Uganda People's Defence Force
|Uganda People's Defence Force|
Uganda People's Defence Force emblem
|Service branches||Land Forces, Air Force, Special Operations Command|
|Minister of Defense and Veteran Affairs||Adolf Mwesige|
|Chief of defence forces||General David Muhoozi (since January 2017)|
|Military age||18 years of age|
|Active personnel||46,800 (2014)|
|Budget||USD: 933.6 million (2015)|
|Percent of GDP||1.2% (2015)|
|History||Military history of Uganda|
The Uganda People's Defence Force (UPDF), previously known as the National Resistance Army, is the armed forces of Uganda. From 2007 to 2011, the International Institute for Strategic Studies estimated the UPDF had a total strength of 40,000–45,000 and consisted of land forces and an air wing.
After Uganda achieved independence in October 1962, British officers retained most high-level military commands. Ugandans in the rank and file claimed this policy blocked promotions and kept their salaries disproportionately low. These complaints eventually destabilized the armed forces, already weakened by ethnic divisions. Each post-independence regime expanded the size of the army, usually by recruiting from among people of one region or ethnic group, and each government employed military force to subdue political unrest.
- 1 History
- 2 Recent operations
- 3 Command and organisation
- 4 Land forces
- 5 Ugandan People's Defence Air Force
- 6 Notes
- 7 References
- 8 Further reading
On 9 October 1962, Uganda became independent from the United Kingdom, with 4th Battalion, King's African Rifles, based at Jinja, becoming the Uganda Rifles. The traditional leader of the Baganda, Edward Mutesa, became president of Uganda. Milton Obote, a northerner and longtime opponent of autonomy for the southern kingdoms including Buganda, was prime minister.
On 1 August 1962, the Uganda Rifles became the Uganda Army. The armed forces more than doubled, from 700 to 1,500, and the government created the 2nd Battalion stationed at the north-eastern town of Moroto on 14 November 1963. Omara-Otunnu wrote in 1987 that "a large number of men had been recruited into the Army to form this new battalion, and ... the new recruits were not given proper training" because the Army was already heavily committed in its various operations.
Following the 1964 mutiny, the government remained fearful of internal opposition. Obote moved the army headquarters approximately 87 kilometres (54 mi) from Jinja to Kampala. He also created a secret police force, the General Service Unit (GSU) to bolster security. Most GSU employees guarded government offices in and around Kampala, but some also served in overseas embassies and other locations throughout Uganda. When British training programs ended, Israel started training Uganda's army, air force, and GSU personnel. Several other countries also provided military assistance to Uganda.
Decalo writes that:
... using classic 'divide and rule' tactics, he [Obote] appointed different foreign military missions to each battalion, scrambled operational chains of command, played the police off against the army, encouraged personal infighting between his main military 'proteges' and removed from operational command of troops officers who appeared unreliable or too authoritative."
When Congolese aircraft bombed the West Nile villages of Paidha and Goli on 13 February 1965, President Obote again increased military recruitment and doubled the army's size to more than 4,500. Units established included a third battalion at Mubende, a signals squadron at Jinja, and an antiaircraft detachment. On 1 July 1965, six units were formed: a brigade reconnaissance, an army ordnance depot (seemingly located at Magamaga), a brigade signals squadron training wing, a records office, a pay and pensions office, and a Uganda army workshop.
Tensions rose in the power struggle over control of the government and the army and over the relationship between the army and the Baganda people. Shortly after February 1966, Amin was appointed Chief of the Army and Air Force Staff, while Brigadier Opolot was transferred to the Ministry of Defence as Chief of the Defence Staff. On 24 May 1966, Obote ousted Mutesa, assumed his offices of president and commander in chief, suspended the 1962 constitution, and consolidated his control over the military by eliminating several rivals. In October 1966 Opolot was dismissed from the army and detained under the emergency regulations then in force.
At about the same time, Obote abrogated the constitution, revoked Buganda's autonomous status, and instructed the Army to attack the Kabaka's palace, forcing the Kabaka to flee. Elections were cancelled. Political loyalties rather than military skill became critical amongst both officers and men.
In 1970, the International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS) assessed the Ugandan armed forces to consist of 6,700 personnel, constituting an army of 6,250 with two brigade groups, each of two battalions, plus an independent infantry battalion, with some Ferret armoured cars, and BTR-40 and BTR-152 armoured personnel carriers, plus an air arm of 450 with 12 Fouga Magister armed jet trainers, and seven MiG-15s and MiG-17s.
