Ulvophyceae

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Ulvophyceae
Temporal range: Mid Ordovician – Recent[1] (?)
diversity of Ulvophyceae
diversity of Ulvophyceae
Scientific classification e
(unranked): Archaeplastida
(unranked): Viridiplantae
Division: Chlorophyta
Class: Ulvophyceae
Stewart & Mattox, 1978[2][3]
Orders[4]

The Ulvophyceae or ulvophytes are a class of green algae,[4] distinguished mainly on the basis of ultrastructural morphology, life cycle and molecular phylogenetic data.[5] The sea lettuce, Ulva, belongs here. Other well-known members include Caulerpa, Codium, Acetabularia, Cladophora, Trentepohlia and Monostroma.

The Ulvophytes are diverse in their morphology and their habitat. Most are seaweeds such as those listed above. Others, such as Rhizoclonium, Pithophora and some species of Cladophora live in fresh water and in some areas are considered weeds.

Evolution[edit]

The origin and early diversification of the Ulvophyceae likely took place in the late Neoproterozoic.[6][7] Although most contemporary ulvophytes are marine macroalgae (seaweeds), ancestral ulvophytes may have been freshwater, unicellular green algae. Molecular phylogenetic evidence suggests that macroscopic growth was achieved independently in the various major lineages of Ulvophyceae (Ulvales-Ulotrichales, Trentepohliales, Cladophorales, Bryopsidales and Dasycladales).[7] Fossils are rare but there are sone good candidates in a mid-Ordovician lagerstatten.[1]

Current hypothesis on relationships among the main clades of Ulvophyceae[8][9] are shown below.

Cladophorales

Blastophysa

Dasycladales

Bryopsidales

Trentepohliales

Ignatius clade

Ulvales

Phaeophila, Bolbocoleon

Ulotrichales

Desmochloris, Halochlorococcum

Scotinosphaerales

Oltmannsiellopsidales

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Nowak, Hendrik; Harvey, Thomas H.P.; Liu, Huaibao P.; McKay, Robert M.; Zippi, Pierre A.; Campbell, Donald H.; Servais, Thomas (2017). "Filamentous eukaryotic algae with a possible cladophoralean affinity from the Middle Ordovician Winneshiek Lagerstätte in Iowa, USA". Geobios. 50 (4): 303. doi:10.1016/j.geobios.2017.06.005. 
  2. ^ Stewart KD, Mattox KR (1978). "Structural evolution in the flagellated cells of green algae and land plants". BioSystems. 10 (1–2): 145–152. doi:10.1016/0303-2647(78)90036-9. PMID 656563. 
  3. ^ Adl SM; Simpson AGB; Farmer MA; Andersen RA; Anderson OR; Barta JR; Bowser SS; Brugerolle G; Fensome RA; Fredericq S; James TY; Karpov S; Kugrens P; Krug J; Lane CE; Lewis LA; Lodge J; Lynn DH; Mann DG; McCourt RM; Mendoza L; Moestrup Ø; Mozley-Standridge SE; Nerad TA; Shearer CA; Smirnov AV; Speigel FW; Taylor MFJR (2005). "The new higher level classification of eukaryotes with emphasis on the taxonomy of protists". Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology. 52 (5): 399–451. doi:10.1111/j.1550-7408.2005.00053.x. PMID 16248873. 
  4. ^ a b Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. (2007). "Class: Ulvophyceae taxonomy browser". AlgaeBase version 4.2 World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. Retrieved 2007-09-23. 
  5. ^ Graham LE, Graham JM, Wilcox LW (2009) Algae. 2nd Edition. Benjamin Cummings (Pearson), San Francisco, CA
  6. ^ Verbruggen, H.; Ashworth, M.; LoDuca, S.T.; Vlaeminck, C.; Cocquyt, E.; Sauvage, T.; Zechman, F.W.; Littler, D.S.; Littler, M.M.; Leliaert, F. (2009). "A multi-locus time-calibrated phylogeny of the siphonous green algae". Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 50 (3): 642–653. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2008.12.018. 
  7. ^ a b Cocquyt, E.; Verbruggen, H.; Leliaert, F.; De Clerck, O. (2010). "Evolution and Cytological Diversification of the Green Seaweeds (Ulvophyceae)". Mol. Biol. Evol. 27 (9): 2052–2061. doi:10.1093/molbev/msq091. ISSN 0737-4038. PMID 20368268. 
  8. ^ Leliaert, F., Smith, D.R., Moreau, H., Herron, M.D., Verbruggen, H., Delwiche, C.F. & De Clerck, O. (2012). "Phylogeny and molecular evolution of the green algae" (PDF). Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences. 31: 1–46. doi:10.1080/07352689.2011.615705. 
  9. ^ Škaloud, Pavel; Kalina, Tomáš; Nemjová, Katarína; De Clerck, Olivier; Leliaert, Frederik (2013). "Morphology and Phylogenetic Position of the Freshwater Green MicroalgaeChlorochytrium(Chlorophyceae) andScotinosphaera(Scotinosphaerales, ord. nov., Ulvophyceae)". Journal of Phycology. 49 (1): 115–129. doi:10.1111/jpy.12021. ISSN 0022-3646.