2010 Ukrainian presidential election

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

2010 Ukrainian presidential election

← 2004 17 January 2010 (first round)
7 February 2010 (second round)
2014 →
  Viktor Yanukovych official portrait (cropped).jpg Yulia Tymoshenko November 2009-2 (cropped).jpeg
Nominee Viktor Yanukovych Yulia Tymoshenko
Party Party of Regions Batkivshchyna
Popular vote 12,481,266 11,593,357
Percentage 48.95% 45.47%

Другий тур 2010 по округах-en.png
Results of the 7 February run-off.

President before election

Viktor Yushchenko
Our Ukraine

Elected President

Viktor Yanukovych
Party of Regions

Presidential elections were held in Ukraine on 17 January 2010. As no candidate received a majority of the vote, a run-off election was held between Prime Minister Yulia Tymoshenko and opposition leader Viktor Yanukovych on 7 February.

On 14 February Yanukovych was declared President-elect and winner with 48.95% of the popular vote. According to Article 104 of Ukraine's Constitution, the President had to be sworn into office within 30 days of the official declaration of the results.[1] Parliament subsequently scheduled Yanukovych's inauguration for 25 February.[2]

On 17 February, the Supreme Administrative Court of Ukraine suspended the results following an appeal by Tymoshenko. The court suspended the Central Election Commission's ruling that announced that Yanukovych won the election, but did not postpone or cancel his inauguration.[3][4][5] On 20 February, Tymoshenko withdrew her appeal.[6][clarification needed]

Summary[edit]

Early-vote returns from the first round of the election held on 17 January showed Yanukovych in first place with 35.8% of the vote.[7] He faced a 7 February 2010 runoff against Tymoshenko, who finished second (with 24.7% of the vote).

Analysts predicted a slight advantage for Tymoshenko in the second (and final) round as she was more likely to attract voters from the other 16 candidates who did not proceed to the second round.[8] Yanukovych refused to hold debates with his opponent before the second round of voting, saying Tymoshenko should either take responsibility for every word as prime minister, or go to the kitchen.[9] After all ballots were counted, the Ukrainian Central Election Commission declared that Yanukovych won the election with 48.95% of the vote compared with 45.47% for Tymoshenko.[10] Yulia Tymoshenko Bloc members immediately claimed that there was systematic and large-scale vote rigging in this run-off.[11][12][13][14]

On 10 February 2010, Yanukovych called on Tymoshenko to abandon her protests and resign as Prime Minister.[14] On 9 February 2010, Yanukovych had stated that Borys Kolesnykov was his preferred next Prime Minister of Ukraine. According to him pre-term parliamentary elections will be imminent if the Ukrainian parliament would not work effectively. Yanukovych also stated that, as the largest faction in the parliament at the time, his party was entitled to nominate the premier.[15] On 15 February, Yanukovych stated "I do not rule out the candidature of Tigipko (as next Prime Minister). Tigipko is on the list which, in my opinion, will be discussed next week in parliament".[16]

On 16 February 2010, Ukraine's parliament had fixed 25 February 2010 for the inauguration of Yanukovych as president.[17] On 17 February 2010, "the Higher Administrative Court of Ukraine", suspended the results of the election on Yulia Tymoshenko's appeal.[18][19] On 20 February 2010, Tymoshenko withdrew her appeal after "the Higher Administrative Court of Ukraine" rejected her petition to scrutinize documents:[20]
— about 300,000 voters who voted but were not in the "Register of Voters of Ukraine";
— about 1.3 million voters who "without right" voted in their homes;
— about falsification in the election in the eastern regions (Donetsk, Luhansk, Kharkiv region, Crimea, etc.) — fixed by law-enforcement officials.[6]
Tymoshenko stated, "I and my political party will never recognize Yanukovych as the legitimately elected president of Ukraine", and "an honest court will assess that Yanukovych was not elected President of Ukraine, and that the will of the people had been rigged".[21]

Public opinion[edit]

Public opinion polls predicted the Party of Regions and Viktor Yanukovych's win in the presidential election in February 2010. According to an article in Kyiv Post in November 2009, Yanukovych's popularity in the Donbas was fading and Donbas voters voted mainly for Yanukovych to keep Tymoshenko from power.[22]

Background[edit]

In Ukraine, the previous two presidential first-round ballots have traditionally occurred in October.

According to the Constitution of Ukraine, regular elections of the President of Ukraine are held on the last Sunday of the last month of the fifth year of the term of authority of the President of Ukraine. In the event of pre-term termination of authority of the President of Ukraine, elections of the President of Ukraine are held within ninety days from the day of termination of the authority.

Early presidential elections can be held in case of presidential resignation, ill-health, impeachment or death.

The President of Ukraine is elected by the citizens of Ukraine for a five-year term, on the basis of universal, equal and direct suffrage, by secret ballot.

A candidate seeking election must be a citizen of Ukraine who has attained the age of thirty-five, has the right to vote, has resided in Ukraine for the past ten years prior to the day of elections, and has command of the state language as required by Article 103 of Ukraine's Constitution.

On 1 April 2009, the Verkhovna Rada designated 25 October 2009, as the date for the first round of voting. Within a week, President Yushchenko filed an appeal with the Constitutional Court against Verkhovna Rada's 25 October date. The President's appeal argued that his inauguration on 23 January 2005, was the commencement of his five-year term of office and as such the next presidential election must be set for the last Sunday before 23 January 2010, in accordance with Article 103.[23]

On 13 May 2009, the court ruled in Yushchenko's favor, striking out the 25 October date for the elections.[24] On 14 May 2009, the Party of Regions leader Viktor Yanukovych stated that the presidential elections should now be held on 17 January 2010.[25][26][27]

On 23 June 2009, the Parliament rescheduled the date for the election for Sunday, 17 January 2010, with 399 lawmakers out of 442 lawmakers registered in the session hall voted "for" the resolution "On appointing of regular election of President of Ukraine".

Minister of Internal Affairs Yuriy Lutsenko said on 21 September 2009 that he believes that the lists of voters at this presidential election will be more qualitative and more "clear" than it was at previous elections because "double names" were removed from the list.[28] The same day the Party of Regions complained about a lot of mistakes in that list and that the number of voters fell in the Southern Ukraine and Eastern Ukraine and increased by 0.5–1% in Western Ukraine.[29] It is the first time the state register of voters will be used in a Ukrainian election.[29]

Law on presidential elections[edit]

Ukraine's president is elected by a two-round first-past-the-post voting system. The first round of voting was held on 17 January 2010. As no candidate in the first-round ballot had 50% or more votes the two highest polling candidates faced off in a second-round ballot[30] which was held on 7 February 2010. Victor Yanukovych received the highest vote (48.96%) and was expected to be declared the winner.[31] Under Ukrainian law presidents elect must take the oath within 30 days of the declaration of the poll, which must be made before 17 February 2010.

On 24 July 2009, the Verkhovna Rada (Ukrainian parliament) amended the law on presidential elections reducing the official presidential campaign from 120 to 90 days.[32][33] [34] Outgoing President Viktor Yushchenko refused to sign the new law and lodged an appeal in Ukraine's Constitutional Court, but failed to outline in detail the grounds for any appeal.[35] The speaker of the parliament, Volodymyr Lytvyn, signed the amended law into existence following the President's refusal to sign it, despite this being illegal.[36]

Maryna Stavniychuk, deputy head of the presidential secretariat and the President's spokesperson on legal matters, stated "It is obvious that there are no serious political or legal grounds to consider the issue of the possible disruption of the presidential elections in Ukraine." [37]

The amended law on the presidential elections required candidates to pay a 2,500,000 (~308,000 USD) nomination deposit which will only be refunded to the two highest polling candidates that progressed to the second round of voting.

On 19 October 2009, the Central Election Commission of Ukraine formed the 225 territorial election districts needed for carrying out the election.[38]

20 October 2009, Ukraine's Constitutional Court announced its ruling declaring unconstitutional five aspects of the new law of the presidential election. Voters abroad will no longer have to be registered with the Ukrainian consulate in order to cast a vote. The courts will retain the right to consider without limitations any application or appeal in respect to a candidate's registration or the conduct of the election. The cancellation of absentee ballots remains as does the 90-day election period and the ₴2.5 million deposit. The ruling of the Constitutional Court is not expected to impact seriously on the election as the amended legislation remains in place.[39][40]

On 21 December 2009, the Central Election Commission of Ukraine formed 113 foreign polling stations.[41]

Voters are permitted to vote at home during the presidential election.[42]

Costs[edit]

The Central Election Commission has estimated the budget of the holding of regular presidential elections in Ukraine at ₴1.5 billion,[43] (approximately 200 million US dollars) with additional costs required by candidates to fund their campaigns.

Each candidate is required to pay an election deposit of ₴2.5 million (Approximately US$300,000) The deposit will be refunded to the two highest polling candidates who progress to the second round of elections.

On 26 November, the Central Election Commission stated a total of ₴1.314 billion is required to hold the presidential election, including 192.2 million in 2009 and 1.122 billion in 2010.[44]

Assessments by political analysts show that each presidential candidate will have to spend at least US$150–200mn to promote himself; this includes buying story lines in the media, visual advertising, canvassing, printing political material and, work with electoral commissions.[45]

Chairman of the Committee of Voters of Ukraine, Oleksandr Chernenko, also commented that presidential candidates will spend 1 billion US dollars on the election campaign[46]

The cost of the run-off ballot is estimated to be US$119 million[47]

Timetable[edit]

Ukraine's Central Electoral Commission (CEC) has set the following timetable for the conduct of the election:[48][49]

  • 19 October: Official 90-day Election Campaign period commences
  • 20 October to 6 November: Nominations open
  • 9 November: Deadline for nomination document/submissions

CEC has five days to assess and approve or reject nominations

  • 11 November: Deadline for candidates to submit any corrections to documentation
  • 13 November: CEC to finalize registration of nominations
  • 15 November: CEC to publish nomination lists of candidates

CEC provides certified copies of the voters list to all candidates. Within Three days of registration Candidates must provide a statement of assets and income. Candidates allowed to commence official campaign one day after registration is finalized.

