Ulmus 'Groeneveld'

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Ulmus hybrid cultivar
UgroenveldSCG1.jpg
'Groeneveld' Stanmer Park, Brighton, UK
Hybrid parentage U. × hollandica × U. minor
Cultivar 'Groeneveld'
Origin Netherlands

The Dutch hybrid elm cultivar Ulmus 'Groeneveld' was cloned in 1949 at the De Dorschkamp Institute, Wageningen, and released in 1963 in response to the earlier, less virulent form of Dutch elm disease that afflicted Europe shortly after the First World War.[1][2] The cultivar was derived from a crossing of Dutch clones '49', (originally believed to be an English Wych Elm Ulmus glabra but later identified as another example of Ulmus × hollandica) and '1', a Field Elm Ulmus minor found in central France and marketed by the Barbier nursery in Orléans.

Description[edit]

Ulmus 'Groeneveld' leaves.jpg

The tree is slow growing, and produces a dense, upswept growth which initially made it popular as a street tree in the Netherlands.[3] The dark-green obovate leaves are < 9 cm long by 4 cm broad, arranged in clusters on short branchlets.[4]

Pests and diseases[edit]

'Groeneveld' has good resistance to Coral-spot fungus Nectria cinnabarina, and Black Spot [3]. However, like all the other Dutch hybrids released before 1989, it proved to have only marginal resistance, rated 3 out of 5 [5] to the later, virulent form of Dutch elm disease and consequently planting is no longer recommended where the disease is prevalent.[6][7]

Cultivation[edit]

'Groeneveld' was also introduced elsewhere in Europe, including Britain, in small numbers. The tree was planted in trials [4] in Canberra, Australia started in 1988, but has not shown promise in that environment so far; it has however proved popular in New Zealand. There are several specimens in American arboreta (see under Accessions).

Notable trees[edit]

The TROBI Champion tree in the UK is at Stanmer Park, near Brighton, East Sussex, measuring 18 m high by 53 cm d.b.h. in 2002[8]

Etymology[edit]

'Groeneveld' translates as 'green field', and was named for the eponymous de Dorschkamp trial site at Wageningen.

Hybrid cultivars[edit]

Accessions[edit]

North America[edit]

Europe[edit]

Nurseries[edit]

Europe[edit]

Oceania[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Burdekin, D. A. & Rushforth, K. D. (Revised by Webber J. F. 1996). Elms resistant to Dutch elm disease. Arboricultural Research Note 2/96. Arboricultural Advisory and Information Service, Alice Holt, Farnham, UK.
  2. ^ Santamour, Frank S.; Bentz, Susan E. (May 1995). "Updated Checklist of Elm (Ulmus) Cultivars for use in North America". Journal of Arboriculture. 21 (3): 122–131. Retrieved 20 June 2016. 
  3. ^ White, J. & More, D. (2002). Trees of Britain & Northern Europe. Cassell's, London.
  4. ^ Photographs of 'Groeneveld' elm [1] and samarae [2]
  5. ^ Heybroek, H. M., Goudzwaard, L, Kaljee, H. (2009). Iep of olm, karakterboom van de Lage Landen (:Elm, a tree with character of the Low Countries). KNNV, Uitgeverij. ISBN 9789050112819
  6. ^ Heybroek, H. M. (1964). Plant Disease Rep. 48: 187–189, 1964, transl. by F. W. Holmes.
  7. ^ Heybroek, H. M. (1993). The Dutch Elm Breeding Program. In Sticklen & Sherald (Eds.) (1993). Dutch Elm Disease Research, Chapter 3. Springer Verlag, New York, USA
  8. ^ Johnson, O. (2011). Champion Trees of Britain & Ireland, 169. Kew Publishing, Kew, London. ISBN 9781842464526.
  9. ^ Johnson, O. (2003). Champion Trees of Britain & Ireland. Whittet Press, ISBN 9781873580615