|• Mayor||Fatmir Gjeka - Democratic Party|
|• Ruling party||PD LDMZ Perspective|
|• Total||255 km2 (98 sq mi)|
|Population (2011 census)|
|• Density||79.47/km2 (205.8/sq mi)|
|Time zone||CET (UTC+1)|
|• Summer (DST)||CEST (UTC+2)|
|Area code||+382 30|
|ISO 3166-2 code||ME-20|
Ulcinj (Montenegrin Cyrillic: Улцињ, pronounced [ǔlt͡siɲ]; Albanian: Ulqini) is a town on the southern coast of Montenegro and capital of the eponymous municipality. It has an urban population of 10,707 (2011), the majority being Albanians.
As one of the oldest settlements in the Adriatic coast, it was founded in 5th century BC. It was captured by Romans in 163 BC, until then ruled by Illyrians. With the division of the Roman Empire, it became part of the Byzantine Empire. During Middle Ages it was under Slavic rule and later under Balšić rule. In 1405 became part of Republic of Venice and in 1571 part of Ottoman Empire. Ulcinj was ceded to the Principality of Montenegro in 1880.
Ulcinj is a famous destination for tourists, because of its Long Beach, Lake Shas, Ada Bojana Island and for its two-millennia-old Ulcinj Castle. Ulcinj is also the centre of the Albanian community in Montenegro.
- 1 Name
- 2 Geography
- 3 History
- 4 Population
- 5 International relations
- 6 Tourism
- 7 Education
- 8 Sports and recreation
- 9 Climate
- 10 Transport
- 11 People
- 12 See also
- 13 Notes
- 14 References
- 15 External links
Early historian Livy (59 BC–AD 17) mentioned it, as did Pliny the Elder (23–79), who mentioned it as Olcinium, its old name Colchinium, "founded by [settlers from] Colchis" (Olchinium quod antea Colchinium dictum est a Colchis conditum). Ptolemy (90–168) mentions the city as Greek Oulkinion (Ουλκίνιον). The name, through Late (Vulgar) Roman, became Slavic Ulcinj, Italian: Dulcigno (pronounced [dulˈtʃiɲɲo]) and Turkish: Ülgün.
- Çarshia (sr. Čaršija), is a neighborhood and town centre which connects the old and new parts (neighbourhoods). In 2009 it was reconstructed, with the asphalt being changed into sett and the water and electrical system were changed. The neighbourhood has some 200 shops. It has an oriental atmosphere. The are two mosques located in this area, the Namazgjahu Mosque and Kryepazari Mosque.
Ulcinj is an ancient seaport. The wider area of Ulcinj has been inhabited since the Bronze Age, based on dating of Illyrian tombs (tumuli) found in the village of Zogaj, in the vicinity of Ulcinj. The town is believed to have been founded in the 5th century BC by colonists from Colchis, as mentioned in the 3rd century BC poem by Apollonius of Rhodes. Illyrians lived in the region at the time as there are traces of immense Cyclopean walls still visible in the old citadel (Kalaja).
In the pre-medieval period, Ulcinj was known as one of the pirate capitals of the Adriatic Sea. This is also seen during the later period of Illyrian Kingdom. Inhabitants of Ulcinj were known before time of Christ, especially from 20 BC to around 300 AD, to be very confrontational to those who were foreigners to their land; they were especially meticulous about border disputes as well.
In 163 BC, the Romans captured Colchinium from the Illyrian tribe of Olciniates and renamed the town Olcinium (aka Ulcinium) after the tribe.[better source needed] Under Roman rule the town received the status of oppidum civium Romanorum (settlement of Roman citizens), only to be later granted municipium (independent town) status. A section of their re-fortification can be distinguished from the Illyrio-Greek by the rustication of the walls.
After the division of the Roman Empire, Ulcinj became a part of the Byzantine province of Prevalis and the population converted to Christianity. From Medieval times, and quiet likely earlier, it was regarded as an important trading and maritime center and still maintained the status of city autonomy.
Medieval period and South Slavic rule
In the 9th century, it was in the Dyrrhachium theme, of the Byzantine Empire. In 1010, Tsar Samuel of Bulgaria (r. 997-1014†) failed to conquer the town during the war against the Byzantines. By 1040, archon Stefan Vojislav conquered the region. In 1183, Grand Prince Stefan Nemanja conquered Olcinium and the town prospered as one of the most significant coastal towns. Ulcinj remained in Nemanjić hands in their Kingdom and Empire, and after the death of Emperor Dušan (r. 1331-1355†), the region, known as Lower Zeta, was under the supervision of gospodin Žarko, a voivode of Emperor Uroš the Weak until his death in 1360. Žarko's lands were then held by the Balšić family. Under Balšić control, Ulcinj continued to be an important town and also minted coins. The Balšić Tower in the upper part of the Old Town was built by the Zetans in the late 14th century.
