Umar at Fatimah's house

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Umar at Fatimah's house (Not Confirmed) refers to the event where Umar and his supporters went to the house of Fatimah, the daughter of the prophet Muhammad, in order to get the allegiance of Ali and his followers. This event has been recorded in both Shia and Sunni books and is said to be the cause of Fatimah's miscarriage of Muhsin ibn Ali,[1][2] as well as Fatimah's death shortly after.[3]

Background[edit]

A few months prior to his death, at a place known as Ghadir Khumm, the Islamic prophet Muhammad gathered all the Muslims who were with him and delivered a long sermon. The sermon included the famous statement, "to whomsoever I am Mawla, Ali is also their Mawla." After the end of the sermon, the Muslims were commanded to pledge allegiance to Ali. According to both Shia and Sunni sources, Abu Bakr, Umar, and Uthman were all among the many who pledged allegiance to Ali at the event of Ghadir Khumm.[4][5][6][7][8]

Muhammad passed away a few months after the event of Ghadir Khumm. As Ali buried Muhammad and led his funeral prayer, a group of Muslims gathered at Saqifa. At Saqifa, Umar pledged allegiance to Abu Bakr,[9][10] despite the sermon that the Prophet had delivered at Ghadir Khumm, and despite Umar's pledge of allegiance to Ali. A group of Muslims supported Abu Bakr, and became known as the Sunni; another group of Muslims kept their allegiance to Ali, and became known as the Shia.

Event[edit]

After the gathering at Saqifa, Umar and his supporters went to the house of Fatimah; Ali, his family (including Fatimah), and some of his supporters were in the house.[11][12][13][14] Umar went to the door of Fatimah's house and said, "By Allah, I shall burn down (the house) over you unless you come out and give the oath of allegiance (to Abu Bakr)."[15][16][17][18][19] Zubayr ibn al-Awam, who had been in Ali's house, came out of the house with his sword drawn but reportedly tripped on something, after which Umar's supporters attacked him.[20][21]

Umar, who was then in front of the door to Fatimah's house, said to Fatimah, "I know that the Prophet of God did not love any one more than you, but this will not stop me from carrying out my decision. If these people stay in your house, I will burn the door in front of you."[22] According to another narration, Umar asked for wood, and then told those inside the house, "I swear by Allah who has my soul in his hand, that if you do not come out, I will burn the house." Umar was then informed that Fatimah was inside the house, to which he responded, "So what! It doesn’t matter to me who is in the house."[23][24]

It is reported that when Fatimah heard the voices of Umar and his supporters threatening to attack the house, she cried out, "O father, O Messenger of Allah, how are Umar Ibn al-Khattab and Abu Bakr Ibn Abi Quhafah treating us after you and how do they meet us."[4]

The house was then attacked. Umar and his supporters burned the door of the house; they crushed Fatimah between the door and the wall of the house, they killed Moshin, the baby in her stomach, and they forced Ali out of the house against his will.[25][26][27] According to some narrations, a rope was tied around Ali's neck.[28][29][30][31][32][33]

The famous historian Abul Hasan Ali Ibn al-Husayn al-Mas’udi wrote the following in his book Isbaat al-Wasiyyah:

They surrounded ‘Ali (as) and burned the door of his house and pulled him out against his will and pressed the leader of all women (Hadhrat Fatimah (sa)) between the door and the wall killing Mohsin (the male-child she was carrying in her womb for six months).

The Sunni historian Salahuddin Khalil al-Safadi wrote in his book Waafi al- Wafiyyaat that "Umar hit Fatimah (sa) on the stomach such that child in her womb died."[34]

Umar and his companions dragged Ali away. Fatimah urged them to stop, saying, "I will not permit Ali (a.s.) to be dragged with such cruelty and injustice. Woe be upon you, O people! How soon did you usurp our rights in relation to Allah and His Prophet (s.a.w.)." Umar then ordered Qunfuz to whip Fatimah. According to some narrations, Qunfuz whipped her back and her arms;[35] according to another, he struck her face;[36] according to another, he pushed her so hard that he smashed her ribs.[28] According to another report, Khalid bin Walid struck Fatimah with his sword; another report states that Moghayrah Ibne’ Sho’bah struck her with his sword.[28]