In 1977, before the Uganda–Tanzania War, the Ugandan armed forces were reported by IISS as consisting of 20,000 land forces personnel, with two four-battalion brigades and five other battalions of various types, plus a training regiment. There were a total of 35 T-34, T-55, and M-4 Sherman medium tanks. An air arm was 1,000 strong with 21 MiG-21 and 10 MiG-17 combat aircraft. The IISS noted that the Ugandan armed forces collapsed in the face of the Tanzanian onslaught and the serviceable aircraft were removed to Tanzania.
After the Uganda–Tanzania War, fighters available to the new government included only the fewer than 1,000 troops who had fought alongside the Tanzanian People's Defence Force (TPDF) to expel Amin. The army was back to the size of the original army at independence in 1962. Titularly, Colonel Tito Okello served as army commander and Colonel David Oyite Ojok as chief of staff, leading the Uganda National Liberation Army (UNLA).
But in 1979, in an attempt to consolidate support for the future, leaders such as Yoweri Museveni and Major General (later Chief of Staff) David Oyite Ojok began to enroll thousands of recruits into what were rapidly becoming their private armies.
After the Museveni government was formed in 1986, a number of key Rwanda Patriotic Front personnel became part of the National Resistance Army that became Uganda's new national armed forces. Fred Rwigyema was appointed deputy minister of defense and deputy army commander-in-chief, second only to Museveni in the military chain of command for the nation. Paul Kagame was appointed acting chief of military intelligence. Other Tutsi refugees were highly placed: Peter Baingana was head of NRA medical services and Chris Bunyenyezi was the commander of the 306th Brigade. Tutsi refugees formed a disproportionate number of NRA officers for the simple reason that they had joined the rebellion early and thus had accumulated more experience.
Uganda People's Defence Force
The UPDF has been controversial for having a minimum age for service of 13. Many international organizations have condemned this as being military use of children. This has created an image problem for the UPDF and may have impacted the international aid Uganda receives. Western nations have sent a limited level of military aid to Uganda. "Between 1990 and 2002, the army payroll had at least 18,000 ghost soldiers, according to a report by General David Tinyefuza."
The problem continued in 2003, when there was a severe problem of "ghost" soldiers within the UPDF. As of 2008, these personnel problems has been exacerbated by the surge of UPDF troops resigning to work with the Coalition Forces in Iraq.
After several interventions in the Congo, the UPDF was involved in a further incursion there, from December 2008 stretching into February 2009, against the LRA in the Garamba area. UPDF special forces and artillery, supported by aircraft, were joined by the DRC's armed forces and elements of the Sudan People's Liberation Army. Called "Operation Lightning Thunder" by the UPDF, it was commanded by Brigadier Patrick Kankiriho, commander of the 3rd Division.
African Union Mission in Somalia
The UPDF has more than 6,200 soldiers serving with the African Union Mission in Somalia (AMISOM). The AMISOM force commander is Ugandan Lieutenant General Jonathan Rono. The force commander in 2009, Ugandan Major General Nathan Mugisha, was wounded in a car bomb attack on 17 September 2009 that left nine soldiers dead, including Burundian Major General Juvenal Niyoyunguruza, the second in command.
The United States has provided extensive training for UPDF contingents headed for Somalia. In the first half of 2012, Force Recon Marines from Special Purpose Marine Air-Ground Task Force 12 (SPMAGTF-12) trained soldiers from the UPDF.
In addition, a significant amount of support to AMISOM has been provided by private companies. "Bancroft Global Development, headquartered on Washington's Embassy Row, employs about 40 South African and European trainers who work with [AMISOM's] Ugandan and Burundian troops."
On 12 August 2012, two Ugandan Mil Mi-24s flying from Entebbe across Kenya to Somalia crashed in rugged terrain in Kenya. They were found two days later, burned out, with no likely survivors from the ten Ugandan servicemen on board the two helicopters. Another aircraft from the same flight crashed on Mount Kenya, and all seven Ugandan servicemen on board were rescued a day later. The aircraft were supporting AMISOM in the ongoing Somali Civil War. An accompanying Mil Mi-17 transport helicopter landed without problems in the eastern Kenyan town of Garissa near the Somali border for a scheduled refuelling stop.
