In biochemistry, an ultratrace element is a chemical element that normally comprises less than one microgram per gram of a given organism (i.e. less than 0.0001% by weight), but which plays a significant role in its metabolism.
Possible ultratrace elements in humans include boron, silicon, nickel, vanadium and cobalt. Other possible ultratrace elements in other organisms include bromine, cadmium, fluorine, lead, lithium, and tin.
- J. Mann & A. S. Truswell (editors). Essentials of Human Nutrition (3rd edition, 2007). Oxford: Oxford University Press
- Yamada, Kazuhiro (2013). "Chapter 9. Cobalt: Its Role in Health and Disease". In Astrid Sigel; Helmut Sigel; Roland K. O. Sigel (eds.). Interrelations between Essential Metal Ions and Human Diseases. Metal Ions in Life Sciences. 13. Springer. pp. 295–320. doi:10.1007/978-94-007-7500-8_9.
- Nielsen, Forrest H., Ultratrace Elements in Nutrition, Annual Review of Nutrition Vol. 4: 21-41 (Volume publication date July 1984)
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