Ultra Low Emission Zone

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Symbol on road signs informing drivers of the Ultra Low Emission Zone

The Ultra Low Emission Zone (ULEZ) is an area in London where a fee is charged for driving the most polluting vehicles. Plans were laid out under Boris Johnson and introduced by Sadiq Khan in April 2019 in Central London, covering the same area as the congestion charge. It caused the number of the worst polluting vehicles to drop from 35,600 to 23,000 and a 20% reduction in emissions in Central London in the four months following its introduction.[1][2]

From 25 October 2021 the zone expanded to cover the much wider Inner London area within the North and South Circular roads. In the month following the expansion, the number of non-compliant vehicles fell from 127,000 to 80,000 on weekdays.[3] The zone will further expand from August 2023 to cover the whole of Greater London. The scheme charges vehicles which do not meet the following European emission standards: Euro 3 for motorbikes, Euro 4 for petrol vehicles or Euro 6 for diesel vehicles.


Sign warning drivers that they are about to enter the Ultra Low Emission Zone and Congestion Charging Zone

Plans for an ultra–low emissions zone were under consideration since 2014 under Mayor Boris Johnson.[4] In February 2017, Mayor Sadiq Khan announced plans to expand the Ultra Low Emission Zone in April 2019 beyond Central London, one year ahead of schedule. Drivers do not pay both the ULEZ and the previous £10 T-charge, but they are still subject to the London Congestion Charge.[5][6] The money raised from the ULEZ is invested in the transport network and improving air quality in London.[7]

Introduction and effect[edit]

NOx emissions from road transport in Greater London (GLA boundary) from 2013 to 2019[8]

The zone was introduced on 8 April 2019 and led to a 20% reduction in emissions by July 2019.[9][2]

Effect on vehicle numbers[edit]

The number of the worst polluting vehicles entering the zone each day dropped from 35,578, in March 2019, to 26,195 in April of the same year, after the charge was introduced.[10] The number further dropped to 23,054 in July 2019.[1] The proportion of vehicles which complied with the standards rose from 61% in March 2019 to 74% in September 2019.[11] It further rose to 85% in December 2020, including 90% for cars, and the number of non-compliant vehicles dropped to around 12,000 (of which 4,000 were exempt from the charges).[12][13]

The total number of vehicles entering Central London each day also dropped from over 102,000 in February 2017 to 89,000 in April 2019.[14]

Effect on air pollution[edit]

From 2016 to 2020, NO2 pollution dropped five times as quickly in Central London as it did in the rest of the UK.[15]


The Ultra Low Emission Zone has been described as one of the most radical anti-pollution policies in the world.[16] A poll in April 2019 by YouGov found that 72% of Londoners supported using emissions charging to tackle both air pollution and congestion.[17] However, the Federation of Small Businesses said that many small firms were "very worried about the future of their businesses" as a result of the "additional cost burden".[9]

Current charging scheme[edit]

The £12.50 charge applies 24 hours a day every day of the year, and is based on European emission standards:

  • Motorbikes that do not meet Euro 3 standards (most vehicles pre-2007)
  • Petrol cars and vans that do not meet Euro 4 standards (most vehicles pre-2006)
  • Diesel cars and vans that do not meet Euro 6 standards (most vehicles pre-2015)
  • Buses, coaches and lorries must meet or exceed the Euro VI standard or pay £100 a day


Residents of the zone did not pay the charge until October 2021 as long as they were registered for the residents' Congestion Charge discount and met the T-charge standards. Vehicles in the "disabled" tax class are exempt from the charge, as are London-licensed taxis, private hire vehicles which are wheelchair accessible and historic vehicles (over 40 years old). There are also exemptions for agricultural vehicles, military vehicles, certain types of mobile cranes and non-road going vehicles which are allowed to drive on the highway (e.g. excavators).[18]

October 2021 expansion[edit]

The zone was expanded to cover the Inner London area inside the North and South Circular roads on 25 October 2021 so that it covers an area containing 3.8 million people.[19][20] Around a million vehicles a day drive in the expanded zone, but Tfl estimated that 87% already complied with the emissions rules, meaning nearly 140,000 vehicles would have to be replaced or pay the charge, including 100,000 cars, 35,000 vans and 3,000 lorries.[21][22]