In August 2014, the Somali government-led Operation Indian Ocean was launched to clean up the remaining insurgent-held pockets in the countryside, with the AMISOM contingents including the UPDF providing support. On 1 September 2014, a U.S. drone strike carried out as part of the broader mission killed Al-Shabaab leader Moktar Ali Zubeyr. According to Pentagon spokesperson Admiral John Kirby, the Ugandan AMISOM forces had informed U.S. intelligence about where Godane and other Al-Shabaab leaders were meeting and provided information on a convoy of vehicles in which he was traveling.
Al-Shabaab subsequently threatened an attack in Uganda for the UPDF contingent's role within AMISOM and the strike on Godane. The Ugandan security services, with the assistance of the U.S. military and intelligence, then identified and foiled a major Al-Shabaab terrorist attack in the Ugandan capital Kampala. They recovered suicide vests, other explosives, and small arms and detained Al-Shabaab operatives.
African Union Regional Task Force
In November 2011, the Peace and Security Council of the African Union (AU) authorized a Regional Co-operation Initiative (RCI) for eliminating the Lord's Resistance Army (LRA). The LRA had been forced out of Uganda and was roaming remote areas of (what is now) South Sudan, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), and the Central African Republic (CAR). The RCI was planned to consist of three elements: a Joint Co-ordination Mechanism chaired by the AU Commissioner for Peace and Security and made up of the Ministers of Defence of the four affected countries (Uganda, South Sudan, the DRC, and the CAR); a Regional Task Force Headquarters; and, the Regional Task Force (RTF) of up to 5,000 troops from the four countries.
The RTF started to take form in September 2012. By February 2013, the RTF had 3,350 soldiers and had finished deploying to the three sectors envisioned, with bases at Dungu, Obo, and Nzara (South Sudan).
The RTF headquarters is at Yambio in South Sudan. The first Force Commander was Ugandan Colonel Dick Olum and the Deputy Force Commander was Colonel Gabriel Ayok Akuok.
In October 2014, RTF Commander Brigadier Sam Kavuma was deployed to Somalia and his place taken by Brigadier Lucky Kidega By March 2016, the Ugandan RTF Commander was Colonel Richard Otto.
South Sudan Civil War
14-18 July 2016: Ugandan forces under Brigadier Kayanja Muhanga undertake Operation Okoa Wanaichi, entering South Sudan and successfully evacuating up to 40,000 Ugandans and 100 other nationalities who were fleeing the fighting.
Command and organisation
A reshuffle of generals in May 2013 resulted in the establishment of the following command structure, with four forces, or commands, falling under the Ministry of Defence Headquarters at Mbuya (Land Forces, Air Force, Special Forces, and Reserve Forces).
- President and commander-in-chief: General (retired) Yoweri Kaguta Museveni
- State minister for defence: General (retired) Jeje Odongo
- Chief of defence forces: General David Muhoosi (since January 2017)
- Deputy chief of defence forces: Major General Wilson Mbadi (since January 2017)
- Joint chief of staff: Major General Wilson Mbasu Bwambale Mbadi (since 24 May 2013)
- UPDF spokesman: Brigadier Richard Karemire (since January 2017)
- Commander of land forces: Major General Peter Elwelu (since January 2017)
- Chief of staff land forces: Brigadier Geoffrey Katsigazi (since December 2016)
- Commander of air forces: Major General Charles Lwanga Lutaaya (since January 2017)
- Commander of special forces: Colonel Don Nabaasa (acting commander since January 2017)
- Deputy commander special forces: Colonel Don Nabasa (since April 2016)
- Spokesman special forces command: Major Chris Magezi.