Venetian and Ottoman rule
In 1405 the Venetians conquered the town. Under Venetian control, the city was renamed Dulcigno in Italian, and it was incorporated in the Albania Veneta. The Venetians maintained control until 1571, when the Ottoman Turks conquered Dulcigno and the remainder of Albania Veneta. It remained within the Ottoman domain for over 300 years, during which time its far-reaching reputation as a lair of pirates was established. Initially, this band of buccaneers comprised about 400 North Africans and Maltese corsairs, but before long many others was involved: Albanians, Turks and a certain number of Serbs. Romantic stories are legion. At first they used small galleys but they progressed to galleons built in the local shipyard. Their leaders, who achieved notoriety throughout the eastern Mediterranean, included the Karamindzoja brothers, Lika Ceni, Ali Hoxha and Uluc Alija. With the Objective of causing maximum confusion, their galleons would frequently change flags at sea. After a successful attack the pirates would celebrate with a roistering party on Rana (Mala Plaža), boiling oriental Halvah in great cauldrons stirred with an oar. Oars were used to divvy up the plundered treasure especially from Venetian, but also Austro-Hungarian, Greek and sometimes Turkish ships.
A flourishing black slave trade arose through the port of Tripoli and involved the export of North African adults and children, some as young as two or three years old, who were either sold on or put to work on their owners lands or ships. There were over 100 slave houses in Ulcinj, with the main square serving as the local slave market. It can still be seen in the old town. It has been claimed that in 1571 the Spanish writer Cervantes was at first imprisoned in the vaults along the market, after he was wounded in the battle of Lepanto and captured by the pirates. There may be some poetic license in this detail; as at Sveti Stefan any number of luminaries may have slept there.
When Lika Ceni destroyed a ship full of pilgrims en route to Mecca, the Sultan put a large reward on his head. Then he put an even bigger reward on the head of a Greek pirate called Lembo. Lika vanquished Lembo, pocketed the reward and was given the title of captain by the Sultan.
Some North Africans came to Ulcinj not as slaves but of their own volition. Ritual dances would be performed on a part on Rana known as Arabian Field. They danced to an amalgam of Balkan and African music, which in time developed into the exotic Sharaveli, a version which is still around. A few families of African descent remain today.
In the 17th century a self-proclaimed Jewish Messiah named Sabbatai Zevi caused turmoil throughout the Turkish Empire with his evangelizing, which attracted thousands of followers. He was eventually captured and exiled to Ulcinj in 1666, where he died quietly ten years later. He was buried in the courtyard of a Muslim house which is still preserved as a mausoleum; along with two Jewish alters in the Balšic Tower.
In 1867, Ulcinj became a kaza of the İşkodra sanjak of Rumeli veyalet. After the Congress of Berlin in 1878, borders between Montenegro and the Ottoman Empire were redrawn, with Ulcinj becoming part of Montenegro. Although prepared to cede Plav, Gusinje and the Albanian villages of Grudë, Hoti and Kastrati, Turkey still wanted to retain Ulqinj. Despite armed Albanian resistance against this decision, Montenegro, supported by Gladstone and others from western Europe, resisted and on 30 November 1880 the town became de jure part of the Montenegro which achieved recognition, but de facto only in 1881 after Great Powers occupation.
Ulcinj is the administrative centre of Ulcinj Municipality, which has a population of 19,921. The town of Ulcinj itself has a population of 10,707. Ulcinj Municipality is the centre of the Albanian community in Montenegro. It is the only municipality in Montenegro where Albanians form the majority with 70.66%. In Ulcinj municipality can be found several different folk costumes: the costume worn by Albanians in Ulcinj (so-called: the city costume), the costume worn by Albanians in field of Anamali, the Bregasor, Šestan, Malesor, Goran (Mrkojević) and Montenegrin costumes.
Ethnicity, Mother tongue and Religion
The majority ethnic group in Ulcinj are Albanians, followed by South Slavic nations and Roma people. The largest spoken language is Albanian and the major religion is Islam. Since the creation of the town, Ulcinj's main ethnic groups were Illyrians, Albanians, South Slavs (Montenegrins, Serbs and Bosniaks) with a large number of Black people.
Population by ethnicity (2011 census):
Population by mother tongue (2011 census):
Population by religion (2011 census):
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Twin towns – Sister cities
Ulcinj is twinned with:
Ulcinj is a popular tourist destination in summer. In January 2010, the New York Times named ranked the south coast region of Montenegro, featuring Velika Plaza, Ada Bojana, and the Hotel Mediteran, as one of "The Top 31 Places to Go in 2010".