  • 9 December: Foreign polling stations to be set up.[50]
  • 15 December: CEC to approve ballot paper format ready for printing.
  • 21 December: Deadline for withdrawals of candidature.
  • 2 January: Last day for public opinion polls to be published prior to election.
  • 9 January: All ballot papers to be printed and ready for distribution to polling stations/districts.
  • 15 January: Last day of public campaigning before polling day
  • 17 January: Election (first-round ballot) polling commences 8 am and closes 10 pm
  • 22 January: Tabulation of overseas and territorial polling place to be completed
  • 27 January: Determination of voting results and declaration of poll

As no single candidate had 50% or more of the total recorded vote the two highest polling candidates faced off in a second-round ballot. The candidate with the highest vote in the second round will win the election.

  • 7 February: Final round run-off ballot
  • 17 February: Declaration of the election must be made within 10 days following the ballot or within 3 days of receipt of the official election protocols.

According to Article 104 of Ukraine's Constitution the President-elect within 30 days of the declaration of the poll must be sworn into office before Ukraine's parliament

  • 25 February: Viktor Yanukovych is sworn into office.

Nominated candidates[edit]

The following candidates nominated for the presidential elections (in ballot paper order)[51] A total of 18 candidates ran for president.[52]

Excluded candidates[edit]

All together the Central Election Commission had rejected sixteen applications for candidate registration.[90]

The Central Election Commission refused to register Oleksandr Hordiichuk, Olena Osnach, Oleksandr Luzan, Hanna Kostiv, Oleksandr Vaschenko, Oleksandr Ohorodnikov, Vasyl Handula, Yurii Petlevana, Petro Rekalo, Anatolii Polischuk, Mykhailo Hamaniuk, Oleksandr Vretyk, Artem Polezhaka, Oleh Omelchenko, Natalia Vitrenko,[72] Mykola Melnychenko, Serhii Martyian and Serhiy Schetinin. The reason stated was due to errors in their documentation, qualifications or failure to pay the required ₴2.5 million nomination deposit.[91][92][93][94]

Nominations closed on 9 November 2009. The Central Election Commission had until 11 November to process nomination documentations and to 13 November to finalize the election list.

Electoral campaign[edit]

The official presidential campaign commenced on 19 October 2009, with nominations opening on 20 October through to 6 November. The "unofficial" campaign had already started during the summer of 2009 with tents of Front for Change distributing campaign material for Arseniy Yatsenyuk Front for Changes and large scale and billboards stating Others make problems. She Works (in the colors and letter type of Bloc Yulia Tymoshenko), and photos of Sergei Tigipko displayed in most Ukrainian towns and TV-adds of Yulia Tymoshenko and Volodymyr Lytvyn shown on national TV.[95][96] According to Tymoshenko the "She Works" billboards were paid for by the Fatherland Party, and therefore they were also "social". Party of Regions deputy Andry Paruby officially requested that the prosecutor-general's office investigates the sources of financing of Tymoshenko's advertisements. He suggested that public money might have been used.[96]

Ukraine has proven more than once the degree to which the success of an election campaign depends on the level of professionalism and political spin techniques applied in election campaigns.[97]

The most popular candidates are former prime minister and leader of the Opposition party Viktor Yanukovych and current prime minister Yulia Tymoshenko.

Incumbent president Viktor Yushchenko's support has slumped from a high of 52% in 2004 to below 3% in Ukrainian public opinion polls. Most political commentators regard him as a heavy underdog who stands little chance of being re-elected to a second term of office.[98] A recent public opinion poll indicated that 83% of Ukrainians will not vote for Yushchenko.[99]

On 5 April 2009, Arseniy Yatseniuk, former chairman of the Verkhovna Rada, announced his intention to run in the election.[100] His popularity has slowly risen to around 12–14% and is now in third place behind Yanukovych and Tymoshenko.[101]

According to Oxford Analytica the working relationship between President Yushchenko and his Prime Minister Tymoshenko will be further complicated by the search of Yushchenko for partners other than Tymoshenko's Bloc Yulia Tymoshenko who will ensure his re-election.[102] Since Yushchenko dismissed Tymoshenko as Prime Minister on 8 September 2005, the relations between Tymoshenko and Yushchenko,[103][104][105][106] including the Secretariat of the President of Ukraine,[107] have been hostile.[108] In an interview with the Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung of 11 February 2009 Tymoshenko said her recent conflict with the President is a political competition and not ideological antagonisms and she emphasized that the "election struggle for the next presidential elections has virtually begun."[109] During a visit to Brussels on 10 February 2009, Chairman of the Verkhovna Rada Volodymyr Lytvyn seconded that.[110] In late February 2009, President Yushchenko called on all Ukrainian politicians to "stop the presidential election campaign until July 1."[111][112]

On 16 June 2009, Tymoshenko accused Yushchenko, Yatseniuk and Yanukovych of having the same campaign headquarters financed by (businessman and) RosUkrEnergo owner Dmytro Firtash.[113][114][115]

Tymoshenko stated on 22 June 2009 that "There is a team work on solving these issues between the President and the Prime Minister. Professional advice and support of the President will help the government during difficult times".[116]

On 11 August 2009, Russian President Medvedev in an open letter[117] directed at Viktor Yushchenko, raised a number of issues of concern related to the perceived "anti-Russian position of the current Ukrainian authorities". The Russian President's comments[118] were considered by analysts and others including the President of Ukraine as Russia's interference in Ukraine's domestic affairs.[119][120][121][122][123][124][125]

On 12 September 2009, a tour called "With Ukraine in Heart" in support of Yulia Tymoshenko kick-started on Kyiv's Maidan Nezalezhnosti. The most popular singers and bands of Ukraine took part in the tour.[126][127][128]

On 14 September 2009, the Communist Party of Ukraine, the Social Democratic Party of Ukraine (united), the Justice Party and the Union of Leftists signed an agreement on creating the bloc of leftists and center-leftists and a unitary participation in the presidential election.[129][130]

The Pechersky district court in Kyiv on 22 September 2009, banned "any unfair advertisement" against Tymoshenko in response to a video (allegedly made by the Party of Regions), which claimed that Tymoshenko does not deliver on her promises. The video reportedly mocked Tymoshenko's main campaign slogan "She Works," which is frequently used in her advertisements.[96]

In October 2009 representatives of the Western Ukrainian intelligentsia called upon the candidates Yushchenko, Yatseniuk, Hrytsenko and "other representatives of national democratic forces" to withdraw in favour of Tymoshenko.[131]

On 6 October 2009, the incumbent President Yushchenko warned that there may be attempts to use regional television and radio companies to create advantages for the government in the election campaign.[132]

On 17 October 2009, The Social-Democratic Party of Ukraine has backed a decision to create the bloc of left and center-left political forces and supported the leader of the Communist Party of Ukraine Petro Symonenko as a single candidate for the post of the Ukrainian president from left political forces[133]

19 October was the official start of the Elections campaign 90-day period.

20 October candidate nomination registration opens. Oleh Riabokon first candidate to officially nominate.

On 20 October, Ukrainian Parliament voted to amend Ukraine's Constitution (390 out of 438 in favor) to remove provision related to Parliamentary immunity that prevents a member of parliament from being criminally liable, detained or arrested without the consent of the Verkhovna Rada. An earlier proposal to only remove immunity from the Parliament was defeated. The proposed new provisions also limits presidential immunity. The president can not be detained or arrested without the consent of the parliament however on conviction of an offense the President automatically loses office. The proposed amendments have been forwarded to Ukraine's Constitutional Court for review and will need to be reaffirmed by the parliament in February 2010.[134]

Political Analyst and senior policy fellow at the European Council on Foreign Relations, Andrew Wilson, has cast doubt on Arseny Yatseniuk, currently Ukraine's third most popular candidate, ability to maintain his meteoritic rise following a decline in his ratings dropping from a high of 13% in August to 9% in October. "Yatseniuk must look to plan B"[135]

On 6 November the nominations were closed. The same day a Viktor Yushchenko aide amidst concern over the recent flu outbreak which claimed 97 lives has proposed the cancellation of the January election until May 2010 which would extend the President's term of office a further six months.[136] The World Health Organization has stated that they expect a second and third wave of infections to occur in Spring (April to June) [137] bringing into further doubt Yushchenko's proposed cancellation. Under Ukraine's Constitution the elections can be canceled if a State of Emergency is declared. Also on 6 November 2009, the Emergencies Ministry stated it saw no grounds to introduce a state of emergency in Ukraine due to the flu epidemic.[138] On 9 November President Yushchenko said the same.[139][140]

Serhy Lutsenko, the deputy head of the People's Self-Defense party expressed on 11 November 2009 concern that Viktor Yushchenko will support his past rival, Viktor Yanukovych, in a run-off election between Yanukovych and Tymoshenko.[141]

On 3 December 2009, the Ukrainian National Council on Television and Radio Broadcasting complained that certain TV channels did not give equal conditions to all presidential candidates.[142]

On 11 December 2009, the European People's Party EPP called on "Ukraine's democratic forces" to unite around the most democratic candidate who will win through to the presidential run-off. All-Ukrainian Union "Fatherland", the Our Ukraine People's Union, and the People's Movement of Ukraine (Rukh) are the EPP's partners in Ukraine.[143]

On 11 December 2009, candidate Viktor Yanukovych stated that his Party of Regions possesses information that "government representatives are currently "motivating" the chairmen of election commissions and seeking options for victory in every possible way" and called for his supporters go to the Maidan Nezalezhnosti in case of election fraud.[144]

Bloc Yulia Tymoshenko proposes a referendum on the format of Constitutional reform - Parliamentary versus Presidential system of governance.[145]

First-round ballot[edit]

The first-round ballot was held on 17 January and was internationally widely recognized as meeting democratic standards.

As no single candidate had received 50% or more votes in the first-round ballot the two highest polling candidates, Viktor Yanukovych (35.32%) and Yulia Tymoshenko (25.05%) progressed to the second final run-off ballot which was held on 7 February 2010.

Ukraine's incumbent president, Viktor Yushchenko, with 5.45% support, came in fifth place behind Serhiy Tihipko and Arseniy Yatsenyuk who had each respectively received 13.05% and 6.69% of the vote.