- Commander of the reserve forces: Major General Charles Otema (since January 2017)
Ministry of Defence Headquarters, Mbuya
- Chief of military intelligence: Colonel Abel Kandiho (since January 2017)
- Chief of logistics and engineering: Brigadier Charles Bakahumura (since January 2017)
- Chief political commissar: Brigadier Henry Matsiko (since January 2017)
- Commander of military police: Brigadier Sabiiti (since April 2017)
The UPDF has the following training schools:
- Senior Command and Staff College, Kimaka (Lt. Gen. Andrew Guti)
- Junior Staff College, Jinja (Brig. Godfrey Galooba)
- Uganda Military Academy, Kabamba (Brig. Emmanuel Musinguzi)
- Uganda Military Engineering College (University Military Science & Technology, Lugazi) (Brigadier Dennis Asiimwe)
- Oliver Tambo Leadership School, Kawaweta, Nakaseke District
- Karama Armoured Warfare Training School, Mubende (Brigadier Francis Chemonges, or Chemo)
- Singo Peace Support Training Centre
- Kaweweta Recruits Training School
- Ugandan Military Air Force Academy Nakasongola
- National Leadership Institute Kyankwanzi
- Bihanga Military Training School, Ibanda (Colonel Semakula)
- Hima Training School, Kasese
- Anti-terrorism Centre (Major General Fred Mugisha)
- Uganda Rapid Deployment Capability Centre, Jinja (Major General Nakibus Lakara)
- Uganda Air Defence and Artillery School, Nakasongola, Nakasongola District
- Uganda Air Force Academy, Nakasongola, Nakasongola District
- Uganda Urban Warfare Training School, Singo, Nakaseke District
In August 2012, Major General Fredrick Mugisha, previously in charge of the African Union Mission in Somalia, was appointed the new joint chief of staff. Brigadier Charles Angina, formerly the General Court Martial chairperson, was promoted to major general and appointed chief of staff of the land forces.
The organisation of the land forces was reported in 2015 to be as follows:
- five division headquarters
- one armoured brigade
- one motorised infantry brigade
- one tank battalion
- Presidential Guard brigade
- one engineer brigade
- one commando battalion
- 5 infantry divisions (total: 16 infantry brigades)
- one artillery brigade
- two air defence battalions
The divisions are:
- Second Division: Makenke Barracks, Mbarara (Brigadier Peter Elewelu). It is composed of three brigades and four auxiliary battalions, according to the website of the Ministry of Defence Uganda. This division, according to afdevinfo.com, includes the divisional headquarters at Mbarara; the 17th, 69th, 73rd, and 77th battalions; the Rwenzori Mountain Alpine Brigade; possibly another Alpine brigade; and the 3rd Tank Battalion. The division has been heavily involved with border operations since the Congo Civil War began in the 1990s. Brigadier Peter Elwelu took command in a ceremony on 17 July 2013. He had been appointed in June 2013.
- Third Division: Moroto (Brigadier Dick Olum). Before 2013, the Third Division headquarters was reported to be at Mbale.
- Fourth Division: Gulu District (Brigadier Kayanja Muhanga, until December 2016 when he took command of the Ugandan contingent with AMISOM in Somalia.
- Fifth Division: Lira (Brigadier Sam Kavuma). Created in August 2002. As of 2013, the division appears to include the 401 Brigade.
- Armoured Brigade: Kasijjagirwa Barracks, Masaka (Brigadier Joseph M. Ssemwanga)
- Motorised Infantry Brigade: Nakasongola (Brigadier Tumusiime Katsigazi). Formed in September 2002 and is composed of three motorized infantry battalions.
|T-90||Russia||Main Battle Tank||100||44||T-90S variant; 56 on order.|
|T-54/55||Soviet Union||Main Battle Tank||199||173|
|T-34||Soviet Union||Medium Tank||10||--|
|M4 Sherman||United States||Medium Tank||12||3|
|PT-76||Soviet Union||Light Tank||50||20|
|BMP-2||Ukraine||Infantry Fighting Vehicle||31||Sourced from Ukraine.|
|BTR-80||Soviet Union||Armoured Personnel Carrier||32||BTR-80A.|
|BTR-60||Soviet Union||Armoured Personnel Carrier||20||12|
|BTR-152||Soviet Union||Armoured Personnel Carrier||74||--|
|OT-64 SKOT||Czechoslovakia||Armoured Personnel Carrier||36||4|
|RG-31 Nyala||South Africa||MRAP||15|
|Casspir||South Africa||MRAP||42||For peacekeeping missions.|
|Eland Mk7||South Africa||Armoured Car||40||Eland-90.|
|Alvis Saladin||United Kingdom||Armoured Car||36||--|
|Ferret||United Kingdom||Scout Car||15||--||Some sources report up to 60.|
|BRDM-1||Soviet Union||Scout Car||98||--|
|BRDM-2||Soviet Union||Scout Car||100||--|
|SAMIL||South Africa||Utility Vehicle||450|
|Chubby||South Africa||Mine Detection Vehicle||1|
|M-30||Soviet Union||Howitzer||18||--||Sourced from Libya.|
|ATMOS 2000||Israel||Self-propelled Howitzer||6|
|BM-21 Grad||Soviet Union||Multiple Rocket Launcher||20|
|RM-70||Czechoslovakia||Multiple Rocket Launcher||6||Purchased 2001-2002.|
Ugandan People's Defence Air Force
In 2011, Emmanuel Tumusiime-Mutebile, the central bank governor, caused large volatility in the Ugandan shilling when he told the Financial Times that President Museveni had ignored technical advice against using Uganda's small foreign exchange reserves to buy new Sukhoi Su-30 fighter aircraft.
