean °C (°F) −12.4
(9.7)
−11.8
(10.8)
−5.1
(22.8)
5.2
(41.4)
13.2
(55.8)
18.1
(64.6)
19.7
(67.5)
17.2
(63)
11.3
(52.3)
4.5
(40.1)
−4.2
(24.4)
−10.7
(12.7)
3.75
(38.76)
Average low °C (°F) −17
(1)
−17
(1)
−10.4
(13.3)
−0.1
(31.8)
6.8
(44.2)
11.8
(53.2)
13.7
(56.7)
11.6
(52.9)
6.5
(43.7)
1.1
(34)
−7.5
(18.5)
−15
(5)
−1.3
(29.7)
Record low °C (°F) −48.5
(−55.3)
−43.5
(−46.3)
−34.4
(−29.9)
−29.7
(−21.5)
−9.7
(14.5)
−1.2
(29.8)
1.4
(34.5)
−0.6
(30.9)
−6.8
(19.8)
−25.6
(−14.1)
−35.1
(−31.2)
−45
(−49)
−48.5
(−55.3)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 48
(1.89)
39
(1.54)
32
(1.26)
33
(1.3)
46
(1.81)
66
(2.6)
55
(2.17)
58
(2.28)
51
(2.01)
58
(2.28)
52
(2.05)
51
(2.01)
589
(23.19)
Average snowfall cm (inches) 32
(12.6)
42
(16.5)
41
(16.1)
19
(7.5)
2
(0.8)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
5
(2)
14
(5.5)
17
(6.7)
172
(67.7)
Average precipitation days 11 8 7 7 7 9 9 9 9 11 11 11 109
Average snowy days 22 17 11 2 0 0 0 0 1 2 12 20 87
Average relative humidity (%) 83 80 77 69 60 67 71 74 76 79 83 83 75.2
Mean monthly sunshine hours 58.9 96.1 155.0 216.0 279.0 288.0 288.3 251.1 165.0 80.6 51.0 40.3 1,969.3
Source #1: Pogoda.ru.net,[30]World Meteorological Organization (UN)[31]
Source #2: Hong Kong Observatory (sun only)[32]

Government and administration[edit]

House of Republic or Bashkir White House
Local government

The bodies of local self-government of Ufa are:

  • Council, a representative body. Formed of 35 deputies for 4 years.
  • Chairman of the Board – the head of the urban okrug. Term of 4 years.
  • Urban Okrug Administration. The structure of the administration approved by the Council on the proposal of the Head of the Administration.
  • Head of the Administration manages the administration on the principles of unity of command. He is appointed under a contract entered into by the results of the competition. Term of office of the Head of the Administration limited to the period of office of the Council of the convocation.[33]

Sports[edit]

Akbuzat racecourse. Named after the winged horse in the mythology of Bashkirs, analogue of Pegasus

[citation needed]

Club Sport Founded Current League League
Rank
Stadium
Salavat Yulaev Ufa Ice Hockey 1961 Kontinental Hockey League 1st Ufa Arena
Tolpar Ufa Ice Hockey 2009 Minor Hockey League Jr. 1st Ice Palace Salavat Yulaev
Agidel Ufa Ice Hockey 2010 Women's Ice Hockey Championship 1st Ice Palace Salavat Yulaev
FC Ufa Football 2010 Russian Premier League 1st Neftyanik Stadium
Ural Ufa Volleyball 1992 Volleyball Super League 1st Dynamo Sports Palace
Ufimochka-USPTU Volleyball 1970 Women's Volleyball Super League 1st Dynamo Sports Palace

Education and science[edit]

Bashkir State University

Educational institutions include:

Graduate universities and Law Schools:

Scientific institutions include:

  • Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Bashkortostan[34]
  • Ufa Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Science (USC RAS)[35]

Religion[edit]

Lyalya Tyolpan Mosque and Cathedral of the Nativity of the Theotokos.

The main religious confessions in the city are Islam (Sunni) and Orthodox Christianity.[citation needed]

Notable people[edit]

Famous citizens of Ufa include:

Zemfira, famous singer in Russia

International relations[edit]

Ufa is twinned with:

