Umatilla County, Oregon

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Umatilla County, Oregon
UmatillaCountyCircuitCourt.jpg
Stafford Hansell Government Center in Hermiston
Map of Oregon highlighting Umatilla County
Location in the U.S. state of Oregon
Map of the United States highlighting Oregon
Oregon's location in the U.S.
Founded September 27, 1862
Seat Pendleton
Largest city Hermiston
Area
 • Total 3,231 sq mi (8,368 km2)
 • Land 3,216 sq mi (8,329 km2)
 • Water 16 sq mi (41 km2), 0.5%
Population (est.)
 • (2016) 76,456
 • Density 20/sq mi (9/km2)
Congressional district 2nd
Time zone Pacific: UTC−8/−7
Website www.co.umatilla.or.us

Umatilla County /ˌjuːməˈtɪlə/ is a county located in the U.S. state of Oregon. As of the 2010 census, the population was 75,889.[1] The county seat is Pendleton, but the largest city is Hermiston.[2] The county is named for the Umatilla River.

Umatilla County is part of the Hermiston-Pendleton, OR Micropolitan Statistical Area. Portland State University projects that 80% of all growth in the MSA will occur in the immediate Hermiston vicinity between 2016 and 2035.[3] It is included in the eight-county definition of Eastern Oregon.

History[edit]

Umatilla County was created on September 27, 1862, out of a portion of Wasco County. Adjustments were made to the county's boundaries following the creation of Grant, Morrow, Union, and Wallowa Counties. This legislative act also designated Marshall Station as the temporary county seat. An 1865 election selected Umatilla City, now known as Umatilla, as the county seat. With the development of wheat farming, population shifted to the north and east parts of the county, and a subsequent election in 1868 moved the county seat again to Pendleton.

The Umatilla Indian Reservation was established by the Treaty of Walla Walla in 1855. The Umatillas, Walla Wallas, and Cayuse tribes were resettled there, and is located immediately southeast of Pendleton.

EZ Wireless of Hermiston officially opened on February 4, 2004, one of the largest known Wi-Fi wide area networks in the United States, covering parts of Umatilla County, Morrow County and Benton County, Washington. Although created to facilitate communications among local police, firemen and EMT workers who immediately respond to possible accidents or terrorist attacks on the Umatilla Chemical Depot, where the U.S. Army maintained a national arsenal of nerve gas, the network can be accessed in some places by the public for free.[4]

Geography[edit]

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 3,231 square miles (8,370 km2), of which 3,216 square miles (8,330 km2) is land and 16 square miles (41 km2) (0.5%) is water.[5] It borders the Columbia River across from Washington.

Adjacent counties[edit]

I-84 eastbound and McKay Reservoir in Umatilla County

National protected areas[edit]

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
Census Pop.
18702,916
18809,607229.5%
189013,38139.3%
190018,04934.9%
191020,30912.5%
192025,94627.8%
193024,399−6.0%
194026,0306.7%
195041,70360.2%
196044,3526.4%
197044,9231.3%
198058,86131.0%
199059,2490.7%
200070,54819.1%
201075,8897.6%
Est. 201780,500[6]6.1%
U.S. Decennial Census[7]
1790-1960[8] 1900-1990[9]
1990-2000[10] 2010-2016[1]

2000 census[edit]

As of the census[11] of 2000, there were 70,548 people, 25,195 households, and 17,838 families residing in the county. The population density was 22 people per square mile (8/km²). There were 27,676 housing units at an average density of 9 per square mile (3/km²). The racial makeup of the county was 82.00% White, 0.82% Black or African American, 3.37% Native American, 0.75% Asian, 0.18% Pacific Islander, 10.67% from other races, and 2.21% from two or more races. 16.11% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 17.1% were of German, 13.0% American, 9.8% English and 6.8% Irish ancestry. 84.4% spoke English and 14.3% Spanish as their first language.

There were 25,195 households out of which 35.00% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.10% were married couples living together, 10.60% had a female householder with no husband present, and 29.20% were non-families. 23.70% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.70% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.67 and the average family size was 3.14.

In the county, the population was spread out with 27.80% under the age of 18, 9.40% from 18 to 24, 28.30% from 25 to 44, 22.20% from 45 to 64, and 12.30% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 104.80 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 104.70 males.

The median income for a household in the county was $36,249, and the median income for a family was $41,850. Males had a median income of $31,479 versus $22,325 for females. The per capita income for the county was $16,410. About 9.80% of families and 12.70% of the population were below the poverty line, including 16.20% of those under age 18 and 8.70% of those age 65 or over.