Air force inventory
|Sukhoi Su-30||Russia||multirole||Su-30MKK||8||4 on order|
|Cessna 208||United States||utility /surveillance||2||donated by the U.S.|
|Bell 206||United States||utility||7|
|Huey II||United States||multirole||5||donated by the US|
|Aero L-39||Czech Republic||jet trainer||6|
- Haggai Matsiko, Muhoozi, Independent, 2013
- World Defence Almanac 2008, 355.
- "World Development Indicators - Google Public Data Explorer". Google.ro. 7 October 2016. Retrieved 8 January 2017.
- "World Development Indicators - Military expenditure (current LCU)". The World Bank. Retrieved 8 January 2017.
- "World Development Indicators - Military expenditure (% of GDP)". The World Bank. Retrieved 8 January 2017.
- IISS Military Balance 2007, 297; IISS Military Balance 2011, 447.
- J.M. Lee, 1969, 40.
- Library of Congress Country Studies: Uganda
- Omara-Otunnu 1987, 52.
- Omara-Otunnu, 1987, 54.
- Herbert Howe, Ambiguous Order: Military Forces in African States, 2005, 50, citing Samuel Decalo. Coups and Army Rule in Africa, Yale University Press (1990). ISBN 0-300-04045-8, p.205
- Library of Congress
- Tony Avirgan and Martha Honey, War in Uganda, Zed Press, London, UK, 1982, 31.
- Amii Omara-Otunnu, Politics and the Military in Uganda 1890–1985, St. Martin's Press, New York, 1987, 72
- E.A. Brett, "Neutralising the Use of Force in Uganda", Journal of Modern African Studies, Vol. 33, No. 1 (Mar., 1995), 136.
- IISS Military Balance 1970–71, p. 53
- Omara-Otunnu, 1987, 98.
- "The East African - Fallout over raid on Entebbe". Retrieved 26 January 2013.
- IISS Military Balance 1979–80, p.55
- Smith, George Ivan (1980). Ghosts of Kampala. New York: St. Martin's Press. p. 14. ISBN 0-312-32662-9.
- Mahmood Mamdani, When Victims Become Killers: Colonialism, Nativism, and the Genocide in Rwanda, Princeton University Press, 2001, ISBN 0-691-10280-5, pp. 172–173
- CIA World Factbook, , March 2012
- Uganda: Child soldiers at centre of mounting humanitarian crisis Archived 5 May 2009 at the Wayback Machine.
- Joshua Kato, "Assessing the cost of an army", Sunday Vision, 30 June 2006 Archived 7 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
- The Weekly Observer, Committee wants death penalty for ghost creators, 2005
- Iraq Ugandan Guards Face Abuse, accessed December 2008 Archived 19 December 2014 at the Wayback Machine.
- Monitor (Kampala), UPDF commanders behind Operation Lightening Thunder, 20 December 2008[dead link]
- Bantariza moved in new UPDF reshuffle, February 2009 Archived 18 April 2009 at the Wayback Machine.
- "Uganda - UPDF". AMISOM. Retrieved 2 October 2016.
- AMISOM Military Component, AMISOM, accessed 2 October 2016
- Le Visionnaire. "LE VISIONNAIRE: Le Major General Juvenal Niyoyunguruza trouve la mort en Somalie". Retrieved 30 January 2015.
- Nick Turse, The Election Year Outsourcing No One's Talking About: The U.S. Fighting Proxy Wars Around the Globe TomDespatch.com/Alternet.org, 13 August 2012
- Kevin J. Kelley, Somalia: How 'Quiet Americans' Helped Defeat Al Shabaab, Garoweonline.com, Aug 22, 2011.
