Umayyah ibn Khalaf
Umayyah ibn Khalaf ibn Safwan was a Meccan Arab, a leading member of the Quraish and head of Bani Jumah. He was an opponent of the Muslims led by Muhammad and is best known as the master of Bilal ibn Ribah, a slave he tortured for converting to Islam. Called also as Abu Ali. He was killed in the battle of Badar by Bilal ibn rabbah himself
Other transliterations of the name include: Umayya, Umaiiya and Umaiya.
Kuniyat: Abu Safwan
Nisbah: ‘Umaiyah ibn Khalaf ibn Habib ibn Wahb ibn Hudhafah ibn Jumah
Brothers: Wahb and Ubayy
Grandson: Abdullah ibn Safwan.
Opposition to Islam
Umayyah was involved in the pagan religious ceremonies of Mecca, where he distributed perfume in the square of the Kaaba.
After Muhammad began to preach against idolatry, Umayyah became a staunch opponent of the new teaching.
He also known for his action, that he subjected his slave Bilal ibn Ribah to torture for having adopted Islam. Bilal was made to lie down on hot burning desert sand and had a heavy stone put on his chest which made breathing difficult for him. Since he still refused to denounce Islam, a heavy person was to jump on the stone. Bilal used to repeat "Ahad! Ahad! (One God! One God!).
Friendship with Abd al-Rahman
Because of their friendship, the two formed a written agreement, according to which Abdul Rahman was to protect Umayah's property and/or family in Medina, while Umayyah would protect Abd-al-Rahman's in Mecca. When Abd al-Rahman's name was mentioned in the document, Umayyah protested, saying "I do not know Ar-Rahman" and requested that the pre-Islamic name "Abdu Amr" should be used, to which Abd al-Rahman yielded.
Pilgrimage of Sa'd
Umayyah was also an intimate friend with Sa'd ibn Mua'dh, the leader of the Banu Aus. When Umayyah was in Medina on his way to Syria, he used to stay with Sa'd and when Sa'd was in Mecca, he used to stay with Umayah.
Prior to the Battle of Badr, Sa'd visited Mecca once to perform his Umrah with Umayyah, when they came across Abu Jahl. They had an argument, and as it became heated, Sa'd threatened Abu Jahl with stopping the Meccan trade route to Syria and informed Umayyah that his life was threatened by Muhammad.
Battle of Badr
In 624 CE, the Meccans decided to confront the Muslim forces that threatened a caravan from Syria led by Abu Sufyan ibn Harb. Abu Jahl was rallying the people for war, saying "Go and protect your caravan."
Umayyah however, anxious about Sa'd's warning, disliked to leave Mecca, but Abu Jahl told him "O Abu Safwan! If the people see you staying behind though you are the chief of the people of the Valley, then they will remain behind with you.".
Abu Jahl urged until Umayyah said "As you have forced me to change my mind, I will buy the best camel in Mecca". Umayyah told his wife "O Um Safwan, prepare what I need (for the journey)." She said to him, "O Abu Safwan! Have you forgotten what your Yathribi brother told you?" He said, "No, but I do not want to go with them but for a short distance." So when Umaiya went out, he used to tie his camel wherever he camped.
In the battle, Umayyah was captured by his old friend Abdul Rahman ibn Awf. He was killed by a group of Muslims led by his former slave Bilal (who was a victim of his earlier torture), in spite of Abdul Rahman's protestations and his attempt to shield Umayyah with his own body. One of Umayyah's sons was also killed at Badr, defending his father.
On the day of Badr, when all the people went to sleep, I went up the hill to protect him. Bilal saw him (i.e. Umayyah) and went to a gathering of Ansar and said, "(Here is) Umayyah ibn Khalaf! Woe to me if he escapes!" So, a group of Ansar went out with Bilal to follow us (Abd-al-Rahman and Umayyah). Being afraid that they would catch us, I left Umayyah's son for them to keep them busy but the Ansar killed the son and insisted on following us. Umayyah was a fat man, and when they approached us, I told him to kneel down, and he knelt, and I laid myself on him to protect him, but the Ansar killed him by passing their swords underneath me, and one of them injured my foot with his sword. (The sub-narrator said, "Abdul Rahman used to show us the trace of the wound on the back of his foot.")
- Sahih Bukhari "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2006-11-28. Retrieved 2007-01-02.
- Slavery From Islamic and Christian Perspectives by Sa'id Akhtar Rizvi on Al-islam.org , referencing Ibn Sa'd , op. cit., vol. III:1, p. 166; Abu Na'im, op. cit., vol. 1, p. 148; Ibn Hajar, op. cit., vol. 1, p. 336.
- John Glubb, The Life and times Muhammad, Lanham 1998, p. 186f.
- Sahih al-Bukhari, 3:38:498
- Sahih al-Bukhari, 5:59:286
- Sahih al-Bukhari, 4:56:826