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Ukkin (UKKIN) is the Sumerian word or symbol for assembly, temple council or Divine council, written ideographically with the cuneiform sign 𒌺 (Borger 2003 nr. 73, encoded by Unicode at codepoint U+1233A).[1][2]

In Akkadian it is transliterated as Puḫru or Puḫrum and was used in the context of "public assembly", of both Gods and people with the ultimate meaning of a "totality" of living things. A council of the gods specifically is referred to in Akkadian as Puḫru Ilani or Puḫur Ilani.[3][4] The word was later adopted into Aramaic.[4] In Hittite language it is transliterated as Pankuš or Tuyila.[5] In the Hellenistic era the word Kiništu was used and it found an equivalent in the word Qāhāl in other ancient languages.[3][4]

H. Zimmern noted that the Babylonian New Year feast was also called puhru and connected this with the modern day holiday of Purim.[6]


  1. ^ Jeremy A. Black (2000). A Concise Dictionary of Akkadian. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. pp. 278–. ISBN 978-3-447-04264-2. Retrieved 6 October 2012. 
  2. ^ William Foxwell Albright (1968). Yahweh and the Gods of Canaan: A Historical Analysis of Two Contrasting Faiths. Eisenbrauns. pp. 192–. ISBN 978-0-931464-01-0. Retrieved 6 October 2012. 
  3. ^ a b T. Boiy (2004). Late Achaemenid and Hellenistic Babylon. Peeters Publishers. pp. 202–. ISBN 978-90-429-1449-0. Retrieved 6 October 2012. 
  4. ^ a b c Helmer Ringgren (1 January 2003). Theological Dictionary of the Old Testament. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. pp. 548–. ISBN 978-0-8028-2336-6. Retrieved 6 October 2012. 
  5. ^ J. G. McConville; Karl Möller (15 November 2007). Reading the Law: Studies in Honour of Gordon J. Wenham. Continuum International Publishing Group. pp. 99–. ISBN 978-0-567-02642-2. Retrieved 6 October 2012. 
  6. ^ Lewis Bayles Paton (6 December 2000). Esther. Continuum International Publishing Group. pp. 91–. ISBN 978-0-567-05009-0. Retrieved 6 October 2012.