Peter Simonenko, Volodymyr Lytvyn, Oleh Tyahnybok and Anatoliy Hrytsenko all scored between 4 and 1% of the votes. The remaining nine candidates for the presidency gained less than 1% of the votes.[146]

Second-round ballot[edit]

The second round of voting between Viktor Yanukovych and Yulia Tymoshenko took place on 7 February 2010. Exit polls indicated that Yanukovych had been elected, with the National Election Poll placing him first at 48.7% of the vote to Tymoshenko's 45.5%.[147]

With 100% of the ballots counted, the tally was 12,481,268 votes for Yanukovich (48.95%) and 11,593,340 votes for Tymoshenko (45.47%), giving Yanukovich a lead of 3.48%.[148] There were 1.19% invalid votes and 4.36% of voters chose to vote "Against all" (candidates).[148] In Kyiv, the number of voter choosing "Against all" was close to 8%.[149] 25.5 million Ukrainians voted in the second round.[150]

The Ukrainian Central Election Commission and international observers found no evidence of significant electoral fraud and said that the voting and counting was fair.[151] Tymoshenko's party said that it would challenge the result in 1,000 of the country's 30,000 ballot boxes (as many as 900,000 ballots – enough to make a difference in the outcome[152]), claiming that the counting process was unfair.[151] Violations cited by Tymoshenko's camp included home voting and the busing of voters to polling stations,[152] which was explicitly permitted by law.

Yanukovich's party activists rallied outside the buildings of the Higher Administrative Court of Ukraine and the Kyiv Administrative Court of Appeals the days after the second round of the election.[153]

A few days after the election, Yanukovich received congratulations from the leaders of Armenia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bulgaria, China, Egypt, Estonia, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Israel, Italy, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Libya, Lithuania, Moldova, the Netherlands, Paraguay, Poland, Portugal, Russia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Tajikistan, Turkey the United Kingdom, the United States, Uzbekistan, NATO and the European Union.[154][155][156][157][158] Still, Tymoshenko refused to concede defeat, and Tymoshenko's party promised to challenge the result.[159] On 17 February 2010, the Administrative Court of Ukraine, suspended the results of the election on Yulia Tymoshenko's appeal. The court suspended the Central Election Commission of Ukraine ruling that announced that Viktor Yanukovych won the election.[18][19] Tymoshenko withdrew her appeal on 20 February 2010, after the Higher Administrative Court in Kyiv rejected her petition to scrutinize documents from election districts in Crimea and also to question election and law-enforcement officials.[6] The same day (20 February) Tymoshenko announced that she will not challenge the results of the second round of the presidential election in the Supreme Court of Ukraine since she believed there were no legal provisions for such an appeal,[160] although Tymoshenko also stated "an honest court will assess that Yanukovych wasn't elected President of Ukraine, and that the will of the people had been rigged".[21]

Voting analysis showed that during the election creases started to emerge across the traditional geographical voters patterns. Tymoshenko made inroads in Yanukovych's traditional east and south Ukraine base of support, whereas Yanukovych did the same in Tymoshenko's traditional west and central Ukraine base of support.[161] More women voted for Yanukovych than for Tymoshenko.[162]

Exit polls[edit]

All exit polls conducted during the final round of voting reported a win for Viktor Yanukovych over Yulia Tymoshenko.[163][164][165]

Polling agency Viktor Yanukovych Yulia Tymoshenko
National Exit Poll 48.7 45.5
TRK Ukraina 48.6 45.7
ICTV 49.8 45.2
SOCIS 49.6 44.5
FOM Center for Social and Marketing Research 49.7 44.6
Research & Branding group 50.2 44.0
Interfax-Ukraine 51.0 41.0

Issues[edit]

The list of major issues raised in the campaign included

According to the Director of the Penta Center for Political Studies Volodymyr Fesenko there were only small differences in the election programs of the various candidates.[170]

Fraud suspicions and accusations[edit]

According to all international organizations observing the election, allegations of electoral fraud in relation to the first-round ballot were unfounded; they declared that the conduct of the elections was within internationally recognized democratic standards and a testament to the will of the people of Ukraine.[171][172][173]

A December 2009 poll found that 82 percent of Ukrainians expected vote rigging, those fears were shared by some election observers, both international and domestic. The latter also fearing the lack of an independent exit poll; which they see as essential to deterring vote fraud.[174]

Yulia Tymoshenko, Ukraine's Prime-minister and one of the main candidates who sought election in the poll stated that: "We will not challenge any election returns to avoid tremors, which may bring about instability in this country. If the people elect their president, and this is not Yulia Tymoshenko, I will take this choice easy, for sure"[175]

Former President Leonid Kuchma also excluded the possibility of a third-round ballot. According to Kuchma, "during the election campaign in 2004 the decision about holding the third round was political and it will not be repeated. The 2004 decision was an exclusion from a rule".[176]

Viktor Baloha, former presidential secretary under Viktor Yushchenko stated:

"Alarming declarations about the likely vote rigging directly point to organizational weaknesses of some candidates as the law allows for reliable barriers against any electoral fraud. For instance, any presidential candidate can send his two representatives to sit on local and regional electoral commissions, appoint observers to keep an eye on voting and counting of ballots. Proxies of candidates who have wide authority can also supervise the course of the voting". "There are more than enough supervisory tools. Other effective barriers to electoral fraud are the Central Election Commission [whose members are appointed by major parliamentary parties on a quota principle] and numerous international observers. Mass media and NGOs, notably, the Committee of Voters of Ukraine, will also be effective in helping to curb fraud. Of great importance for establishing the final tally are also exit polls run by respected polling companies.they will all be used during the campaign." adding that "All the more so that there are 18 presidential candidates, some having considerable weight. That is why any declarations about the likely fraud are just attempts to justify a defeat of those who make them. Note that those candidates who are selling themselves as strong-willed and tough are most given to such declarations. In fact, such declarations expose them as would-be losers and outsiders"[177]

Candidates Victor Yanukovych and Yulia Tymoshenko both accused the other of intending to use vote rigging to win the election during the election campaign.[178][179] Early January 2010 Ukrainian President Viktor Yushchenko warned that there is a real threat of "administrative pressure" being applied during the counting of votes at the presidential election. Viktor Yushchenko without providing any details has alleged that the highest threat of falsification in the first round will be applied by Yulia Tymoshenko Bloc; "because candidate Viktor Yanukovych will enter the second round in any case".[180]

Allegations were made that Viktor Yushchenko had made a deal with Viktor Yanukovych in order to secure a number of political positions for members of his team in exchange for supporting Viktor Yanukovych's campaign [181] Concern has been expressed that Viktor Yushchenko had tried to prevent news of the deal from being published by declaring it a State Secret.[182]

A joint poll conducted by Democratic Initiatives and Ukrainian Sociology Service of January 2010 showed that less than 5% of the polled believed that the presidential election would be fair with 41.4% of respondents that believed that the election results could be manipulated and 15.7% being certain that the entire vote would be rigged.[183] According to the same poll 5.8% of those polled stated they were ready to sell their votes if the sum suited them and 1.9% of the respondents were ready to sell their votes for any presidential candidates and for any funds.[184]

A voter casting more than one ballot, or selling their vote, could have faced as much as two years jail time.[185]

Opinion polls[edit]

2 January 2010 was the beginning of the 15-day media blackout on reporting of election polls before the 17 January first-round election.[186]

A poll released 15 December 2009 by the International Foundation for Electoral Systems has indicated that Viktor Yanukovych (31%) as the most likely to win the presidential election in a contest with Yulia Tymoshenko (19%).[187] All other candidates were below 5% with Victor Yushchenko on 3.5% with a negativity rating of 83%. The survey also indicated that Ukrainians are pessimistic about the socio-political situation in the country. Seventy-four percent believe Ukraine is on a path toward instability and more than nine in ten Ukrainians are dissatisfied with the economic (96%) and political situation (92%) in the country.

According to other recent opinion polls, the Party of Regions candidate Viktor Yanukovych (25.0% to 33.3%) was placed first among viable presidential candidates, with Prime Minister Yulia Tymoshenko (15.5% to 18.4%) coming in second, and Front for Change candidate Arseniy Yatsenyuk (6.7% to 14.5%) in third place. Incumbent President, Viktor Yushchenko (2.0% to 3.8%) following his decline in popularity with the Ukrainian public comes in at a distant sixth place behind leader of the Communist Party Petro Symonenko (3.4% to 4.5%) and Parliamentary speaker Volodymyr Lytvyn (1.4% to 5.8%).[188][189]

A survey conducted by U.S.-based International Foundation for Electoral Systems and financed by the United States Agency for International Development (21–29 November) lists Viktor Yushchenko as the highest negativity rating (83%) and Viktor Yanukovych with the most positive rating (42%) [190]

An opinion poll conducted by FOM-Ukraine in September/October 2009 expected the turnout to be at least 85.1%.[191] The poll carried out by the Oleksandr Yaremenko Institute for Social Research in December 2009 predicted (at least) a 70% turnout.[192]

Media were prohibited by Ukrainian law from reporting the results of public opinion polls for the election (starting) from 2 January until election day on 17 January 2010.[193]

First-round polls[edit]

