This is a family tree of the Umayyad dynasty, whose name derives from Umayya ibn Abd Shams. Umayya's great-grandson Muawiyah I founded the Umayyad Caliphate in 661, and transferred its capital to Damascus, Syria. The Sufyanid branch to which Muawiyah belonged ceased to exercise power following the abdication of Muawiya II in 684. Power shifted to the Marwanid branch, which continued to rule the caliphate until the Umayyads were displaced and massacred by the Abbasids in 750 (see Battle of the Zab). An Umayyad prince named Abd ar-Rahman managed to escape the massacre, and fled to the Iberian peninsula (Al-Andalus) where he established an independent emirate ruled from the city of Córdoba. His descendants continued to rule the Emirate of Córdoba, which Abd-ar-Rahman III elevated to the status of caliphate in 929. The Caliphate of Córdoba disintegrated into several independent taifa kingdoms in 1031, thus bringing to a definitive end the rule of the Umayyads.
The descendants of Umayya ibn Abd Shams and ʿAbd al-Muttalib
- Umayyads of Damascus
- Umayyads of Córdoba