There was a scrappage scheme to help those on income support or disability benefit to get rid of their old vehicle. This was used to scrap at least 12,000 vehicles, but the Mayor said on 14 October 2021 that there was less than £2 million left in the £61 m fund.[23]

A month into the expansion, TfL said that the proportion of compliant vehicles had risen from 87% to 92%, and the number of the most polluting vehicles had fallen by over a third (from 127,000 to 80,000 on weekdays). They also said that 94% of cars complied compared to 78% of vans.[24] Six months after the expansion, TfL estimated that NOx in Inner London was 20% lower than it would have been without the expansion and found that 95% of cars and 83% of vans now met the standard.[25]

2023 expansion[edit]

The zone will be expanded in August 2023 to cover all of Greater London. TfL estimates 20,000 to 40,000 will be taken off the road due to the expansion. Khan said "This is also a matter of social justice – with air pollution hitting the poorest communities the hardest. Nearly half of Londoners don’t own a car, but they are disproportionally feeling the damaging consequences polluting vehicles are causing."[26]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b "Central London Ultra Low Emission Zone - Four month report" (PDF).
  2. ^ a b "London pollution: High levels detected by 40% of capital's air quality". Evening Standard. 23 July 2019.
  3. ^ "Ulez expansion revealed to have cut 'dirty' vehicles by over a third". 10 December 2021.
  4. ^ Fiona Harvey. "Diesel drivers may face higher costs in pollution battle". The Guardian. Retrieved 29 July 2014.
  5. ^ Mason, Rowena (17 February 2017). "London to introduce £10 vehicle pollution charge, says Sadiq Khan". The Guardian. Retrieved 23 February 2017.
  6. ^ Kimiko de Reytas-Tamura (17 February 2017). "A Push for Diesel Leaves London Gasping Amid Record Pollution". The New York Times. Retrieved 23 February 2017.
  7. ^ "World's first 24 hour Ultra Low Emission Zone starts in London". London City Hall. 8 April 2019.
  8. ^ "Diesel cars pollutes more than trucks & lorries combined". 2 March 2022.
  9. ^ a b "ULEZ: New pollution charge begins in London". BBC News. 8 April 2019.
  10. ^ Taylor, Matthew (16 May 2019). "ULEZ cuts number of worst polluting cars in central London" – via www.theguardian.com.
  11. ^ "Central London Ultra Low Emission Zone - Six Month Report" (PDF).
  12. ^ "New tighter Low Emission Zone standards for HGVS introduced in London". March 2021.
  13. ^ "ULEZ Online Fact Sheet" (PDF). tfl.gov.uk. Retrieved 25 October 2021.
  14. ^ "First month of Mayor's ULEZ sees 74 per cent of vehicles comply". London City Hall. 16 May 2019.
  15. ^ "5 times greater reduction in NO2 in London than rest of the country". London City Hall. 7 August 2020.
  16. ^ Edwards, Tom. "ULEZ: The most radical plan you've never heard of". BBC News Website. BBC. Retrieved 26 March 2019.
  17. ^ Taylor, Matthew; Sedghi, Amy (8 April 2019). "Londoners support charging 'dirty' drivers, says air pollution study" – via www.theguardian.com.
  18. ^ "Discounts and exemptions". Transport for London.
  19. ^ "London Mayor confirms Ultra-Low Emission Zone will start in 2019". www.fleetnews.co.uk. Archived from the original on 25 July 2019. Retrieved 24 July 2019.
  20. ^ "ULEZ: The politics of London's air pollution". BBC News. 5 April 2019.
  21. ^ Lydall, Ross (14 May 2021). "Khan presses ahead with Ulez expansion set to hit 140,000 drivers". www.standard.co.uk. Retrieved 25 October 2021.
  22. ^ "Ultra-low emission zone comes into force in central London". ITV News. 7 April 2019. Retrieved 25 October 2021.
  23. ^ Lydall, Ross (15 October 2021). "London's ULEZ scrappage scheme running out of cash". www.standard.co.uk. Retrieved 25 October 2021.
  24. ^ "Ulez expansion revealed to have cut 'dirty' vehicles by over a third". 10 December 2021.
  25. ^ "Millions of Londoners breathing cleaner air thanks to ULEZ expansion". 19 July 2022.
  26. ^ "ULEZ to expand across all of Greater London, Mayor Sadiq Khan announces". 8 March 2022.

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