Ulmus 'New Horizon'

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Ulmus 'New Horizon'
Ulmus New Horizon USA 2011a © Eisele.jpg
'New Horizon', Wisconsin-Madison University
GenusUlmus
Hybrid parentageU. davidiana var. japonica × Ulmus pumila
Cultivar'New Horizon'
OriginWARF, Wisconsin, USA

Ulmus 'New Horizon' is an American hybrid cultivar raised by the Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation (WARF), from a crossing of the Japanese Elm clone W43-8 = 'Reseda' (female parent) with Siberian Elm clone W426 grown from seed collected from a street tree at Yankton, South Dakota. [1] 'New Horizon' was patented in the USA in 1994, while in Europe, it is marketed as one of the 'Resista' elms [7] protected under E U breeders' rights (E U council decision 2100/94).

Description[edit]

Unlike its elder stablemate 'Sapporo Autumn Gold', 'New Horizon' initially has a compact, pyramidal form, with comparatively dense foliage comprising glabrous, dark-green, elliptical leaves < 12 cm long by 7 cm broad, occasionally without the asymmetric bases typical of the genus.[2] The perfect, apetalous wind-pollinated flowers appear in March, followed by the seeds in April; flowering, and consequent fruiting, is sparse, in common with its female parent Japanese Elm, and usually begins when the tree is aged 8 years.[3] [4]

The tree's growth habit is unusual; in an assessment at U C Davis as part of the National Elm Trial, its stem diameter increased faster than any other of the 15 cultivars, but increase in height, averaging 0.9 m per annum, made it one of the slowest growing, vertically.

In commerce in the USA, the tree is occasionally propagated by grafting onto an Ulmus pumila rootstock, rather than simply rooting cuttings as normally practiced in North America and Europe.

Pests and diseases[edit]

'New Horizon' has a very high resistance to Dutch elm disease, rated 5 out of 5 in Europe;[5] it is also resistant to elm leaf miner, and verticillium wilt.[6] However, it has proven susceptible to attack by elm leaf beetle Xanthogaleruca luteola [7] [8] and Japanese Beetle in the United States.[8] Up until its patenting in 1993, no Coral Spot fungus infection had been observed in the USA.[3]

Cultivation[edit]

The tree has not been an unqualified success. In the elm trials conducted by the University of Minnesota, 'New Horizon' was found to need relatively high levels of maintenance, largely owing to its predilection for co-dominant leaders and heavy side branches.[9] In the Netherlands, removal of sideshoots from the lower trunk was found to be necessary twice a year. In trials in eastern Arizona [9] it often exhibited > 25% crown dieback over winter and a very high level of leaf scorch in summer. The tree is currently being evaluated in the National Elm Trial [10] coordinated by Colorado State University.

'New Horizon' was introduced to Europe by the Conrad Appel nursery (ceased trading 2005) in Darmstadt, Germany, which propagated the tree under licence as one of the hybrid elms offered in the Resista series [11]; the tree is currently propagated by Eisele GmbH. The tree was introduced to the UK and Ireland by Hillier Nurseries, who have sole distribution rights. 'New Horizon' was named 'Best New Plant Variety' by Horticulture Week in 2005, however, an assessment by Butterfly Conservation found its growth on heavy, poorly drained ground negligible. Nevertheless, the tree has tolerated flooding, by both freshwater in England, and seawater along the Baltic coast in Germany [12]. Trees at exposed sites in Hampshire exhibited much the same degree of dieback experienced in the Arizona trials despite the extreme differences in climate. However no losses have been sustained, and in sheltered conditions on deep loam over chalk, 'New Horizon' grew healthily if relatively slowly, increasing in height by approximately 50 cm per annum, less than half the speed of the Dutch hybrids such as 'Dodoens' planted with it. The trees in the English trials first flowered aged 10 years, in late March.[10]

In 2004, 80 trees were donated to the Greater London Council as part of the grower's European Elm City promotion; similar gifts were also made to Belfast, Cardiff (Pontcanna Park), and Hamburg (the central City Park).[11][12] In 2010, 100 trees were planted in the London borough of Enfield to aid and abet the conservation of the White-letter Hairstreak Satyrium w-album. [13] Another hundred were included in the tree planting at the Olympic Park.[13] Forty have been planted in Richmond Park, near the Dysart gate.

Conservation[edit]

'New Horizon' was found to be hosting the endangered White-letter Hairstreak at the Vauxhall Pleasure Gardens, London, in 2017; this is the first recorded instance of the butterfly breeding on the cultivar in the UK.[14]

Accessions[edit]

North America[edit]

Europe[edit]

Nurseries[edit]

North America[edit]

Europe[edit]

  • Arbor Boomkwekerijen nv [20], Belgium
  • Clasen & Co Baumschulen GmbH, D-Rellingen, Germany
  • Eisele GmbH & Co KG Darmstadt, Germany.
  • Hillier Nurseries [21] [22], UK.
  • Noordplant [23] Glimmen, Netherlands
  • Vicq Arbor pépinières SA, France

References[edit]

  1. ^ Santamour, Frank S.; Bentz, Susan E. (May 1995). "Updated Checklist of Elm (Ulmus) Cultivars for use in North America". Journal of Arboriculture. 21 (3): 122–131. Retrieved 20 June 2016.
  2. ^ noordplant.nl, Emerging 'New Horizon' leaves, Amsterdam
  3. ^ a b Smalley, E. & Guries, R. (1993). Patent application: Elm tree named New Horizon. US PP8684 P. U S Patent Office. [1]
  4. ^ Photographs of 'New Horizon' elms, [2] [3] and leaves, [4]
  5. ^ Heybroek, H. M., Goudzwaard, L, Kaljee, H. (2009). Iep of olm, karakterboom van de Lage Landen (:Elm, a tree with character of the Low Countries). KNNV, Uitgeverij. ISBN 9789050112819
  6. ^ Pinon, J. (July 2007). "Les ormes résistants à la graphiose" [Elms resistant to Dutch Elm Disease] (PDF). Forêt-entreprise. Paris, France: IDF (175): 37–41. ISSN 0752-5974. Retrieved 26 October 2017.
  7. ^ McPherson, G. et al. (2008). National elm trial: Initial report from Northern California. Western Arborist, Fall 2009, 32–36.
  8. ^ Brady, C., Condra, J., & Potter, D. (2008) Resistance of Landscape-suitable Elm (Ulmus spp.) Cultivars to Japanese Beetle, Leaf Miners, and Gall Makers. 2008 Research Report, Nursery & Landscape Program, 15–16. University of Kentucky.
  9. ^ Giblin, C. P. & Gillman, J. H. (2006). Elms for the Twin Cities: A Guide for Selection and Maintenance. University of Minnesota.
  10. ^ Brookes, A. H. (2015). Disease-resistant elms, Butterfly Conservation trials report, 2015 Butterfly Conservation, Hants & IoW Branch, England. [5]
  11. ^ Horticulture Week, Haymarket Publishing, London, UK, 24 April 2004
  12. ^ Gordon Mackenthun: 'Elms, Dutch Elm Disease and the Hamburg Elm Program' [6]
  13. ^ McEwan, G. (2010). Great British Elm Experiment: nurseries and tree managers work to re-establish trees resistant to Dutch elm disease. Horticulture Week, 9 April 2010, London.
  14. ^ Brookes, A. H. (2017). Great Fontley Elm Trial, 2017 Report. Butterfly Conservation, Lulworth, England.
  15. ^ "List of plants in the {elm} collection". Brighton & Hove City Council. Retrieved 23 September 2016.