Aftermath[edit]

Fatimah's displeasure[edit]

Both Shia and Sunni sources agree that, on a number of occasions, Muhammad had said, "Fatimah is a part of me. Whoever makes her angry, makes me angry." This has been recorded in both Sahih Bukhari (Arabic-English, Volume 5, Traditions 61 and 111) and Sahih Muslim (in the section on the virtues of Fatimah, Volume 4, pages 1904-1905), two of the most important Hadith books to Sunnis. It is also recorded in Sahih Bukhari Chapter of "The battle of Khaibar", Arabic-English, v5, tradition #546, pp 381–383, also v4, Tradition #325) that Fatimah was angry with Abu Bakr and did not speak to him before she died.

Fatimah is also reported to have said, according to Sunni sources, about Abu Bakr and Umar, "I take Allah and the angels to be my witness that you have not pleased me; on the other hand, you have angered me. When I shall meet the Prophet (S) I will complain about you two."[37]

Fatimah's death[edit]

According to a number of sources, Fatimah was killed as a result of injuries sustained when her house was attacked and burned by Umar.[38][39][40][41] She died between 75 and 95 days after the death of Muhammad.[42][43][44][45][46][47] Jafar Shahidi confirmed the burning house event. According to many Muslim historians and scholars, including the likes of the Sunni Tabari and the Shia Morteza Motahhari, Fatimah asked Ali to bury her at night to ensure none of her enemies participated in her funeral.[48]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Al-Masudi. Isbaat al-Wilaayah. p. 142. They attacked Fatimah’s (s.a.) house. They crushed the Chief of All Women behind the door so violently that it resulted in the miscarriage of Mohsin. 
  2. ^ al-Shahrastaani, Muhammad. Al-Milal wa al-Nehal, Volume 1. p. 57. Umar struck Fatimah violently in the abdomen (on the Day of Allegiance) so much so that she fell on her abdomen (resulting in the infant’s death). 
  3. ^ Bihar al-Anwar, Volume 43. p. 171. ‘Fatimah’s (s.a.) death resulted from being pierced by the sword which claimed (the unborn) Mohsin’s life. The perpetrator of this crime was Qunfuz, who was acting on his master – Umar’s explicit command…’ 
  4. ^ a b "A Shi'ite Encyclopedia". Al-Islam.org. Ahlul Bayt Digital Islamic Library Project. 
  5. ^ Musnad Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, Volume 4. p. 281. 
  6. ^ al-Razi, Fakhr. Tafsir al-Kabir, Volume 12. pp. 49–50. 
  7. ^ al-Tabrizi, al-Khatib. Mishkat al-Masabih. p. 557. 
  8. ^ Khand, Mir. Habib al-Siyar, Volume 1, Part 3. p. 144. 
  9. ^ Al Qazwini, Sayed Hossein. "An Analysis of the event of Saqifa". mohamedridha. Retrieved 25 February 2018. 
  10. ^ Ja'fari, Sayyid Husayn Muhammad. The Origins and Early Development of Shia Islam. Qum: Ansariyan Publications. 
  11. ^ Sahih Bukhari, Arabic-English, Volume 8, Tradition 817. Umar said: "And no doubt after the death of theProphet we were informed that the Ansar disagreedwith us and gathered in the shed of Bani Sa'da. 'Ali andZubair and whoever was with them, opposed us, whilethe emigrants gathered with Abu Bakr." 