Pollster Date Margin of error Sample size
Viktor Yanukovych official portrait.jpg
Yanukovych
PoR
Yulia Tymoshenko 2008.jpg
Tymoshenko
YTB
Сергій Тигіпко.jpg
Tihipko
SU
Arseniy Yatsenyuk 2011-09-28.jpg
Yatsenyuk
FFC
Flickr - Saeima - Latviju oficiālā vizītē apmeklē Ukrainas parlamenta priekšsēdētājs (13) (cropped).jpg
Lytvyn
LB
Портрет 3-го президента України Віктора Ющенка (cropped).jpeg
Yushchenko
OU
Symonenko Petr.png
Symonenko
CPU
Inna Bohoslovska 2.jpg
Bohoslovska
Viche
Moroz 2003 (cropped 2).jpg
Moroz
SPU
Oleh Tyahnybok 2013.jpg
Tyahnybok
AUUF
Msc 2006-Saturday, 16.00 - 18.00-Grytsenko.jpg
Hrytsenko
OU
Others Against all Will not vote Not sure
2007
FOM-Ukraine[194] 14–23 Dec 2007 ±2.2pp 2,000 39.3 39.9 5.0 5.8 8.0 2.0
2008
FOM-Ukraine 25 Dec2 Jan 2008 24.4 19.8 12.7 7.9 7.2 15.1
Razumkov Centre 31 Dec5 Jan 20.0 24.8 3.1 13.1 3.7 0.8 6.1 8.0 18.1
USS[195] 16 Apr4 May 2,010 27.0 26.0 6.0 8.0 33.0
SOCIS[196] 30 Aug8 Sep ±2.2pp 2,040 25.1 26.0 2.6 4.9 6.5 4.3 0.9 0.4 1.3 7.9 11.0 8.1
ISPP[197] 24–30 Nov ±2.0pp 2,000 20.7 17.9 4.6 3.8 3.9 5.0 0.5 0.9 0.4 41.5
Razumkov Centre[198] 17–24 Dec ±2.3pp 2,017 19.8 15.8 6.6 5.4 4.5 5.3 0.5 2.1 40.4
2009
R&BG[199] 1–9 Apr ±2.2pp 2,078 27.9 15.6 13.4 5.5 1.9 3.8 6.9 9.0 8.6 7.4
KMIS[200] 3–12 Apr 1,984 25.6 14.4 13.6 2.9 2.4 3.3 11.1 9.4 13.6
FOM-Ukraine[201] 13–25 Apr ±4.0pp 1,000 21.9 15.3 13.8 3.5 2.2 4.3 0.4 2.3 10.4 5.6 12.6
FOM-Ukraine[202] 17–26 May ±4.0pp 1,000 26.6 16.2 12.8 2.9 1.9 3.4 36.2
R&BG[203] 12–22 Jun ±2.2pp 2,079 26.8 16.8 12.3 3.9 2.1 3.5 3.0 2.0 16.6 9.0 6.8
UPS[204] 20–21 Jun ±2.0pp 2,511 24.0 12.8 5.7 8.7 2.9 3.5 <1 1.9 <1 40.5
SOCIS[205] 24 Jul4 Aug ±2.8pp 2,000 25.0 20.5 1.4 14.5 5.9 3.8 3.7 1.3 1.5 2.6 19.8
R&BG[206] 4–14 Aug ±2.2pp 3,011 26.0 16.5 12.6 4.2 2.0 4.5 7.3 9.9 6.6 10.4
SOCIS[207] 20 Sep1 Oct ±1.5pp 5,009 28.7 19.0 2.6 8.2 2.8 2.8 3.6 0.8 1.0 0.7 0.2 9.4 20.3
FOM-Ukraine[208] 26 Sep4 Oct ±4pp 1,000 26.8 15.6 1.6 9.3 1.4 2.2 4.0 15.2 6.7 6.7
R&BG[209] 12–31 Oct ±2.2pp 3,118 31.0 18.4 3.6 9.6 2.3 3.5 3.5 3.0 6.8 6.8 9.0
R&BG[210] 17–25 Nov ±2.2pp 3,108 32.4 16.3 4.4 6.1 4.5 3.5 3.8 1.6 7.5 4.3 15.9
KIIS[211] 21–29 Nov ±2.5pp 1,502 31.2 19.1 4.8 4.7 2.8 3.5 3.8 0.7 1.8 0.7 2.4 7.9 5.0 11.6
FOM-Ukraine[212] 22–30 Nov ±3.2pp 1,000 29.8 14.8 5.7 4.8 2.5 4.3 2.9 12.7
R&BG[213] 5–13 Dec ±1.8pp 3,038 33.3 16.6 7.4 6.7 4.1 3.8 3.4 3.2 9.0 3.5 9.0

Runoff polls[edit]

Pollster Date Margin of error Sample size
Viktor Yanukovych official portrait.jpg
Yanukovych
PoR
Yulia Tymoshenko 2008.jpg
Tymoshenko
YTB
Others Against all Will not vote Not sure
2008
USS[195] 16 Apr4 May 2,010 41.0 44.0 15.0
SOCIS[196] 30 Aug8 Sep ±2.2pp 2,040 34.6 32.7 0.9 32.7
2009
R&BG[199] 1–9 Apr ±2.2pp 2,078 38.4 29.3 19.0 8.2 5.0
R&BG[203] 12–22 Jun ±2.2pp 2,079 38.8 28.8 16.6 9.0 6.8
SOCIS[205] 24 Jul4 Aug ±2.8pp 2,000 26.1 24.4 49.5
R&BG[206] 4–14 Aug ±2.2pp 3,011 39.6 28.0 19.0 6.8 6.4
SOCIS[207] 20 Sep1 Oct ±1.5pp 5,009 40.3 32.6 17 1.4 8.8
R&BG[209] 12–31 Oct ±2.2pp 3,118 41.9 29.8 28.3
R&BG[210] 17–25 Nov ±2.2pp 3,108 47.4 28.1 4.5 7.5
KIIS[211] 21–29 Nov ±2.5pp 1,502 42.0 28.0 18.0 12.0
FOM-Ukraine[212] 22–30 Nov ±3.2pp 1,000 41.0 25.2 20.7 13.1
R&BG[213] 5–13 Dec ±1.8pp 3,038 46.7 30.0 13.2 3.6 6.5

International observers[edit]

The Ukrainian Foreign Ministry expected (in November 2009) that some 600 international observers would be monitoring the elections.[214] The Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) will send around 60 long-term and 600 short-term observers to Ukraine to monitor the presidential elections, Ukraine had submitted an invitation to the OSCE to monitor the elections.[215] This electoral observation mission is headed by Portuguese politician João Soares, President of the OSCE Parliamentary Assembly. The OSCE/ODIHR long term observation mission was officially opened on 26 November 2009.[216] On 12 January 2009, the OSCE where not satisfied with the level of funding for salaries and transport services.[217]

The European Union member-states will send over 700 observers to monitor the elections.[218] The Canada Ukraine Foundation[219] (a Canadian NGO[220]) and the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe (PACE) will also send observers.[221] The PACE delegation is led by Hungarian politician Mátyás Eörsi.[222] Late November the PACE delegation was sceptical the elections would meet the organization's standards.[222] On 8 December 2009, Renate Wohlwend, co-rapporteur of PACE stated that PACE might continue to monitor Ukrainian politics after the country's presidential election.[223] Wohlwend had also called on the Ukrainian parliament to amend a law on the presidential elections as soon as possible. Wohlwend expressed concern over the inclusion of a provision in Ukraine's electoral legislation giving the election commission the right to amend the electoral rolls on the day of the ballot. She expressed concern this could allow the rigging of the election results.[224]

The Polish European Center of Geopolitical Analysis did send 20 observers to monitor signs of xenophobia during the presidential election campaign.[225]

On 9 December 2009, candidate Victor Yanukovych at a meeting with an OSCE election observation mission stated that he is afraid Prime Minister Yulia Tymoshenko might rig the presidential election.[226]

A total of 450 official observers from the European Network of Election Monitoring Organizations (ENEMO) will monitor the elections.[227]

Paweł Kowal lead the delegation of the European Parliament's observers; this delegation included ten people, who cooperated closely with the delegations of observers from the OSCE Parliamentary Assembly, the Council of Europe, the NATO Parliamentary Assembly, and the OSCE Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights (ODIHR).[228]

A total of 3,149 international observers did monitor the 17 January presidential election in Ukraine.[229][230]

On 18 January 2010, the OSCE announced it would send same number of observers to monitor Ukraine's second round of the election as in the first round.[231] At the same time it called for bringing Ukraine's election laws in line with international norms[232] but nevertheless it endorsed the first round of the Ukrainian presidential poll, saying it was of "high quality" and demonstrated "significant progress".[233]

After the second round of the election international observers and the OSCE called the election transparent and honest.[159]

According to Serhiy Paskhalov, the head of presidential candidate Yulia Tymoshenko's main campaign office in Dnipropetrovsk, international observers were physically unable to register mass irregularities in the second round of the presidential election. According to Paskhalov six foreign observers had monitored the run-off presidential election at 469 polling stations in six electoral districts in Dnipropetrovsk region.[234]

Results[edit]

Nominations by parties and candidates to run in the election closed on 6 November 2009.[48] Eighteen candidates in all have been nominated. The Central Election Committee had until 11 November 2009 to process documentation and finalize the election list.

The first round of the election was held on 17 January 2010. Voter turnout was approximately 67 percent, compared to 75 percent at the 2004 presidential election. Incumbent president Viktor Yushchenko was defeated having received only 5.45% of the vote.[235][236][237] Viktor Yanukovych and Yulia Tymoshenko[238] finished first and second in the first round and faced each other in the second-round ballot held on 7 February. Voter turnout in the second round was approximately 69%. On 14 February, with all second round votes counted, Yanukovich was officially declared a winner of the election with 48.95%, compared to Tymoshenko's 45.47%.[238]

The election has been widely recognized and endorsed as being fair and an accurate reflection of voters' intentions by all international agencies observing the election including the OSCE and PACE.[239][240]

Summary of the 17 January and 7 February 2010 Ukrainian presidential election results
Candidates Nominating party First round[241] Second round[242]
Votes % Votes %
Viktor Yanukovych Party of Regions 8,686,642 35.32 12,481,266 48.95
Yulia Tymoshenko All-Ukrainian Union "Fatherland" 6,159,810 25.05 11,593,357 45.47
Serhiy Tihipko Strong Ukraine 3,211,198 13.05
Arseniy Yatsenyuk Self-nominated 1,711,737 6.96
Viktor Yushchenko Self-nominated 1,341,534 5.45
Petro Symonenko Communist Party of Ukraine 872,877 3.54
Volodymyr Lytvyn People's Party 578,883 2.35
Oleh Tyahnybok All-Ukrainian Union "Freedom" 352,282 1.43
Anatoliy Hrytsenko Self-nominated 296,412 1.20
Inna Bohoslovska Self-nominated 102,435 0.41
Oleksandr Moroz Socialist Party of Ukraine 95,169 0.38
Yuriy Kostenko Ukrainian People's Party 54,376 0.22
Liudmyla Suprun People's Democratic Party 47,349 0.19
Vasily Protyvsih Self-nominated 40,352 0.16
Oleksandr Pabat Self-nominated 35,474 0.14
Serhiy Ratushniak Self-nominated 29,795 0.12
Mykhaylo Brodskyy Self-nominated 14,991 0.06
Oleh Riabokon Self-nominated 8,334 0.03
Against all 542,819 2.20 1,113,055 4.36
Invalid 405,799 1.65 305,851 1.19
Total 24,588,268 100.00 25,493,529 100.00
Source: Central Election Commission of Ukraine

Electoral maps[edit]

Maps showing the top five candidates support in the first round of voting percentage of total national vote
Viktor Yanukovych (first round) – percentage of total national vote (35.33%)
Yulia Tymoshenko (first round) – percentage of total national vote (25.05%)
Sergei Tigipko (first round) – percentage of total national vote (13.06%)
Arseniy Yatsenyuk (first round) – percentage of total national vote (6.96%)
Viktor Yushchenko (first round) – percentage of total national vote (5.46%)
Total vote distribution (first round) – percentage of total national vote
Maps showing the distribution of voter support in the final round of the election – percentage of total national vote
Viktor Yanukovych 7 February 2010 results (48.96%)
Yulia Tymoshenko 7 February 2010 results (45.48%)

Note: The above maps are based on the percentage of the national vote and as such is an accurate representation of the results of the election as each region is shown in relation to the overall result.