2010 census[edit]

As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 75,889 people, 26,904 households, and 18,647 families residing in the county.[12] The population density was 23.6 inhabitants per square mile (9.1/km2). There were 29,693 housing units at an average density of 9.2 per square mile (3.6/km2).[13] The racial makeup of the county was 79.1% white, 3.5% American Indian, 0.9% Asian, 0.8% black or African American, 0.1% Pacific islander, 12.5% from other races, and 3.1% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 23.9% of the population.[12] In terms of ancestry, 21.4% were German, 12.8% were Irish, 11.6% were English, and 5.6% were American.[14]

Of the 26,904 households, 36.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.9% were married couples living together, 12.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.7% were non-families, and 24.7% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.67 and the average family size was 3.17. The median age was 35.7 years.[12]

The median income for a household in the county was $45,861 and the median income for a family was $53,585. Males had a median income of $39,288 versus $30,489 for females. The per capita income for the county was $20,035. About 11.0% of families and 15.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 21.4% of those under age 18 and 9.5% of those age 65 or over.[15]

Government and politics[edit]

State Legislature[edit]

Umatilla County contains two Oregon State House Districts: State House District 57, which is currently represented by Greg Smith, and State House District 58, which is currently represented by Greg Barreto. Umatilla County is also located in Oregon State Senate District 29, represented by Bill Hansell. Smith, Barreto, and Hansell are registered Republicans.[16]

Board of Commissioners[edit]

Umatilla County is represented and governed by three County Commissioners. The Umatilla County Board of Commissioners is currently made up of William J. "Bill" Elfering, George Murdock and Chair, W. Lawrence Givens.

Make-up of Umatilla County voters[edit]

Registered voters in Umatilla County, April 2009.[17]

Like all counties in eastern Oregon, the majority of registered voters who are part of a political party in Umatilla County are members of the Republican Party.[17] In the 2008 presidential election 59.77 percent of Umatilla County voters voted for Republican John McCain, while 37.16 percent voted for Democrat Barack Obama and 3.07 percent of voters either voted for a Third Party candidate or wrote in a candidate.[18] These numbers show a small but definite shift towards the Democratic candidate when compared to the 2004 presidential election, in which 65.8% of Umatilla Country voters voted for George W. Bush, while 32.8% voted for John Kerry, and 1.4% of voters either voted for a Third Party candidate or wrote in a candidate.[19]

Presidential elections results
Presidential elections results[20]
Year Republican Democratic Third parties
2016 61.8% 17,059 27.8% 7,673 10.4% 2,865
2012 62.1% 15,499 34.4% 8,584 3.6% 886
2008 59.8% 15,254 37.2% 9,484 3.1% 785
2004 64.8% 17,068 33.8% 8,884 1.4% 370
2000 61.3% 14,140 33.9% 7,809 4.8% 1,111
1996 45.1% 9,703 40.8% 8,774 14.0% 3,018
1992 36.1% 7,095 34.6% 6,787 29.3% 5,761
1988 54.0% 10,254 43.9% 8,327 2.1% 400
1984 63.1% 14,211 36.6% 8,246 0.3% 57
1980 57.8% 12,950 32.9% 7,382 9.3% 2,082
1976 51.8% 9,345 44.3% 7,985 3.9% 701
1972 57.9% 10,470 33.7% 6,090 8.4% 1,511
1968 54.8% 8,975 39.1% 6,402 6.1% 1,002
1964 36.4% 6,138 63.4% 10,689 0.2% 32
1960 53.8% 9,374 46.2% 8,053 0.0% 6
1956 55.7% 9,654 44.3% 7,678 0.0% 0
1952 59.6% 10,529 40.2% 7,098 0.2% 40
1948 48.7% 5,726 50.1% 5,891 1.2% 144
1944 51.8% 5,379 47.8% 4,967 0.4% 45
1940 51.1% 5,193 48.6% 4,935 0.3% 32
1936 31.3% 2,943 61.1% 5,753 7.6% 715
1932 33.0% 2,930 63.4% 5,631 3.6% 316
1928 67.8% 5,277 30.7% 2,390 1.5% 113
1924 44.7% 3,854 35.4% 3,052 19.9% 1,714
1920 58.0% 4,979 37.9% 3,255 4.0% 346
1916 42.3% 3,664 53.2% 4,606 4.5% 385
1912 29.3% 1,261 36.3% 1,563 34.4% 1,480
1908 55.7% 2,328 37.5% 1,568 6.8% 286
1904 66.3% 2,642 21.1% 840 12.7% 505