  12. ^ Ibn Hisham. Sirah al-Nabawiyyah, Volume 4. p. 309. 
  13. ^ History of Tabari, Volume 1 (in Arabic). p. 1822. 
  14. ^ History of Tabari, Volume 9. p. 192. 
  15. ^ History of Tabari, Volume 1. pp. 1118–1120. 
  16. ^ History of Ibn Athir, Volume 2. p. 325. 
  17. ^ Ibn Abd Al-Barr. al-Isti’ab, Volume 3. p. 975. 
  18. ^ Ibn Qutaybah. Tarikh al-Kulafa, Volume 1. p. 20. 
  19. ^ Ibn Qutaybah. al-Imamah wal-Siyasah, Volume 1. pp. 19–20. 
  20. ^ History of Tabari, Volume 9. pp. 186–187. 
  21. ^ Madelung, Wilferd. The Succession to Muhammad. pp. 43–44. 
  22. ^ Kanz al-Ummal, Volume 3. p. 140. 
  23. ^ Ibn Qutaybah. al-Imamah wa al-Siyasah, Volume 1. p. 3. 
  24. ^ Ibn Qutaybah. al-Imamah wa al-Siyasah, Volume 1. pp. 19–20. 
  25. ^ Buehler, Arthur F. (2014). "Fatima". In Coeli Fitzpatrick; Adam Hani Walker. Muhammad in History, Thought, and Culture: An Encyclopedia of the Prophet of God. 1. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO. p. 186. ISBN 978-1-61069-178-9. 
  26. ^ Sulaym bin Qays al-Hilali. "Hadith 4". Kitab Sulaym Ibn Qays al-Hilali. Al-khoei.org. pp. 48–67. Archived from the original on 6 July 2010. Retrieved 4 March 2012. 
  27. ^ Al-Shahrastani. Al-Milal wa al-Nihal كتاب: الملل والنحل **|نداء الإيمان (in Arabic). Al-eman.com. Retrieved 4 March 2012. That a troublesome theologian called al-Naẓẓām (d. 231 AH) "increased his lying deception" and said: "Umar kicked Fatima's stomach on the day of allegiance until she miscarried and he yelled: "Burn her house and whoever is in it" and in it were Ali, Fatima, al-Hasan and al-Husayn." 
  28. ^ a b c "The Attack on the house of H. Fatema Zahra (sa) Part 2". Umar. Umar. Retrieved 11 March 2018. 
  29. ^ Ibn Qays, Sulaym. p. 74.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  30. ^ Rejaale’ Kashi, Volume 1. p. 37. 
  31. ^ Al Ihtejaj. p. 73. 
  32. ^ As Seraat Al Mustaqeem, Volume 3. p. 25. 
  33. ^ Kaukabe' Durriyah, Volume 1. pp. 194–195. 
  34. ^ al-Safadi, Salahuddin Khalil. Waafi al- Wafiyyaat. 
  35. ^ Ilmul Yaqeen, Volume 2. p. 677. 
  36. ^ Seeratul Aimmah Isna Ashar, Volume 1. p. 145. 
  37. ^ Ibn Qutaybah. al-Imamah wa al-Siyasah, Volume 1. p. 14. 
  38. ^ Labaf, Ali. The color of blood(revolve in Texts martyrdom of Hazrat Zahra). p. 19,17. 
  39. ^ Labaf, Ali. And the fire flared up(Burning bit Fatima (as) Shia sources). p. 16. 
  40. ^ Labaf, Ali. Eternal Legacy(Study and analysis about the attack against the house of Fatima). p. 19. 
  41. ^ Babawayh, Ibn. Al-Amali (Shia sources). 
  42. ^ Vahid Khorasani, Hossein. Connection chain Prophecy and emamate. p. 73,74. 
  43. ^ STAFF, WRITER. "hawzah.net". www.hawzah.net. 
  44. ^ STAFF, WRITER. "Mohammad Shahroudi". baghi.ir. 
  45. ^ STAFF, WRITER. "qurantv". www.qurantv.ir. 
  46. ^ STAFF, WRITER. "seyyed hossein borujerdi". broujerdi.org. Archived from the original on 12 March 2016. 
  47. ^ STAFF, WRITER. "wahidkhorasani" (PDF). wahidkhorasani. 
  48. ^ Motahhari, Morteza. Seiry dar sirey'e nabavi (A Journey through the Prophetic Conduct). 

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