Uloboridae

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Cribellate orb-weavers
Temporal range: Tithonian–present
Uloborus plumipes side 2.jpg
Uloborus plumipes
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Chelicerata
Class: Arachnida
Order: Araneae
Infraorder: Araneomorphae
Family: Uloboridae
Thorell, 1869
Diversity
19 genera, 337 species
Distribution.uloboridae.1.png

Uloboridae is a family of non-venomous spiders, known as cribellate orb weavers or hackled orb weavers. Their lack of venom glands is a secondarily evolved trait. Instead, they wrap their prey thoroughly in silk, cover it in regurgitated digestive enzymes, and then ingest the liquified body.[1]

All members of this family produce a feathery, fuzzy silk called cribellate (or hackled) silk.[2] These spiders do not use an adhesive on their orb webs, but rather the very fine fibers on each strand of silk tend to ensnare prey. Uloboridae webs often have a stabilimentum or zig-zag pattern through the center.

Distribution[edit]

This family has an almost worldwide distribution. Only two species are known from Northern Europe: Uloborus walckenaerius and Hyptiotes paradoxus. Similarly occurring solely in northern North America (e.g. southern Ontario) is Uloborus glomosus. The oldest known fossil species is Talbragaraneus from the Late Jurassic (Tithonian) of Australia.[3]

Genera[edit]

As of April 2019, the World Spider Catalog accepts the following genera:[4]

  • Ariston O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1896 – Mexico, Panama
  • Astavakra Lehtinen, 1967 – Philippines
  • Conifaber Opell, 1982 – Paraguay, Argentina, Colombia
  • Daramulunia Lehtinen, 1967 – Samoa, Vanuatu, Fiji
  • Hyptiotes Walckenaer, 1837 – Asia, South Africa, North America, Europe
  • Lubinella Opell, 1984 – Papua New Guinea
  • Miagrammopes O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1870 – South America, Central America, Asia, Oceania, Africa, Caribbean, North America
  • Octonoba Opell, 1979 – Asia, United States
  • Orinomana Strand, 1934 – South America
  • Philoponella Mello-Leitão, 1917 – Asia, Africa, North America, South America, Australia, Central America
  • Polenecia Lehtinen, 1967 – Azerbaijan
  • Purumitra Lehtinen, 1967 – Australia, Philippines
  • Siratoba Opell, 1979 – United States, Mexico
  • Sybota Simon, 1892 – Chile, Argentina
  • Tangaroa Lehtinen, 1967 – Vanuatu
  • Uaitemuri Santos & Gonzaga, 2017 – Brazil
  • Uloborus Latreille, 1806 – Asia, Oceania, South America, Africa, North America, Costa Rica, Europe
  • Waitkera Opell, 1979 – New Zealand
  • Zosis Walckenaer, 1841 – South America, Seychelles, Asia, Oceania, Cuba

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Staff Scientists" (PDF).
  2. ^ Jonathan A. Coddington & Herbert W. Levi (1991). "Systematics and evolution of spiders (Araneae)" (PDF). Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics. 22: 565–592. doi:10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.22.1.565. JSTOR 2097274. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-04-02.
  3. ^ Selden, Paul A.; Beattie, Robert G. (June 2013). "A spider fossil from the Jurassic Talbragar Fossil Fish Bed of New South Wales". Alcheringa: An Australasian Journal of Palaeontology. 37 (2): 203–208. doi:10.1080/03115518.2013.735072. ISSN 0311-5518.
  4. ^ "Family: Uloboridae Thorell, 1869". World Spider Catalog. Natural History Museum Bern. Retrieved 2019-04-26.

External links[edit]