Although still undiscovered by many travelers from larger countries, repeat tourists and an increasing amount of first time visitors make Ulcinj a hot spot for vacationers between the months of May and September. It is most famous for its sandy beaches, which are considered[by whom?] the most beautiful in Montenegro. The most valuable resource of the Ulcinj riviera is Velika plaža (Albanian: Plazha e Madhe, English: Long Beach), which is a 12 km (7.5 mi) long stretch of sandy beach and the longest beach on the Montenegrin coast. There is a small pebble beach called Ladies Beach which folk tradition holds to have qualities conducive to fertility. There is also a beach called Mala plaža (Albanian: Plazha e Vogël, English: Small Beach) which is much smaller in size, but is located in the centre of town and very popular with visitors. "The Korzo", as it is called by locals, is a promenade which separates a street lined with coffee shops from Mala plaža. At night during the summer months, the Korzo is pedestrianised and families and young people gather. There are many more less known smaller beaches that serve as get-aways from the main tourist areas. Ulcinj has also a large number of religious buildings like mosques, tyrbes and churches, including: Pasha's Mosque, Sailors' Mosque and St. Nicholas' Church.
Ulcinj's old town, Kalaja, is a very well preserved castle-looking community that is left over from medieval times. The old town sits atop a mountain overlooking the shore and is a tourist attraction on its own.
Šaško lake and Ulcinj's salt pond are popular among birdwatchers, because Ulcinj and its surroundings are major resting points for over 200 bird species on their migration paths.
There are numerous cafés, discos, and bars that dot the city that are usually filled to capacity throughout the summer.
|Montenegrin name||Albanian name||Location||Language(s)|
|Osnovna škola "Boško Strugar"||Shkolla Fillore "Boshko Strugar"||Ulcinj||Montenegrin & Albanian|
|Osnovna škola "Maršal Tito"||Shkolla Fillore "Marshal Tito"||Ulcinj||Montenegrin & Albanian|
|Osnovna škola "Bedri Elezaga"||Shkolla Fillore "Bedri Elezaga"||Vladimir||Albanian|
|Osnovna škola "Marko Nuculović"||Shkolla Fillore "Mark Nuculloviq"||Donji Štoj||Montenegrin & Albanian|
|Srednja mješovita škola "Bratstvo i jedinstvo"||Shkolla e Mesme e Kombinuar "Vëllazërim Bashkim"||Ulcinj||Montenegrin & Albanian|
|Gimnazija "Drita"||Gjimnazi "Drita"||Ulcinj||Albanian|
Sports and recreation
The Ulcinj "south coast" region is well known for its active sports, recreation possibilities and hunting . Kitesurfing at Ada Bojana, all manner of water sports at Velika plaža, scuba diving among wrecks and sunken cities, mountain biking, hiking, orienteering, cycling through the olive groves at Valdanos, long walks along the pristine beaches of the south coast of Montenegro, even deep sea fishing on the Adriatic, lake fishing at Lake Skadar, and river fishing in Ada Bojana, Due to the fact that the favorable habitat for wild life, has excellent conditions of hunting tourism.This place is the haven of omithological (gourmand) hunting in Reč and Shenkol most common wildlife are woodcock, Hare, Wild boar, and ducks. The beautiful attraction with flora and fauna in Ulcinj makes it an unforgettable journey in hunting activities..
List of sport clubs in Ulcinj:
|Montenegrin name||Albanian name|
|Fudbalski klub "Otrant"||Klubi Fudbolistik "Otrant"||Football||Montenegrin Second League||1921|
|Košarkaški klub "Ulcinj"||Klubi i Basketbollit "Ulcinj"||Basketball||Montenegrin Basketball League||1976|
|Rukometni klub "Ulcinj"||Klubi i Hendbollit "Ulcinj"||Handball||Montenegrin First League|
|Teniski klub "Bellevue"||Klubi i Tenisit "Bellevue"||Tennis||2009|
|Omladinski fudbalski klub "Federal"||Klubi Futbolistik Rinor "Federall"||Football||South Region League||2007|
|Karate klub "Champions"||Klubi i Karates "Champions"||Karate|
|Karate Klub "Ulcinj"||Klubi i Karates "Ulqini"||Karate|
|Stonoteniski Klub "Valdanos"||Klubi i Ping Pongut "Valdanos"||Table Tennis||Cadet,Junior,Senior Montenegrin League||2012|
Ulcinj has a Mediterranean climate (Köppen climate classification Csa), with mild, very rainy winters and hot, humid summers with afternoon thunder showers. Unlike Podgorica temperatures very rarely exceed 35 °C (95 °F) and seldom drop below 0 °C (32 °F).