References[edit]

  1. ^ CEC official declaration of the 2010 Presidential election[permanent dead link], Central Election Commission of Ukraine
  2. ^ Update: Yanukovych to be sworn in, rival fights on Archived 12 June 2012 at the Wayback Machine, Kyiv Post (14 February 2010)
  3. ^ https://www.nytimes.com/2010/02/18/world/europe/18ukraine.html Archived 10 November 2014 at the Wayback Machine High Court in Ukraine Weighs Appeal on Election
  4. ^ "Ukrainian election results suspended on appeal". Archived from the original on 21 February 2010. Retrieved 11 December 2018.
  5. ^ "Ukrainian election result suspended after PM's appeal". Archived from the original on 28 February 2017. Retrieved 17 February 2010.
  6. ^ a b c Ukraine Prime Minister Drops Election Challenge Archived 16 January 2023 at the Wayback Machine, The New York Times (20 February 2010)
  7. ^ Marson, James (18 January 2010). "Ukrainian Presidential Election Set for Runoff". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 16 January 2023. Retrieved 18 January 2010.
  8. ^ Analysts say exit poll results favor Tymoshenko win on Feb. 7, Kyiv Post (18 January 2010)
  9. ^ http://finchannel.com/Main_News/Ukraine/56415_Yanukovych_Unwilling_To_Debate_Tymoshenko_At_Runoff_Election_/ Archived 4 April 2019 at the Wayback Machine , The Financial (1 February 2010)
  10. ^ (in Ukrainian)Regular elections of the President of Ukraine 17/01/2010 Archived 2010-01-21 at the Wayback Machine, Central Election Commission of Ukraine
  11. ^ Turchynov: vote rigging in favor of Yanukovych was systematic, large-scale Archived 9 June 2012 at the Wayback Machine, Kyiv Post (10 February 2009)
  12. ^ Nataliya Korolevska: victory will be ours Archived 2014-08-15 at the Wayback Machine, Yulia Tymoshenko official website (8 February 2009)
  13. ^ Andriy Shevchenko: whole gamut of fraud in Donbas Archived 2014-08-15 at the Wayback Machine, Yulia Tymoshenko official website (8 February 2009)
  14. ^ a b Ukraine election: Yanukovych urges Tymoshenko to quit Archived 12 August 2018 at the Wayback Machine, BBC News (10 February 2009)
  15. ^ "Yanukovych opts for Borys Kolesnykov to become premier" Archived 21 October 2014 at the Wayback Machine, Z I K (9 February 2010)
  16. ^ Yanukovych does not rule out Tigipko as prime minister Archived 12 June 2012 at the Wayback Machine, Kyiv Post (15 February 2010)
  17. ^ Update: Ukraine's Yanukovych to be sworn in on Feb. 25 Archived 12 June 2012 at the Wayback Machine, Kyiv Post (16 February 2010)
  18. ^ a b ["Ukrainian election results suspended on appeal". Associated Press. 17 February 2010. Archived from the original on 21 February 2010.
  19. ^ a b "Ukrainian election result suspended after PM's appeal". BBC News. 17 February 2010. Archived from the original on 28 February 2017. Retrieved 18 January 2016.
  20. ^ Yulia Tymoshenko will not challenge election results in Supreme Court Archived 2015-10-18 at the Wayback Machine, Official website of Yulia Tymoshenko (20 February 2009)
  21. ^ a b "Yulia Tymoshenko: sooner or later an honest court will assess the fraudulent 2010 elections". Yulia Tymoshenko Official website. 20 February 2010. Archived from the original on 25 February 2010.
  22. ^ "Voting for Yanukovych, but unenthusiastically", Kyiv Post (26 November 2009)
  23. ^ Yushchenko appeals parliament's decision to call presidential election for Oct. 25 Archived 16 January 2023 at the Wayback Machine, UNIAN (8 April 2009)
  24. ^ Ukraine court rules election date unconstitutional Archived 28 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine, PR-inside.com (13 May 2009)
  25. ^ Yanukovych agrees with Yushchenko on presidential election date, Interfax-Ukraine (14 May 2009)
  26. ^ Court declares unconstitutional parliament's resolution calling presidential polls for October 25, 2009, Interfax-Ukraine (13 May 2009)
  27. ^ Constitutional Court rules against presidential poll date Archived 16 January 2023 at the Wayback Machine, UNIAN (13 May 2009)
  28. ^ All doubles are eliminated – Lutsenko Archived 16 January 2023 at the Wayback Machine, UNIAN (21 September 2009)
  29. ^ a b Regions Party worried about numerous inaccuracies in state register of voters, Interfax-Ukraine (21 September 2009)
  30. ^ Presidential election gets under way in Ukraine Archived 3 June 2012 at the Wayback Machine, Kyiv Post (17 January 2010)
  31. ^ "Law on the election of the President of Ukraine article 85 (16)". Ukrainian legislature. Central Election Commission of Ukraine. Retrieved 21 August 2009.
  32. ^ Law on Presidential Elections, Central Election Commission of Ukraine (Ukrainian)
  33. ^ Law on Presidential Elections Archived 2009-10-14 at the Wayback Machine, Venice Commission
  34. ^ VR reduced term of presidential campaign from 120 to 90 days Archived 16 January 2023 at the Wayback Machine, UNIAN (24 July 2009)
  35. ^ Law on presidential elections will be amended during election campaign, says Yuschenko's secretariat, Kyiv Post (21 August 2009)
  36. ^ The interns of the Program of Internship at the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine and Central Executive Bodies for 2012-2013 learned the procedure of submission and passage of bills in the Verkhovna Rada Archived 28 September 2013 at the Wayback Machine, Verkhovna Rada (14 December 2012)
    Ukraine: Energy Policy Review 2006, International Energy Agency, 24 October 2006, ISBN 9264109919 (page 130)
  37. ^ Ukraine's presidential elections will not be disrupted, Kyiv Post (25 September 2009)
  38. ^ CEC formed 225 territorial election districts Archived 16 January 2023 at the Wayback Machine, UNIAN (19 October 2009)
  39. ^ Constitutional court rules on Law of President elections Archived 16 January 2023 at the Wayback Machine, UNIAN (20 October 2009)
  40. ^ Ruling 26/2009 Compliance with the Constitution of Ukraine (constitutionality) of certain provisions of laws of Ukraine "On elections of President of Ukraine" On State Register of Voters, "" On Amending Certain Legislative Acts of Ukraine on the presidential elections in Ukraine and the Code of Administrative Procedure Ukraine Archived 2011-07-28 at the Wayback Machine, Constitutional Court of Ukraine (19 October 2009)
  41. ^ Ukraine's CEC forms 113 foreign polling stations for presidential elections, Kyiv Post (22 December 2009)
  42. ^ Tymoshenko to appeal against CEC decision permitting home voting during presidential election Archived 8 January 2010 at the Wayback Machine, Kyiv Post (5 January 2010)
  43. ^ Presidential direct election to cost Ukraine over 1.5 billion UAH Archived 2011-07-11 at the Wayback Machine, For-ua (29 July 2009)
  44. ^ Central Election Commission cuts expenditure on presidential election by Hr 17.3 million Archived 6 June 2012 at the Wayback Machine, Kyiv Post (26 November 2009)
  45. ^ How much for today's president?, proUa (26 August 2009)
  46. ^ Presidential candidates will spend at least USD 1 billion on election campaign in Ukraine Archived 2011-07-11 at the Wayback Machine, ForUm (20 October 2009)
  47. ^ Run-off to take UAH 448.581, 119 million – CEC Archived 2012-02-25 at the Wayback Machine, UkrInform (28 January 2010)
  48. ^ a b Ukraine's presidential candidates to be nominated from Oct. 20 to Nov. 6 Archived 5 October 2009 at the Wayback Machine, Kyiv Post (2 October 2009)
  49. ^ "Official text (Ukrainian), CEC". Archived from the original on 7 June 2011. Retrieved 3 October 2009.
  50. ^ Foreign polling stations for Ukrainian presidential elections to be set up by Dec. 9, Kyiv Post (20 November 2009)
  51. ^ Candidates to be numbered in ballot paper for voting at elections Archived 2011-02-01 at the Wayback Machine, Kyiv Post (16 December 2009)
  52. ^ CEC registers seven more presidential candidates, including Poroshenko, Tymoshenko Archived 16 January 2023 at the Wayback Machine, Interfax-Ukraine (31 March 2014)
  53. ^ MP Bohoslovska quits Party of Regions Archived 16 January 2023 at the Wayback Machine, UNIAN (25 May 2009)
  54. ^ MP Bohoslovska nominates herself for president, Kyiv Post (20 October 2009)
  55. ^ "Bohoslovska Applies CEC For Registering Her President Candidate". Ukrainian News. UkraNews. Retrieved 23 October 2009.[permanent dead link]
  56. ^ "Leader Of Free Democrats Party Brodskyi Applies To CEC To Register Him Candidate For President". Ukrainian News. UkraNews. Archived from the original on 31 October 2009. Retrieved 20 October 2009.
  57. ^ a b "CEC registered two more candidates for the President UKRAINE". Central Election Commission of Ukraine. Central Election Commission of Ukraine. Archived from the original on 14 August 2011. Retrieved 2 November 2009.
  58. ^ "Hrytsenko joins the fight for the presidency". URA-Inform (in Russian). 28 May 2009. Archived from the original on 17 July 2011. Retrieved 15 June 2009.
  59. ^ On 16 October 2009, Anatoliy Hrytsenko claimed he had collected the ₴2.503 million required for him to register as a presidential candidate. Source: Hrytsenko collects UAH 2.5 million to register as presidential candidate Archived 2009-10-20 at the Wayback Machine, Interfax-Ukraine (16 October 2009)
  60. ^ Hrytsenko submits documents to register as presidential nominee Archived 2009-10-23 at the Wayback Machine, Interfax-Ukraine (21 October 2009)
  61. ^ a b Run-off in Ukraine's presidential election inevitable – analysts[permanent dead link], ITAR-TASS (19 October 2009)