Economy[edit]

The gold rush of 1862 brought miners and stock raisers to the mountains and grasslands of Umatilla County. Another stimulus was the arrival of the railroad in 1881, opening the region to the development of dry land wheat farming. Water for irrigation has been key to economic diversification and growth, most recently in the Hermiston area, where potatoes, onions, corn, and more than 200 other crops are grown commercially. Low cost power through Umatilla Electric Cooperative and good a freeway access are also driving a growth in the Hermiston area with Amazon.com developing large data-center operations there & major distribution facilities for Wal-Mart, Fed-Ex, and UPS all located in Hermiston.

Communities[edit]

Trestle seen off Sparks Station Rd at Pendleton Country Club, opposite of the McKay Reservoir, Pendleton, Oregon. Transportation linkages in Umatilla are one of the county's major advantages.[21]
An old grain elevator along Steen Road south of Milton-Freewater, Umatilla County.

Umatilla County is generally divided into three distinct economic and cultural areas, which are the "West-End," the Pendleton-area, and the Milton-Freewater-area. Although each of these communities shares some economic ties, the distance between each creates three very distinct communities. The West-End includes the communities of Hermiston, Umatilla, Stanfield, and Echo. The Pendleton-area includes Pendleton, as well as Pilot Rock, Adams, and Athena. The Milton-Freewater-area is largely tied to the Walla Walla, Washington area, and is considered a part of the Walla Walla Metropolitan Planning Organization. The similarities between the areas has created a long-standing rivalry, particularly between the West-End and the Pendleton-area, with regard to economic opportunity and public resources. The West-End, led by Hermiston as its largest city, is now nearly twice the size of the Pendleton area, and is projected to be nearly three times the size of the Pendleton area by the year 2035.[22]

Cities[edit]

Census-designated places[edit]

Unincorporated communities[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "State & County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved November 15, 2013. 
  2. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved 2011-06-07. 
  3. ^ "Portland State University: Population Projections 2016-2036; Umatilla County". 
  4. ^ "Wi-Fi Cloud Covers Rural Oregon". Wired News. CondéNet Inc. Associated Press. October 16, 2005. Retrieved 2006-12-10. 
  5. ^ "2010 Census Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. August 22, 2012. Retrieved February 28, 2015. 
  6. ^ "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". Retrieved June 9, 2017. 
  7. ^ "U.S. Decennial Census". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved February 28, 2015. 
  8. ^ "Historical Census Browser". University of Virginia Library. Retrieved February 28, 2015. 
  9. ^ Forstall, Richard L., ed. (March 27, 1995). "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved February 28, 2015. 
  10. ^ "Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. April 2, 2001. Retrieved February 28, 2015. 
  11. ^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  12. ^ a b c "DP-1 Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 Demographic Profile Data". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2016-02-23. 
  13. ^ "Population, Housing Units, Area, and Density: 2010 - County". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2016-02-23. 
  14. ^ "DP02 SELECTED SOCIAL CHARACTERISTICS IN THE UNITED STATES – 2006-2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2016-02-23. 
  15. ^ "DP03 SELECTED ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS – 2006-2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2016-02-23. 
  16. ^ http://www.votesmart.org/search.php?search=97828&x=5&y=14 Retrieved 11/17/09
  17. ^ a b http://www.sos.state.or.us/elections/votreg/mar09.pdf Retrieved on 4/20/09
  18. ^ http://www.co.umatilla.or.us/deptwebs/elections/11-04-08.pdf retrieved 4/20/09
  19. ^ http://www.city-data.com/county/Umatilla_County-OR.html Retrieved on 4/21/09
  20. ^ Leip, David. "Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections". uselectionatlas.org. Retrieved 2018-04-11. 
  21. ^ 1996 Portrait: Regional (northwest) Economic Review And Outlook. DIANE Publishing Company. 2004. p. 32. ISBN 0-7881-3093-5. 
  22. ^ http://www.hermiston.or.us/sites/hermiston.or.us/files/File/economic-development/Umatilla_County_Final_Forecast_Report_201606.pdf

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 45°22′30″N 118°45′05″W / 45.375131°N 118.7513661°W / 45.375131; -118.7513661