|Climate data for Ulcinj, Montenegro|
|Record high °C (°F)||17.8
|Average high °C (°F)||11.2
|Average low °C (°F)||4.1
|Record low °C (°F)||−7.8
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||149
|Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)||12.3||12.1||11.8||11.8||8.2||6.7||3.8||4.3||6.6||9.7||12.8||12.4||112.5|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||124.0||127.1||170.5||204.0||269.7||297.0||350.3||322.4||252.0||198.4||132.0||114.7||2,562.1|
|Source: Hydrological and Meteorological Service of Montenegro|
Ulcinj is connected with the rest of Montenegro by two-lane highway. It is connected with other coastal towns by the Adriatic Motorway. Reaching inland is made possible by detouring from the Adriatic Motorway at Budva or Sutomore (through the Sozina tunnel).
As of today, there are no airports in the city of Ulcinj. However, nearby airports in Tivat and Podgorica are both around 70 km (43 mi) away. There are regular flights to Belgrade and Zürich from Tivat. Podgorica Airport has regular flights to major European destinations throughout the year. Many tourists traveling to Ulcinj from abroad arrive to the city from the airport in Tivat due to its recent renovations and general ease of navigation.
Notable people who lived in Ulcinj or its surroundings:
- Miguel de Cervantes, Spanish writer
- Gjon Buzuku, Catholic priest who wrote the first known printed book in Albanian
- Pjetër Gjoka, actor and People's Artist of Albania
- John VIII, Archbishop of Antivari
- Adrian Lulgjuraj, singer
- Ndoc Martini, painter
- Alex Rudaj, Albanian-American mobster
- Kaplan Burović, dissident, poet, Albanologist
- Rade Tovladijac, Serbian comic book artist
- Mujo Ulqinaku, Albanian officer and a People's Hero of Albania
- Miloš Vučković, Yugoslav partisan and Hero of Yugoslavia
- Bosa Milićević, Yugoslav communist
- Sabbatai Zevi, İzmir born mystic, founder of the Jewish Sabbatean movement
- Nikola - Niže Radaković, one of the pioneers of Chalcography technique
- Andrej Nikolaidis, Montenegrin writer
- Janko Nilović, Montenegrin pianist and composer
- Albanians in Montenegro
- List of mayors of Ulcinj
- List of mosques in Ulcinj
- Tourism in Montenegro
- Ulcinj Airport
- Ulcinj Municipality
||Bar Municipality||Bar Municipality||Shkodër County|
|Adriatic Sea||Shkodër County|
|Adriatic Sea||Adriatic Sea||Shkodër County|
|Adriatic Sea||Adriatic Sea||Donji Štoj|
|This article needs additional citations for verification. (July 2012) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)|
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- C. Praschniker; A. Schober (1976). Arch?ologische Forschungen in Albanien und Montenegro. Рипол Классик. pp. 82–. ISBN 978-5-87379-103-3.
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- Bratimljenje gradova Crne Gore
- Bezirkspartnerschaften der Stadt Wien
- “Bratimljenje” Lukavca i Ulcinja od posebne važnosti za privrednu saradnju
- POTPISAN SPORAZUM O SARADNJI OPŠTINA/OPĆINA ULCINJ I STARI GRAD SARAJEVO
- Vizita: NESËR BINJAKËZIMI I ULQINIT DHE SERIKUT
- Ulcinj’li yeni kardeşler Serik’ten memnun kaldı
- Ceremonia në Serik: NËNSHKRUHET PROTOKOLLI PËR BINJAKËZIM
- Williams, Gisela (7 January 2010). "The 31 Places to Go in 2010: 24. Montenegro". New York Times.
- ulcinj.com staff (August 2009). "The Nudist Camping,Ada bojana,Naturist auto camp,Montenegro". www.visit-ulcinj.com. Retrieved July 2012.
- "Climatology". Hydrological and Meteorological Service of Montenegro. Retrieved 2012-10-13.
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- Istorija i poreklo stanovništva Ulcinja i njegovih sela. Institut za poljoprivredu. 1990.
- Maksud Hadžibrahimović; Ismet Kalezić; Miodrag Mirović; Mileva Nikolaidis, Abaz Rečica (1989). Ulcinj. Tourist Alliance of the Commune. ISBN 978-86-7133-141-8. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Dulcigno". Encyclopædia Britannica 8 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 652.
- World Climate staff (2011). "WorldClimate: Ulcinj". Retrieved July 2012.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ulcinj.|
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Ulcinj.|
- "Travel Guide Ulcinj". Retrieved July 2012.
- "Visit Ulcinj Tourism Official Guide". Retrieved July 2012.