  62. ^ Ukrainian People's Party nominates its leader Kostenko for president Archived 28 November 2010 at the Wayback Machine, Kyiv Post (24 October 2009)
  63. ^ "Ukraine presidential vote set for Jan. 17 | Taiwan News | 2009-06-23 20:13:59". 23 June 2009. Archived from the original on 4 June 2011. Retrieved 28 June 2009.
  64. ^ "Lytvyn Requests CEC To Register Him Candidate For President". Ukrainian News. UkraNews. Retrieved 23 October 2009.[permanent dead link]
  65. ^ http://kyivpost.com/news/politics/detail/51285/ Archived 24 October 2010 at the Wayback Machine, Kyiv Post (25 October 2009)
  66. ^ a b "CEC registered two more candidates for the President UKRAINE". Central Election Commission of Ukraine. Central Election Commission of Ukraine. Archived from the original on 14 August 2011. Retrieved 6 November 2009.
  67. ^ http://photo.unian.net/eng/themes/15200 Archived 28 September 2011 at the Wayback Machine, Unian.net (31 October 2009)
  68. ^ Central Election Commission registers Uzhgorod mayor as presidential candidate Archived 21 November 2009 at the Wayback Machine, Kyiv Post (13 November 2009)
  69. ^ Who is Oleh Riabokon: The biography of a Presidential Candidate , Who is who in Ukraine (27 October 2009)
  70. ^ First contender for Ukraine's presidency submits documents to CEC, Kyiv Post (20 October 2009)
  71. ^ "Communist leader Symonenko asks Central Election Commission to register him as presidential candidate". Ukrainian News. Kyiv Post. 21 October 2009. Retrieved 21 October 2009.
  72. ^ a b CEC registers two more candidates for Ukraine's president Archived 2009-11-09 at the Wayback Machine, Interfax-Ukraine (6 November 2009)
  73. ^ (in Ukrainian) Народно-демократическая партия подала в ЦИК документы для регистрации лидера НДП Людмилы Супрун кандидатом в президенты, People's Democratic Party (6 November 2009)
  74. ^ "PM Tymoshenko Applies CEC To Register Her Candidate For President". Ukrainian News. Ukrainian News. Retrieved 27 October 2009.[permanent dead link]
  75. ^ "CEC registered CANDIDATE PRESIDENT OF UKRAINE Yulia Tymoshenko". Central Election Commission of Ukraine. Central Election Commission of Ukraine. Archived from the original on 14 August 2011. Retrieved 31 October 2009.
  76. ^ "Tihipko may unite with Yatseniuk, Hrytsenko and Bohoslovska to nominate single candidate for presidential election". KyivPost. Kyiv Post. 19 August 2009. Retrieved 19 August 2009.
  77. ^ "Tigipko at the presidential elections will be supported by the Labour Party" (in Russian). Persho Dzherelo. Archived from the original on 6 May 2013. Retrieved 15 June 2009.
  78. ^ "Tigipko files documents at Central Election Commission to register as presidential candidate". Interfax-Ukraine. Kyiv Post. 23 October 2009. Retrieved 23 October 2009.
  79. ^ Sylna Ukrayina party to support Tihipko in presidential elections Archived 23 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine, Kyiv Post (28 November 2009)
  80. ^ "Nationalists put Tyahnybok out to become president". TSN.ua (in Ukrainian). May 24, 2009. Archived from the original on May 26, 2009. Retrieved June 15, 2009.
  81. ^ "Tiahnybok files documents at CEC to register as presidential candidate". Interfax (in Ukrainian). Kyiv Post. 27 October 2009. Archived from the original on 13 July 2011. Retrieved 27 October 2009.
  82. ^ "Homepage". The Next Big Step. nashkrok.org.ua. Archived from the original on 9 April 2009. Retrieved 15 June 2009.
  83. ^ "Yushchenko registered as a nominee for presidential election". ForUm. Archived from the original on 3 November 2009. Retrieved 27 October 2009.
  84. ^ Party Of Regions Nominates Yanukovych As Its Presidential Candidate Archived 2012-08-14 at the Wayback Machine, Ukrainian News (23 October 2009)
  85. ^ CEC to consider Yanukovych's registration as presidential candidate on Wednesday Archived 5 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine, Kyiv Post (27 October 2009)
  86. ^ "Arseniy Yatsenyuk will be on the ballot for the President of Ukraine". Lenta.ru (in Russian). Rambler Media Group. 4 June 2009. Archived from the original on 6 April 2009. Retrieved 15 June 2009.
  87. ^ Taras Kuzio (4 April 2009). "Yatsenyuk, a Yushchenko clone, will bring stagnation". Kyiv Post. Archived from the original on 22 July 2014. Retrieved 18 January 2016.
  88. ^ "The Rise And Fall (And Rise?) Of Arseniy Yatsenyuk". Andrew Wilson. Radio Free Europe. Archived from the original on 21 October 2009. Retrieved 18 September 2009.
  89. ^ "Yatseniuk registers as presidential candidate". Interfax-Ukraine. Kyiv Post. 21 October 2009. Retrieved 21 October 2009.
  90. ^ 16 applications have been rejected for registration as presidential candidates Archived 6 November 2009 at the Wayback Machine, Kyiv Post (13 November 2009)
  91. ^ CEC Refuses To Register Kulychenko, Subbotin, Polyschuk, Honcharenko, Melnyk As Presidential Candidates[permanent dead link], Ukrainian News (30 October 2009)
  92. ^ CEC denies registration to four more contenders for Ukraine's presidency Archived 6 November 2009 at the Wayback Machine, Kyiv Post (3 November 2009)
  93. ^ (in Russian) Украина обречена либо на распад, либо на революцию. Для украинской власти Конституция Украины – туалетная бумажка. Заявление Лидера ПСПУ Наталии Витренко Archived 2019-09-16 at the Wayback Machine, Official website of Natalia Vitrenko (11 November 2009)
  94. ^ Eighteen to run for Ukraine's presidency Archived 29 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine, Interfax-Ukraine (12 November 2009)
  95. ^ (in Ukrainian) Від анти-кризи до армійських наметів та "фашистської загрози" Archived 2009-09-06 at the Wayback Machine, Ukrayinska Pravda (3 September 2009)
  96. ^ a b c Eurasia Daily Monitor, The Jamestown Foundation—October 1, 2009—Volume 6, Issue 180 Archived 11 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine, The Jamestown Foundation (1 October 2009)
  97. ^ See how they run Archived 2009-09-14 at the Wayback Machine, proUA (2 September 2009)
  98. ^ "Surviving the Crisis in Ukraine (American Progress Forum Video)". Center for American Progress. 30 July 2009. Archived from the original on 11 August 2009. Retrieved 19 August 2009.
  99. ^ "Poll: Ukraine president's chances of re-election slim". Kyiv Post. 20 October 2009. Retrieved 20 September 2009.
  100. ^ "Yatsenyuk will be on the ballot for the office of President of Ukraine". Korrespondent.net. 5 April 2009. Archived from the original on 7 April 2009. Retrieved 7 April 2009.
  101. ^ "Presidential race: Young candidate so far not candidate of the young". Kyiv Post. 13 August 2009. Archived from the original on 19 August 2009. Retrieved 13 August 2009.
  102. ^ Yushchenko plots his premier's removal Archived 21 November 2008 at the Wayback Machine, Oxford Analytica (11 March 2008)
  103. ^ Tymoshenko accuses Yuschenko of obstructing executive authorities' teamwork Archived 15 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine, Interfax-Ukraine (6 February 2009)
  104. ^ Yuschenko demands immediate amendments to 2009 budget to save Ukraine's economy – televised address to nation Archived 15 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine, Interfax-Ukraine (30 January 2009)
  105. ^ Yushchenko, Tymoshenko criticize each other (photo-report) Archived 13 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine, UNIAN (11 February 2009)
  106. ^ Agreement with Russia threatens Ukraine's security – President Archived 13 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine, UNIAN (10 February 2009)
  107. ^ Presidential secretariat considers PM's report "theatrical performance" Archived 15 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine, Interfax-Ukraine (5 February 2009)
  108. ^ Yushchenko calls on Oblast leaders to work out joint plan of actions Archived 15 June 2009 at the Wayback Machine, UNIAN (10 June 2009)
  109. ^ Tymoshenko: Political Competition Accounts For Conflict With Yuschenko Archived 2012-03-15 at the Wayback Machine, Ukrainian News Agency (11 February 2009)
  110. ^ Ukrainian speaker condemns Kyiv's internal bickering Archived 13 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine, UNIAN, (11 February 2009)
  111. ^ Yuschenko Called On Politicians To Stop Presidential Election Campaign Until July[permanent dead link], Ukrainian News Agency (27 February 2009)
  112. ^ Interview with the president Archived 27 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine, Kyiv Post (25 February 2009)
  113. ^ Tymoshenko: Yushchenko, Yatseniuk, and Yanukovych have one headquarters for three Archived 13 August 2011 at the Wayback Machine, UNIAN (16 June 2009)
  114. ^ Yuschenko and Yatseniuk are 'technical candidates' for Yanukovych, says Tymoshenko Archived 15 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine, Interfax-Ukraine (16 June 2009)
  115. ^ Tymoshenko Says Yuschenko To Be Yatseniuk's Technical Candidate[permanent dead link], Ukrainian News Agency (16 June 2009)
  116. ^ Tymoshenko says "there is team work" between her and President Archived 24 June 2009 at the Wayback Machine, UNIAN (22 June 2009)
  117. ^ Address to the President of Ukraine Victor Yushchenko Archived 2009-08-15 at the Wayback Machine, Kremlin.ru (11 August 2009)
  118. ^ Relations between Russia and Ukraine: a New Era Must Begin Archived 2009-04-30 at the Wayback Machine, Video – Russian President (11 August 2009)