- Burnt wreckage of two Ugandan army helicopters found, Agence France-Presse via SpaceWar.com, 14 October 2012, accessed 15 August 2012
- "SOMALIA: President says Godane is dead, now is the chance for the members of al-Shabaab to embrace peace". Raxanreeb. 5 September 2014. Retrieved 6 September 2014.
- "Pentagon Confirms Death of Somalia Terror Leader". Associated Press. 5 September 2014. Retrieved 6 September 2014.
- "allAfrica.com: Uganda: More Information Emerges On How Intelligence From Uganda Forces Led to the Killing of Alshabaab Leader". allAfrica.com. 18 September 2014. Retrieved 30 January 2015.
- "Uganda gave US crucial intel on Al Shabaab leader". 6 September 2014. Retrieved 30 January 2015.
- "Somali militants threaten U.S. attacks to avenge leader's death". Reuters. 9 September 2014. Retrieved 30 January 2015.
- Nicholas Bariyo (15 September 2014). "Uganda Forces Discover Suicide Vests, Explosives at Suspected Terrorist Cell". WSJ. Retrieved 30 January 2015.
- "UGANDAN POLICE SEIZE EXPLOSIVES, SUICIDE VESTS FROM SUSPECTED AL SHABAAB CELL", Newsweek, 14 August 2014, accessed 2 October 2016
- "Uganda seizes explosives, suicide vests from suspected terrorist cell in capital of Kampala". ABC News. 14 September 2014. Retrieved 30 January 2015.
- African Union, 2015, The African Union-Led Regional Task Force for the elimination of the LRA, African Union Peace and Security, last updated 23 November 2015, accessed 2 January 2017, http://www.peaceau.org/en/page/100-au-led-rci-lra-1
- Gisesa, Nyambega (18 October 2011). "The hunt for Kony". Nairobi: Daily Nation. Retrieved 17 January 2017.
- Butagira, Tabu (12 July 2011). "US commandos venture into Kony's killing fields". The Monitor. Kampala. Retrieved 17 January 2017.
- De Young, Karen (23 March 2014). "On the hunt for Joseph Kony". The Washington Post. Retrieved 17 January 2017.
- "FIGHT AGAINST THE LRA: UN welcomes handover of troops to the African Union Regional Task Force". United Nations Regional Office for Central Africa. September 2012. Retrieved 17 January 2017.
- Baguma, Raymond (17 February 2013). "DRC troop deployment a boost to anti-LRA efforts". Kampala: New Vision. Retrieved 17 January 2017.
- Mukasa, Henry (19 September 2012). "UN welcomes AU force to hunt down Kony". Kampala: New Vision. Retrieved 17 January 2017.
- "UPDF sends 2700 troops to Somalia, names new Commander". The Monitor. Kampala. 28 October 2014. Retrieved 17 January 2017.
- Kasasira, Risdel (27 November 2014). "Who is who? List of UPDF top brass and what they do". Daily Monitor. Kampala. Retrieved 15 January 2017.
- Tumwesigye, Capt. Stephen, 2016, Dominic Ongwen’s Accomplice Escapes Death, Tarehe Sita (The Uganda Peoples’ Defence Forces Magazine) vol. 29, no. 3, March 2016, pp. 26-27.
- Owich, James (25 August 2016). "Soldier sentenced to 10 months for losing gun". The Monitor. Kampala. Retrieved 17 January 2017.
- Okiror, Samuel (1 July 2016). "Mission (Not) Accomplished: Uganda gives up the hunt too soon for Kony and the LRA". IRIN. Retrieved 17 January 2017.
