|Region||Papua: central highlands, Paniai Regency, Beoga and Ilaga sub-districts; Asmat, Deiya, Mimika, and Puncak regencies, north and south Carstens Mountains; possibly Lanny Jaya and Nduga regencies.|
Map: The Amung language of New Guinea
The Amung language
Other Trans–New Guinea languages
Other Papuan languages
Uhunduni, also known as Damal and Amung (Amung Kal) after two of its dialects, is the language of the Amung people. It is a Trans–New Guinea language that forms an independent branch of that family in the classification of Malcolm Ross (2005). However, it is treated as an isolate by Palmer (2018).
Dialects are Amongme, Amung, Damal, Enggipilu.
Pawley and Hammarström (2018) do not consider there to be sufficient evidence for Uhunduni to be classified as part of Trans-New Guinea, though they do note the following lexical resemblances between Uhunduni and proto-Trans-New Guinea.
- no- ‘eat’ < *na-
- mo- come’ < *me-
- mini- ‘sit’ < *mVna-
- eme- ‘give’ < *mV-
Ross (2005) lists the pronouns as:
sg du pl 1 na iru enoŋ 2 a erop 3 na nuŋ
Iru is an inclusive dual.
- Uhunduni at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
- Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Damal". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
- Palmer, Bill (2018). "Language families of the New Guinea Area". In Palmer, Bill (ed.). The Languages and Linguistics of the New Guinea Area: A Comprehensive Guide. The World of Linguistics. 4. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton. pp. 1–20. ISBN 978-3-11-028642-7.
- Pawley, Andrew; Hammarström, Harald (2018). "The Trans New Guinea family". In Palmer, Bill (ed.). The Languages and Linguistics of the New Guinea Area: A Comprehensive Guide. The World of Linguistics. 4. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton. pp. 21–196. ISBN 978-3-11-028642-7.
- Ross, Malcolm (2005). "Pronouns as a preliminary diagnostic for grouping Papuan languages". In Andrew Pawley; Robert Attenborough; Robin Hide; Jack Golson (eds.). Papuan pasts: cultural, linguistic and biological histories of Papuan-speaking peoples. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics. pp. 15–66. ISBN 0858835622. OCLC 67292782.