Umm Ayman

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Barakah (Arabic: بَـرَكَـة‎) the daughter of Tha'alaba bin Amr, known as Umme Aymen (Arabic: أمّ أيمن‎), was the Second Mother of the Prophet of Islam, she was an Abyssinian slave girl of Abdullah ibn Abdul-Muttalib, or his wife Aminah. Since the death of Aminah, Umme Aymen looked after her son, that is the Islamic Nabī (Arabic: نَـبِي‎, Prophet) Muhammad, until he had grown up. Later Muhammad freed her, but she fondly served Muhammad and his family for a long time, especially by being present in the battles of Uhud and Khaybar. Muhammad introduced her as a heavenly woman.[citation needed]

Parentage and general description[edit]

Barakah the daughter of Tha'alaba bin Amr was Abyssinian.[1] She became Muhammad's slave after the death of Abdullah and Aminah.[2]

Caring of Muhammad in childhood[edit]

Since Aminah died in Al-Abwa, Barakah looked after Muhammad, before his entrance to Makkah (Arabic: مَـكَّـة‎, Mecca).[3] and afterwards for a long time,[4] until he grew up.[5] Abdul-Muttalib ibn Hashim, Muhammad's paternal grandfather, had told her not to neglect his grandson, especially as Ahl al-Kiṫâb (Arabic: أَهـل الـكِـتـاب‎, People of the Book) thought that he would be a prophet of the nation.[6]

Marriage and children[edit]

When Muhammad married Khadija, he arranged for Barakah's freedom and marriage to a Khazrajite companion of his named "Ubayd ibn Zaid." Barakah bore a son named Ayman, and thus was she known as "Umm Ayman" ("Mother of Ayman").[7] Shortly thereafter, her husband was killed in the Battle of Khaybar.[8] In addition his son was killed in Battle of Hunayn.[9]

Muhammad's adopted son Zayd ibn Harithah married Barakah. They had a son named Usama who was to be one of the future leaders of Islam.[10]

Migration[edit]

After Muhammad declared his Prophethood, Umm Ayman became one of his first followers. Later, she migrated to Medina.[11]

Participation in battles[edit]

Umm Ayman was present at the Battle of Uhud. She fetched water for the soldiers and helped treat the injured. She also accompanied Muhammad in the Battle of Khaybar.[12]

In the battle of Uhud, many men ran away toward Medina after rumor of the death of Muhammad. Umm Ayman sprinkled dust on the face of some fugitives, gave them a spindle and told them: "give me your sword and [you] spin spindle." Then she went toward the battlefield along with several women.[13] Subsequently, she was injured by an arrow which Hebban bin Araqa, an enemy soldier, shot at her.[14]

Relationship with others[edit]

Muhammad was fond of Umm Ayman, and even calling her mother.[15] Several hadiths describe Muhammad's esteem for her.[16] He visited Umm Ayman at her house, and after him, Caliphs Abu Bakr and Umar did the same.[17] In some hadith sources there is a chapter about the virtues of Umm Ayman.[18] She is also praised in Shi'ite sources.[19]

A few ahadith have been narrated from her.[20] Those such as Anas ibn Malik, Abu Yazid Madani and Hanash bin Abdullah San'any have narrated from her.[21]

Umme Ayman was one of the witness for FADAK property which was bequeathed to Fatima by her Father "the Prophet of Islam"

Death[edit]

The exact date of Umm Ayman's death is not clear. Some have suggested that she died approximately five months after Muhammad's death.[22] But according to ibn Sa'd,[23] she was alive in the early days of the caliphate of Uthman.[24]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Zuhri, p 177; al-Tabarani, vol. 25, p. 86
  2. ^ Ibn Sa`d, vol. 8, p. 223; Baladhuri, vol.1, p. 96
  3. ^ Ibn Qutaybah, p. 150
  4. ^ Baladhuri, vol.1, p.472
  5. ^ Ibn Hajar, al-Ithaba, vol.8, p. 380
  6. ^ ibn Kathir, al-Bidayah wa al-Nihayah, vol. 2, p. 343
  7. ^ Ibn Sa`d, vol. 8, p. 223; Ibn Sa`d, vol. 4, p. 61
  8. ^ Sadeqi Ardestani, Ahmad (1998). Zanane daneshmand wa ravi hadith=the learned and narratar women‌. Qom. p. 3.
  9. ^ mahallati, vol.2, p. 26
  10. ^ Baladhuri, vol.1, p.96
  11. ^ Baladhuri, vol. 1, p. 269
  12. ^ Al-Waqidi, vol.1, p. 241, 250, vol.2, p. 685; Ibn Sa`d, vol. 8, p. 225; Baladhuri, vol. 1, p.
  13. ^ Bahr al-Ulum, MuhammadAli, translate by Muhammad Ali Amini,(1979), Woman of early Islam, Hekmat
  14. ^ Ibn Athir, Ali (2009). al-Kamil fi al-Tarikh. vol. 2. Beirut: Dar Ihya al-Turath al-Arabi. p. 160.
  15. ^ Ibn Sa`d, vol. 8, p. 223
  16. ^ Ibn Sa`d, vol. 8, p. 223-226; Al-Dhahabi, vol. 2, p. 224
  17. ^ Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj, vol. 2, p. 1907; Ibn Majah, vol. 2, p. 523-524; ibn Abd al-Birr, vol. 4, p. 1794
  18. ^ Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj, vol. 2, p. 1907-1908
  19. ^ Al-Kulayni, vol. 2, p. 405; Ibn Babawayh, p. 76
  20. ^ Ahmad ibn Hanbal, vol. 2, p. 421; al-Tabarani, vol. 25, p. 87-91; Ibn Majah, vol. 2, p. 1107
  21. ^ Ibn Hajar, vol. 12, p. 459
  22. ^ al-Tabarani, vol. 25, p. 86; quoted from Zuhri
  23. ^ Ibn Sa`d, vol. 8, p. 226
  24. ^ al-Tabarani, vol. 25, p. 86; Al-Dhahabi, vol.2, p. 227

Bibliography[edit]

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  • ibn Abd al-Birr, Yusuf (1960). al-Isti‘ab, recherch by Ali Mohammad Bejavi. Cairo.
  • Ibn Qutaybah, Abdullah (1969). al-Ma'arif, research by Therwat Akasheh. Cairo.
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