- 'Sum up of the South Sudan Evacuation Mission,' MOD Uganda website, 5 August 2016, accessed 12 August 2016, <http://portal.defence.go.ug:10039/wps/portal/mod-home/MOD-latest-news/sum%20up%20of%20the%20south%20sudan%20evacuation%20mission/!ut/p/a1/zZRNc9owEIb_ii8cjdbCH3JunmTqQgC3-QRfMsLIsgi2jCWbNr8-guSUlhCmHKqLZmd339l9pF2UohlKK9oJTrWQFV3v7NR_ChMgzjXgUfIdvkFE4ukQJzG-jV0TMDcBcOBE8CH_Loggih-Cn8k4HA6vPfSIUpRmla51gea1bDRdW0po1oOXw7IU9u5QGtlnwCupAwqUd8FGrkMhnr0P7gJyoIRXAkuOFXd7oNrSamtL5pYumKVkqwtLtUtaWayjWbtv3yqFUubeVVhTzpZMCf5mZWKJ5jkmjgOOb_ueQ2zXdR174ebEZgvfcz2ahVmG3_l8AuAI3z2fI4SPMR4dCzBFRtViQDhKG5azhjX9tjGPX2hdX_QM7O12218aT5WxPpf9lvfgb0mFVBrN_ghGcwMhONxlgG5PpPq5IMHnFhycWTBx_1WQ3F9dQjSe_BjhhxuIp3DuCv2TBUdf2BW4mVxO-G6edGGLKpdodtIoGgmx2mzSyCwNWWn2y_y3_3Rr1OV9SVb52L8hvwfrriyfplObLggMvLp7ucvLR6JeAR4T7dQ!/dl5/d5/L2dBISEvZ0FBIS9nQSEh/>
- Kato, Joshua (24 May 2013). "Katumba Wamala new CDF". New Vision. Kampala. Retrieved 8 January 2017.
- Kafeero, Stephen (10 January 2017). "Gen Katumba out, Gen Muhoozi appointed new UPDF commander". Daily Monitor. Kampala. Retrieved 15 January 2017.
- "Uganda president names first female Major General". The East African. Nairobi. 13 January 2017. Retrieved 15 January 2017.
- "Brigadier Kyanda replaced as UPDF Chief of Staff". Daily Monitor. Kampala. 20 December 2016. Retrieved 8 January 2017.
- "Appointments, transfers and promotions in the Uganda People's Defence Forces (UPDF)". Kampala: President Yoweri Museveni. 10 January 2017. Retrieved 15 January 2017.
- "Uganda: Muhoozi Deputy Set for U.S Course". The Observer. Kampala: allAfrica.com. 4 May 2016. Retrieved 8 January 2017.
- Mugume, Paul (12 April 2017). "Gen Elweru Preaches Peace as Brig Sabiiti Takes Over Military Police Command". www.chimpreports.com. Retrieved 3 May 2017.
- "Training Schools". Uganda Ministry of Defence. Retrieved 27 December 2016.[dead link]
- Oliver Tambo Leadership School Located at Kaweweta, Nakaseke District Archived 29 September 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
- South Africa Donates Equipment to Oliver Tambo School Archived 2 November 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
- About Uganda Airforce Academy[dead link]
- Among, Barbara (22 December 2010). "1,800 more UPDF sent to Somalia". New Vision. Kampala. Retrieved 8 January 2017.
- Turyakira, Fred (20 July 2013). "Elwelu appointed new 2nd Division UPDF commander". New Vision. Kampala. Retrieved 8 January 2017.
- "Muhoozi Promoted to Brigadier". Kampala: Uganda Radio Network. 27 August 2012. Retrieved 8 January 2017.
- Griffiths, Jordan Luke; Martin, Guy (30 January 2015). "Uganda People's Defence Force". defenceWeb. Retrieved 8 January 2017.
- 3rd Division Mbale – Uganda
- Kamali, David (26 November 2016). "Uganda says army's salary arrears 'ready'". Alleastafrica. Retrieved 16 January 2017.
- Atuhaire, Alex B. (7 August 2002). "Uganda: Museveni Creates UPDF 5th Division". Kampala: New Vision. Retrieved 17 January 2017 – via allAfrica.com.
- Columbus Tusiime. "Security Operative on the Run for Robbery". Uganda Radio Network. Retrieved 17 January 2017.
- Ssekweyama, Martins E. (3 January 2017). "UPDF Investigates rebel recruitment in Masaka, warns youths". The Monitor. Kampala. Retrieved 17 January 2017.
- Ministry of Defence Uganda, UPDF Motorised Infantry, accessed 14 June 2016, <http://portal.defence.go.ug:10039/wps/portal/mod-home/armed-forces/land-forces/!ut/p/a1/04_Sj9CPykssy0xPLMnMz0vMAfGjzOIt_Q0sDL0NjLz8Lf3NDRwtDEwDA41dDQxMTYEKIoEKDHAARwM0_SHmjgaO7mHmgf4-lp6e3jD9eBQQsD9cPwqsBI8LvIhwg2NekrFFun5UUWpaalFqkV5pEdDvGSUlBVaqBqoG5eXleilAmbzkVL30fL3SdFUDbJoy8otL9CMwFOsX5IZGGOhGJVWWOyoCAPd0lwo!/dl5/d5/L2dBISEvZ0FBIS9nQSEh/>. Note this website's pages now (7 January 2017) appears to have restricted access.