  119. ^ UPDATE 3-Russia's Medvedev wades into Ukraine polls, Reuters (August 11, 2009)
  120. ^ Medvedev lambasts Ukraine leader Archived 14 August 2009 at the Wayback Machine, BBC News (11 August 2009)
  121. ^ No hope for normalizing relations with Russia under current leadership, says Ukraine's opposition leader Archived 15 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine, Interfax-Ukraine (11 August 2009)
  122. ^ Medvedev's statement shows Russia wants to impact presidential campaign in Ukraine, says pro-Yuschenko MP Archived 15 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine, Interfax-Ukraine (11 August 2009)
  123. ^ Yatseniuk says Yuschenko has given grounds to call his policy anti-Russian Archived 15 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine, Interfax-Ukraine (11 August 2009)
  124. ^ Medvedev's statement may be 'to Yuschenko's advantage,' says Tihipko Archived 15 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine, Interfax-Ukraine (11 August 2009)
  125. ^ Medvedev's message to Yuschenko could be used in election campaign to split Ukraine, says speaker Archived 15 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine, Interfax-Ukraine (11 August 2009)
  126. ^ Artist included Ruslana, Oleksandr Ponomaryov, Ani Lorak, Potap and Nastia Kamenskikh, Tina Karol, Natalia Mogilevska, Iryna Bilyk, TIK, TNMK, "Druha Rika", Mad Heads XL. See the concert here [1] Archived 2009-09-22 at the Wayback Machine
  127. ^ Events by themes: Allukrainian round "With Ukraine in a heart!" Archived 21 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine. UNIAN
  128. ^ Mogilevska went to Tymoshenko Archived 19 September 2009 at the Wayback Machine, UNIAN (11 September 2008)
  129. ^ Four parties unite to participate in presidential election Archived 2012-02-29 at the Wayback Machine, Interfax-Ukraine (14 September 2009)
  130. ^ Bloc of left and center-left forces to nominate CPU Leader for Ukraine's president Archived 14 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine, Interfax-Ukraine (3 October 2009)
  131. ^ Western Ukrainian intelligentsia calls on candidates for president to withdraw in favor of Tymoshenko Archived 2012-03-14 at the Wayback Machine, Interfax-Ukraine (1 October 2009)
  132. ^ Vannykova: Yuschenko warns against attempts to monopolize radio and TV broadcasting, Kyiv Post (6 October 2009)
  133. ^ Social-Democratic Party supports Symonenko as single candidate for president post from left political forces, Kyiv Post (17 October 2009)
  134. ^ Parliament votes to remove Immunity Archived 23 October 2009 at the Wayback Machine, UNIAN (20 October 2009)
  135. ^ Yatseniuk loses fresh-face label, popularity after his financial backers exposed, Kyiv Post (22 October 2009)
  136. ^ Flu epidemic in Ukraine may require postponement of elections Archived 13 November 2010 at the Wayback Machine, Kyiv Post (6 November 2009)
  137. ^ WHO experts forecast three waves of A/H1N1 flu in Ukraine Archived 8 November 2009 at the Wayback Machine, Kyiv Post (6 November 2009)
  138. ^ Emergency ministry sees no grounds for state of emergency Archived 8 November 2009 at the Wayback Machine, Kyiv Post (6 November 2009)
  139. ^ Yushchenko: there are no grounds for state of emergency Archived 12 November 2009 at the Wayback Machine, UNIAN (9 November 2009)
  140. ^ Ukraine president: no reason to delay vote over flu Archived 11 November 2009 at the Wayback Machine, UNIAN (9 November 2009)
  141. ^ Yushchenko to back Yanukovych in runoffs Archived 19 November 2009 at the Wayback Machine, ZIK (11 November 2009)
  142. ^ National Council: Ukrainian TV and radio companies not giving equal conditions to presidential candidates Archived 1 February 2011 at the Wayback Machine, Kyiv Post (3 December 2009)
  143. ^ EPP calls on Ukraine's democratic forces to unite around most democratic candidate Archived 13 December 2009 at the Wayback Machine, Interfax-Ukraine (9 December 2009)
  144. ^ Yanukovych vows to gather people on Maidan if election results are rigged Archived 15 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine, Interfax-Ukraine (11 December 2009)
  145. ^ BYT proposes discussing form of government, constitutional amendments to referendum Archived 18 February 2010 at the Wayback Machine Kyiv Post ,15 February 2010
  146. ^ (in Ukrainian) ЦВК оприлюднила офіційні результати 1-го туру виборів Archived 21 October 2014 at the Wayback Machine, Gazeta.ua (25 January 2010)
  147. ^ "Ukrainian elections: anything possible". Archived from the original on 20 February 2010. Retrieved 8 November 2010.
  148. ^ a b "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 21 January 2010. Retrieved 10 February 2010.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  149. ^ Vote spoils Ukraine's EU, NATO hopes[permanent dead link], Ottawa Citizen (10 February 2010)
  150. ^ Is Ukraine ready to vote? Archived 7 October 2015 at the Wayback Machine, The Washington Post (18 May 2014)
  151. ^ a b "Ukraine instability fears as Tymoshenko plans next move". Archived from the original on 16 January 2023. Retrieved 10 February 2010.
  152. ^ a b Tymoshenko cries foul: What's her case? Archived 14 February 2010 at the Wayback Machine, Kyiv Post (10 February 2010)
  153. ^ Regions Party puts activists patrol near two courts in Kyiv Archived 12 February 2010 at the Wayback Machine, Kyiv Post (10 February 2010)
  154. ^ "Obama praises level of democratic development in Ukraine - Feb. 11, 2010". 11 February 2010. Archived from the original on 31 January 2011. Retrieved 12 February 2010.
  155. ^ "Сайт www.partyofregions.org.ua не настроен на сервере". Partyofregions.org.ua. Archived from the original on 13 February 2010. Retrieved 8 March 2022.
  156. ^ NATO, EU follow U.S., welcome Yanukovych Archived 1 February 2011 at the Wayback Machine, Kyiv Post (12 February 2010)
  157. ^ "Януковича поздравили еще 5 президентов". Archived from the original on 13 August 2011. Retrieved 15 February 2010.
  158. ^ "Продолжается поток поздравлений в адрес Януковича". Archived from the original on 14 June 2011. Retrieved 15 February 2010.
  159. ^ a b Ukraine's Tymoshenko Slams Rival, No Comment On Election Result Archived 3 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty (11 February 2010)
  160. ^ Yulia Tymoshenko will not challenge election results in Supreme Court Archived 2015-10-18 at the Wayback Machine, Official website of Yulia Tymoshenko (20 February 2009)
  161. ^ Election winner lacks strong voter mandate Archived 17 February 2010 at the Wayback Machine, Kyiv Post (11 February 2010)
  162. ^ Neanderthal power Archived 29 March 2010 at the Wayback Machine, Kyiv Post (25 March 2010)
  163. ^ Exit Polls: Yanukovych wins Ukraine election Archived 12 February 2010 at the Wayback Machine, (7 February 2010)
  164. ^ Interfax-Ukraine exit poll: Yanukovych leads among voters in Kyiv, regional capitals Archived 9 February 2011 at the Wayback Machine, (7 February 2010)
  165. ^ ДАНІ ЕКЗИТ-ПОЛІВ (Summary Exit Polls) Archived 10 February 2010 at the Wayback Machine, (7 February 2010)
  166. ^ Ukrainians blame Yuschenko (47%) and Tymoshenko (22%) for creating economic mess Archived 12 March 2020 at the Wayback Machine, Kyiv Post (20 August 2009)
  167. ^ Poll: over 40 percent of Ukrainians prefer Collective Security Treaty Organization, 12.5 percent favor NATO Archived 6 June 2012 at the Wayback Machine (26 November 2009)
  168. ^ Relations between Russia and Ukraine: a New Era Must Begin Archived 2009-08-13 at the Wayback Machine, Demitry Medvedev (11 August 2009)
  169. ^ Yushchenko calling on Medvedev to intensify Russian-Ukrainian dialog, Kyiv Post (19 August 2009)
  170. ^ Experts: Presidential campaign characterized by poor programs of candidates Archived 17 February 2011 at the Wayback Machine, Kyiv Post (23 November 2009)
  171. ^ EU endorses Ukraine election result Archived 5 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine, euobserver (8 February 2010)
  172. ^ International observers say Ukrainian election was free and fair Archived 12 October 2020 at the Wayback Machine, The Washington Post (9 February 2010)
  173. ^ European Parliament president greets Ukraine on conducting free and fair presidential election Archived 11 February 2010 at the Wayback Machine, Kyiv Post (9 February 2010)
  174. ^ Election watchers worried by lack of independent exit poll; survey essential to deterring vote fraud, Kyiv Post (11 December 2009)
  175. ^ Tymoshenko will not protest presidential election outcome Archived 18 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine, ForUm (25 September 2009)
  176. ^ Ex-president excludes third round of presidential elections Archived 2011-02-20 at the Wayback Machine, National Radio Ukraine (25 September 2009)
  177. ^ Wolf-crying about likely vote rigging presidential candidates try to justify their future defeat, ZIK (24 November 2009)
  178. ^ Yanukovych sure Tymoshenko will try to rig results of presidential election Archived 9 June 2012 at the Wayback Machine, Kyiv Post (17 December 2009)
  179. ^ Tymoshenko says she will prevent Yanukovych from rigging presidential election Archived 9 June 2012 at the Wayback Machine, Kyiv Post (17 December 2009)
  180. ^ Yuschenko warns of significant threat of administrative pressure during counting of votes Archived 15 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine, Interfax-Ukraine (5 January 2010)