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f Resolution #391
  2. ^ Official website of Ufa. Information about Ufa
  3. ^ a b Государственный комитет Российской Федерации по статистике. Комитет Российской Федерации по стандартизации, метрологии и сертификации. №ОК 019-95 1 января 1997 г. «Общероссийский классификатор объектов административно-территориального деления. Код 80 252», в ред. изменения №259/2014 от 12 декабря 2014 г.. (State Statistics Committee of the Russian Federation. Committee of the Russian Federation on Standardization, Metrology, and Certification. #OK 019-95 January 1, 1997 Russian Classification of Objects of Administrative Division . Code 80 252, as amended by the Amendment #259/2014 of December 12, 2014. ).
  4. ^ a b c d Law #162-z
  5. ^ a b Official website of Ufa. Head of Ufa Urban Okrug Administration (Russian)
  6. ^ Новости Совета городского округа город Уфа Республики Башкортостан
  7. ^ Сайт "Горобзор"
  8. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved June 29, 2012. 
  9. ^ The value of density was calculated automatically by dividing the 2010 Census population by the area specified in the infobox. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox does not necessarily correspond to the area of the entity proper or is reported for the same year as the population.
  10. ^ "Current local time in Ufa". Time and Date. Retrieved 24 November 2013. 
  11. ^ History of Ufa
  12. ^ Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (Russian)
  13. ^ a b Численность населения Российской Федерации по муниципальным образованиям на 1 января 2015 года. // Проверено 6 августа 2015. Архивировано из первоисточника 6 августа 2015.
  14. ^ a b «Mercator and Hondius (loth Ed., 1630) and N. Sanson (1650) show Jorman on the south of the Kama R., Pascherti in the position of Ufa, the present head-quarter of the Bashkirs, Sagatin ( = Fachatim of the text) at the head of the Ufa River, Marmorea on the Bielaya south of Ufa». — Cathay and the Way Thither: Being a Collection of Medieval Notices of China, Chʻeng-wen Publishing Company, 1967. Henri Cordier
  15. ^ Главархитектура г. Уфы — История г. Уфы
  16. ^ Псянчин А. В. Башкортостан на старых картах. Уфа, 2001. С 70, 71, Он же. Mons Et Urbis: Уральские горы и город Уфа в европейской средневековой картографической традиции//Архив Башкортостана, № 1. 2007. С. 17-23.
  17. ^ Рудаков В. Г. К вопросу о двух столицах в Золотой Орде и местоположении города Гюлистана // Научное наследие А. П. Смирнова и современные проблемы археологии Волго-Камья. Материалы научной конференции. Труды ГИМ. Вып. 122. — М., 2000. — Рис. 1.
  18. ^ Там же; Псянчин А. В. Башкортостан на старых картах. — Уфа, 2001. — С. 71.
  19. ^ Мажитов Н.А,, Султанова А. Н. Сунгатов Ф. А. Башкирские города по арабским источникам IX—X вв. // Вестник АН РБ. 2008. Т. 13, № 2. С. 44-—48; Мажитов Н. А., Сунгатов Ф. А., Иванов В. А., Сатаров Т. Р., Султанова А. Н., Иванова Е. В. Городище Уфа II. Материалы раскопок 2006 года. Т. 1. Уфа, 2007. 160 с: ил.
  20. ^ Золотая Орда в источниках. T.I. Арабские и персидские сочинения. М., 2003. С 169.
  21. ^ Рычков П. И. История Оренбургская (1730—1750 гг.). Оренбург, 1896. С. 68,69.
  22. ^ «Краткое описание губернского города Уфы с начала его построения до сего 1806 года». // Что ж касается башкирцев, то видно из многих описаний, как сего народа, так и о жительстве их, кои от различных возмущений, как и междоусобных воин, так и соседних своих народов, строили маленькие укрепления и городки и наконец, соединясь во множестве, распространили свои жилища и укрепления, а для сей причины и город Уфа построен.
  23. ^ [1] History of Ufa
  24. ^ [2] Beyond Moscow -Ufa. Khristina Narizhnaya, The Moscow Times, Oct. 16 2011
  25. ^ 30 лучших городов для бизнеса — 2013 // Forbes.ru
  26. ^ Ufa – capital of the Republic of Bashkortostan
  27. ^ http://www.oaobtz.ru/
  28. ^ Yeltsin lays cornerstone of first subway station, accessed June 6, 2013
  29. ^ Ethnic composition of population of the Republic of Bashkortostan (according to the All-Russia population census of 2002). Statistical handbook. Bashkortostanstat. Ufa. p. 198
  30. ^ "Weather and Climate – The Climate of Ufa" (in Russian). Weather and Climate (Погода и климат). Retrieved December 13, 2012. 
  31. ^ "World Weather Information Service – Ufa". United Nations. Retrieved January 19, 2011. 
  32. ^ "Climatological Information for Ufa, Russia". Hong Kong Observatory. Retrieved December 13, 2012. 
  33. ^ Charter of the Urban Okrug of Ufa of the Republic of Bashkortostan
  34. ^ [3]
  35. ^ [4]
  36. ^ Ufa Soviet Cafeterias and IKEA Furniture The St. Petersburg Times

Sources[edit]

  • Правительство Республики Башкортостан. Постановление №391 от 29 декабря 2006 г. «Об утверждении реестра административно-территориальных единиц и населённых пунктов Республики Башкортостан», в ред. Постановления №61 от 26 февраля 2013 г. «О внесении изменений в реестр административно-территориальных единиц и населённых пунктов Республики Башкортостан». Опубликован: "Ведомости Государственного Собрания – Курултая, Президента и Правительства Республики Башкортостан", №5 (251), ст. 239, 12 марта 2007 г. (Government of the Republic of Bashkortostan. Resolution #391 of December 29, 2006 On Adoption of the Registry of the Administrative-Territorial Entities and Inhabited Localities of the Republic of Bashkortostan, as amended by the Resolution #61 of February 26, 2013 On Amending the Registry of the Administrative-Territorial Entities and Inhabited Localities of the Republic of Bashkortostan. ).
  • Государственное Собрание —Курултай Республики Башкортостан. Закон №162-з от 17 декабря 2004 г. «О границах, статусе и административных центрах муниципальных образований в Республике Башкортостан», в ред. Закона №572-з от 17 июля 2012 г. «О внесении изменения в статью 2 Закона Республики Башкортостан "О границах, статусе и административных центрах муниципальных образований в Республике Башкортостан"». Вступил в силу в соответствии со статьёй 33. Опубликован: "Республика Башкортостан", №52 (25785), 22 марта 2005 г. (State Assembly of Bashkortostan—El Kurultai. Law #162-z of December 17, 2004 On the Borders, Status, and Administrative Centers of the Municipal Formations in the Republic of Bashkortostan, as amended by the Law #572-z of July 17, 2012 On Amending Article 2 of the Law of the Republic of Bashkortostan "On the Borders, Status, and Administrative Centers of the Municipal Formations in the Republic of Bashkortostan". Effective as of the date established in accordance with the provisions of Article 33.).

External links[edit]