- "Trade Registers". Armstrade.sipri.org. Retrieved 20 November 2014.
- "Uganda Security Information". Institute for Security Studies Africa. Archived from the original on 2006-11-28. Retrieved 2014-12-01.
- Copley, Gregory. Defense & Foreign Affairs Handbook 1999. p. 821.
- "Scramble for the Congo - Anatomy of an Ugly War" (PDF). ICG Africa. 20 December 2000. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 September 2011. Retrieved 18 June 2013.
- "Ugandan army refurbishing APCs". defenceweb.co.za. 28 August 2014. Retrieved 2014-12-01.
- UPDF peace Keepers return from Somalia. 19 June 2010.
"We went [to Somalia] with Mambas, now we have graduated to Casspirs", Lieutenant General Katumba Wamala - Ugandan Commander, Land Forces
- Camp, Steve; Helmoed-Römer, Heitman (November 2014). Surviving the Ride: A pictorial history of South African Manufactured Mine-Protected vehicles. Pinetown: 30 Degrees South. p. 239. ISBN 978-1928211-17-4.
- "Uganda: How the West brought Idi Amin to power". Retrieved 30 January 2015.
- "SANDF gets rid of surplus". South African Associated Press. 2005-10-04. Retrieved 20 July 2014.
- The Independent, Muhoozi, 15 February 2013.[dead link]
- Butagira, Tabu; Ssebuyira, Martin (13 July 2011). "New Russian-built jet fighters arrive". The Monitor. Kampala. Retrieved 17 January 2017.
- "World Air Forces 2015 pg. 31". Flightglobal Insight. 2015. Retrieved 11 June 2015.
- "US donates two Cessna 208's to Uganda". Air Forces Monthly. Key Publishing: 26. June 2015.
- DefenceWeb (17 March 2015). "US donates two Cessna 208B Caravans to Uganda". South Africa: defenceweb.co.za. Retrieved 20 September 2015.
- Mufumba, Isaac (29 September 2016). "US explains Shs265b combat helicopters' aid to Uganda". Daily Monitor. Kampala. Retrieved 29 September 2016.
- "World Air Forces 2015 pg. 11". Flightglobal Insight. 2015. Retrieved 26 December 2014.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Army of Uganda.|
- "World Defence Almanac". Military Technology. Bonn, Germany: Monch Publishing Group. XXXII (1): 335. ISSN 0722-3226.
- Library of Congress Uganda Country Study (significant sections copied under U.S. copyright law.)
- This article incorporates public domain material from the Library of Congress document: Thomas P. Ofcansky (December 1990). Rita M. Byrnes, ed. "Uganda: A country study". Federal Research Division. The First Obote Regime: The Growth of the Military.
- Amii Omara-Otunnu, Politics and the Military in Uganda 1890-1985, St. Martin's Press, New York, 1987
- One way street, Africa Confidential, Volume 41 No 9. Deep rivalries in the Ugandan People’s Defence Forces have been the main reason for the UPDF’s failure to defeat the LRA since the late 1980s.
- Max Delany, and Jeremy Binnie, 'Triple helicopter crash is major blow for Uganda, AMISOM,' Jane's Defence Weekly, 22 August 2013, 10.
- Rune Hjalmar Espeland, and Stina Petersen (2010). The Ugandan army and its war in the North. Forum for Development Studies. 37(2): 193- 215
- Lee, J. M. (1969), African Armies and Civil Order, International Institute for Strategic Studies/Chatto and Windus, 1969, 77, 105.
- Ngoga, Pascal. "Uganda: The National Resistance Army." African guerrillas (1998): 91-106.
- Gerard Prunier, From Genocide to Continental War: the 'Congolese' Conflict and the Crisis of Contemporary Africa, Hurst & Co., London, 2009, ISBN 978-1-85065-523-7 (p. 88, 186, 197)
- "U.S. relies on contractors in Somalia conflict," New York Times, 10 August 2011
- Rocky Williams, "National defence reform and the African Union." SIPRI Yearbook 2004: 231-249.