  181. ^ President's office ex-official blows Yushchenko-Yanukovych secret deal, Zik (8 January 2010)
  182. ^ [tt_news]=35871&tx_ttnews [https://web.archive.org/web/20160902144658/http://www.jamestown.org/single/?no_cache=1 Archived 2016-09-02 at the Wayback Machine[backPid]=7&cHash=e9627f75db Yushchenko and Yanukovych Forge an Electoral Alliance – Taras Kuzio, Jamestown Foundation (8 January 2010)
  183. ^ Poll: Less than 5% Ukrainians believe presidential election will be fair Archived 9 June 2012 at the Wayback Machine, Kyiv Post (12 January 2010)
  184. ^ Poll: Most Ukrainians not planning to sell their votes in presidential election Archived 9 June 2012 at the Wayback Machine, Kyiv Post (12 January 2010)
  185. ^ Ukraine presidential candidates trade warnings, promises – Summary Archived 4 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Earth Times (13 January 2010)
  186. ^ "Public reporting of poll results is prohibited in final 15 days before presidential election". Inter-Fax Ukraine. Kyiv Post. 2 January 2010. Archived from the original on 17 January 2010. Retrieved 2 January 2010.
  187. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF) (Press release). International Foundation for Electoral Systems. 15 December 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 June 2011. Retrieved 16 December 2009.{{cite press release}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  188. ^ "Yushchenko approval rating". FOM-Ukraine. Archived from the original on 27 July 2011. Retrieved 22 May 2009.
  189. ^ Taras Kuzio (24 October 2009). "With or without Baloha, Yushchenko's unelectable". Kyiv Post. Archived from the original on 1 March 2016. Retrieved 1 March 2016.
  190. ^ (in English)"Voters unhappy with choices, want jobs" Archived 19 December 2009 at the Wayback Machine, (21–29 November) U.S.-based International Foundation for Electoral Systems
  191. ^ Survey: most Ukrainians ready to vote in presidential polls, Kyiv Post (12 October 2009)
  192. ^ Pollster predicts 70% turnout for presidential election Archived 25 December 2009 at the Wayback Machine, Kyiv Post (23 December 2009)
  193. ^ Public reporting of poll results is prohibited in final 15 days before presidential election Archived 17 January 2010 at the Wayback Machine, Kyiv Post (3 January 2010)
  194. ^ 24.4% of Ukrainians ready to support Yanukovych at presidential election Archived 28 December 2007 at the Wayback Machine, UNIAN (27 December 2007)
  195. ^ a b "Опрос: наилучшие шансы стать президентом – у Тимошенко и Януковича / NEWSru.ua". Archived from the original on 4 June 2008. Retrieved 26 October 2008.
  196. ^ a b "Press release on the results sociological research—September 2008 SOCIS". Archived from the original on 6 July 2009. Retrieved 14 October 2009.
  197. ^ (in Ukrainian)Фонд громадської думки Президентський рейтинг Тимошенко впав Archived 16 January 2023 at the Wayback Machine, gazeta.ua (24 December 2008)
  198. ^ (in Ukrainian)Думка громадян України про підсумки 2008 р. (опитування) Archived 2012-09-13 at archive.today, Razumkov Centre (26 December 2008)
  199. ^ a b Poll: "CHANGE OF ELECTORAL SITUATION IN UKRAINE – April 2009"[permanent dead link], R&BG (April 2009)
  200. ^ Poll: Yanukovych, Tymoshenko, Yatseniuk have best chances to be elected president – April 18, 2009, KMIS (April 2009)
  201. ^ "Українці готові зробити Януковича президентом. 15% голосуватимуть "проти всіх"". Archived from the original on 2 May 2009. Retrieved 30 April 2009.
  202. ^ Yanukovych tops list of presidential candidates in Ukraine – poll Archived 25 February 2022 at the Wayback Machine, UNIAN (2 June 2009)
  203. ^ a b Poll: "CHANGE OF ELECTORAL SITUATION IN UKRAINE – June 2009"[permanent dead link], R&BG (June 2009)
  204. ^ Poll: Yanukovych, Tymoshenko still top presidential ratings Archived 15 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine, Interfax-Ukraine (4 August 2009)
  205. ^ a b Socis Poll: 25% Of Ukrainians Prepared To Support Yanukovych For President, 20.5% To Vote For Tymoshenko Archived 2009-08-19 at the Wayback Machine, Ukrainian News (17 August 2009)
  206. ^ a b Poll: "CHANGE OF ELECTORAL SITUATION IN UKRAINE – August 2009"[permanent dead link], R&BG (August 2009)
  207. ^ a b Socis Poll: President of Ukraine candidates rating. 100 days before elections Archived 2011-07-27 at the Wayback Machine, SOCIS (8 October 2009)
  208. ^ Yanukovych leads polls as a candidate for presidency Archived 2010-12-18 at the Wayback Machine, ForUm (13 October 2009)
  209. ^ a b Poll: Yanukovych could beat Tymoshenko in run-off by a wide margin Archived 24 October 2010 at the Wayback Machine, R&BG (August 2009)
  210. ^ a b Electoral Situation in Ukraine: 50 days to go Archived 2012-09-07 at archive.today, R&BG (27 November 2009)
  211. ^ a b Voters unhappy with choices, want jobs Archived 19 December 2009 at the Wayback Machine, U.S.-based International Foundation for Electoral Systems (17 December 2009)
  212. ^ a b Yanukovych leads presidential race in Ukraine – polls Archived 2012-02-24 at the Wayback Machine, Interfax (7 December 2009)
  213. ^ a b Electoral Situation in Ukraine: 30 days to go[permanent dead link], R&BG (17 December 2009)
  214. ^ PACE, OSCE election observers are arriving in Ukraine Archived 17 February 2011 at the Wayback Machine, Kyiv Post (23 November 2009)
  215. ^ Over 600 OSCE observers to monitor presidential elections in Ukraine, Kyiv Post (13 October 2009)
  216. ^ OSCE/ODIHR officially opens election observation mission for presidential election in Ukraine Archived 23 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine, Kyiv Post (26 November 2009)
  217. ^ OSCE observer: Ukrainian election lacks funding for salaries, transport services Archived 24 January 2011 at the Wayback Machine, Kyiv Post (12 January 2010)
  218. ^ European Union to send over 700 observers to monitor Ukraine's presidential elections Archived 13 November 2010 at the Wayback Machine, Kyiv Post (17 November 2009)
  219. ^ Election Observer Mission 2010 Archived 2010-01-17 at the Wayback Machine, Canada Ukraine Foundation
  220. ^ About us Archived 2008-09-06 at the Wayback Machine, Canada Ukraine Foundation
  221. ^ PACE delegation to pay visit to Ukraine on November 24–26 Archived 25 November 2009 at the Wayback Machine, UNIAN (23 November 2009)
  222. ^ a b European lawmakers' hopes low for Ukraine vote, Kyiv Post (26 November 2009)
  223. ^ PACE may keep monitoring Ukraine after presidential poll, Kyiv Post (8 December 2009)
  224. ^ PACE rapporteur calling on Ukraine's parliament to amend law on presidential elections, Kyiv Post (9 December 2009)
  225. ^ Polish observers to arrive in Ukraine to monitor signs of xenophobia during election campaign, Kyiv Post (4 December 2009)
  226. ^ Yanukovych claims to OSCE that Ukrainian government intends to rig presidential election, Kyiv Post (9 December 2009)
  227. ^ 450 observers from ENEMO international mission to monitor Ukrainian elections, Kyiv Post (15 December 2009)
  228. ^ Kowal to head delegation of European Parliament's observers for elections Archived 5 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine, Kyiv Post (16 December 2009)
  229. ^ Central Election Commission fails to register over 2,000 official observers from Georgia Archived 21 January 2010 at the Wayback Machine, Interfax-Ukraine (11, January 2010)
  230. ^ Over 3,000 international observers registered for Ukrainian presidential election Archived 24 January 2011 at the Wayback Machine, Kyiv Post (11, January 2010)
  231. ^ OSCE to send same number of observers to monitor Ukraine's runoff, Kyiv Post (18 January 2010)
  232. ^ OSCE observers: Ukraine's election laws should be brought in line with international norms, Kyiv Post (18 January 2010)
  233. ^ Ukraine election: And then there were two Archived 19 January 2010 at the Wayback Machine, BBC News (18 January 2010)
  234. ^ BYT: International observers were physically unable to record mass irregularities in run-off vote Archived 12 June 2012 at the Wayback Machine, Kyiv Post (11 February 2009)
  235. ^ (in Ukrainian) Central Election Commission Candidate Results Archived 2010-01-21 at the Wayback Machine, Central Election Commission of Ukraine (19 January 2010)
  236. ^ TABLE-Ukraine's presidential election results Archived 21 January 2010 at the Wayback Machine, Kyiv Post (18 January 2010)
  237. ^ Ukraine's Orange leader Yushchenko loses election Archived 19 January 2010 at the Wayback Machine, BBC News (18 January 2010)
  238. ^ a b "Yulia Timoshenko received 45.47 percent, or 11.6 million votes". Archived from the original on 30 November 2010. Retrieved 8 November 2010.
  239. ^ Ukraine's Tymoshenko bloc 'contesting election result' Archived 25 January 2021 at the Wayback Machine, BBC News (9 February 2010)
  240. ^ Run-off confirms that Ukraine's presidential election meets most international commitments Archived 17 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine, Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe (8 February 2010)
  241. ^ (in Ukrainian) ЦВК оприлюднила офіційні результати 1-го туру виборів Archived 21 October 2014 at the Wayback Machine, Gazeta.ua (25 January 2010)
  242. ^ "Yulia Timoshenko received 45.47 percent, or 11.6 million votes". Archived from the original on 30 November 2010. Retrieved 8 November 2010.

External links[edit]