Umm Ayman (Barakah)

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Barakah (Arabic: بركة‎‎), daughter of Tha'alaba bin Amr, known as Umme Aymen (Arabic: أم أيمن‎‎), was an Abyssinian slave girl of Abdullah ibn Abdul-Muttalib or his wife Aminah. Since Aminah died, Umme Aymen looked after her son, Muhammad, until he had grown up. Later Muhammad freed her, but she fondly served Muhammad and his family for a long time. The Islamic Prophet has introduced her as a heavenly woman. Umme Aymen was present at the Battle of Uhud and the Battle of Khaybar.

Parentage and general description[edit]

Barakah, daughter of Tha'alaba bin Amr, known as Umm Ayman, was Abyssinian[1] slave girl of Abdullah ibn Abdul-Muttalib, Muhammad's father, or his wife Aminah. She became Muhammad's slave after the death of Abdullah and Aminah.[2]

Caring of Muhammad in childhood[edit]

Since Aminah died in Al-Abwa, Barakah looked after Muhammad until entrance to Makkah.[3] Also she served Muhammad for a long time[4] and took over the caring of him until he grew up.[5] Abdul-Muttalib had said to Barakah that don’t neglect my son, People of the Book think that my son is the prophet of this nation.[6]

Marriage and children[edit]

When Muhammad married Khadija, he arranged for Barakah’s freedom and marriage to a Khazrajite named Ubayd ibn Zaid. Barakah bore a son named Ayman so she is known to be Umm Ayman means ‘the mother of Ayman’.[7] shortly thereafter her husband, who was the companion of the Islamic Prophet, was killed in Battle of Khaybar.[8] In addition his son was killed in Battle of Hunayn.[9]

Zayd ibn Harithah married Barakah. It is said that they had a son named Usama who was to be one of the future leaders of Islam.[10] However, this son was born to Zayd between 612 and 615, which would make Umm Ayman impossible as the mother, since she would not be widowed until 628, after which she married Zayd. As Umm Ayman would have been at least eight years older than Muhammad, she would have been at least 50 when Usama was born and at least 66 when she married Zayd.

Migration[edit]

When the Muhammad received the Islamic Prophethood, Umm Ayman was among the first Muslims. Later, she migrated to Medina.[11]

Participation in battles[edit]

Umm Ayman was present at the Battle of Uhud. She watered the fighters and treated injured. She also accompanied the Islamic Prophet in Battle of Khaybar.[12]

In the battle of Uhud, many men ran away toward Medina after rumor of the death of Muhammad. Umm Ayman sprinkled dust on the face of some fugitives, gave them a spindle and told them: "give me your sword and [you] spin spindle." Then she went toward the battlefield along with several women.[13] Subsequently she was injured by an arrow which Hebban bin Araqa, an enemy soldier, shot at her.[14]

Relationship with the Ahl al-Bayt[edit]

The Islamic Prophet was very fond of Umm Ayman, and even it is said he sometimes called Umm Ayman as his mother.[15] Some hadiths is quoted about her high dignity for the Islamic Prophet.[16] The Prophet visited Umm Ayman at her house, and Following the Islamic Prophet, Abu Bakr and Umar did the same.[17] Hence, in some hadiths sources, there is a chapter about the virtues of Umm Ayman.[18] In Shia’s sources she is mentioned with respect too.[19]

The Islamic Prophet has introduced her as a heavenly woman.

A few hadiths is narrated from Umm Ayman.[20] Those such as Anas ibn Malik, Abu Yazid Madani and Hanash bin Abdullah San'any have narrated from her.[21]

Death[edit]

The exact date of Umm Ayman's death is not clear. Some have suggested she died approximately five months after the death of the Islamic Prophet.[22] But according to ibn Sa'd quotes[23] she was alive to the early days of the caliphate of Uthman.[24]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Zuhri, p 177; al-Tabarani, vol. 25, p. 86
  2. ^ Ibn Sa`d, vol. 8, p. 223; Baladhuri, vol.1, p. 96
  3. ^ Ibn Qutaybah, p. 150
  4. ^ Baladhuri, vol.1, p.472
  5. ^ Ibn Hajar, al-Ithaba, vol.8, p. 380
  6. ^ ibn Kathir, al-Bidayah wa al-Nihayah, vol. 2, p. 343
  7. ^ Ibn Sa`d, vol. 8, p. 223; Ibn Sa`d, vol. 4, p. 61
  8. ^ sadeqi Ardestani, Ahmad (1998). Zanane daneshmand wa ravi hadith = the learned and narratar women‌. Qom. p. 3. 
  9. ^ mahallati, vol.2, p. 26
  10. ^ Baladhuri, vol.1, p.96
  11. ^ Baladhuri, vol. 1, p. 269
  12. ^ Al-Waqidi, vol.1, p. 241, 250, vol.2, p. 685; Ibn Sa`d, vol. 8, p. 225; Baladhuri, vol. 1, p.
  13. ^ Bahr al-Ulum, MuhammadAli, translate by Muhammad Ali Amini,(1979), Woman of early Islam, Hekmat
  14. ^ Ibn Athir, Ali (2009). al-Kamil fi al-Tarikh. vol. 2. Beirut: Dar Ihya al-Turath al-Arabi. p. 160. 
  15. ^ Ibn Sa`d, vol. 8, p. 223
  16. ^ Ibn Sa`d, vol. 8, p. 223-226; Al-Dhahabi, vol. 2, p. 224
  17. ^ Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj, vol. 2, p. 1907; Ibn Majah, vol. 2, p. 523-524; ibn Abd al-Birr, vol. 4, p. 1794
  18. ^ Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj, vol. 2, p. 1907-1908
  19. ^ Al-Kulayni, vol. 2, p. 405; Ibn Babawayh, p. 76
  20. ^ Ahmad ibn Hanbal, vol. 2, p. 421; al-Tabarani, vol. 25, p. 87-91; Ibn Majah, vol. 2, p. 1107
  21. ^ Ibn Hajar, vol. 12, p. 459
  22. ^ al-Tabarani, vol. 25, p. 86; quoted from Zuhri
  23. ^ Ibn Sa`d, vol. 8, p. 226
  24. ^ al-Tabarani, vol. 25, p. 86; Al-Dhahabi, vol.2, p. 227

References[edit]

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  • Ibn Babawayh, Muhammad (1980). Amali. Beirut. 
  • Ibn Hajar Al-Asqalani, Ahmad (1909). Tahzib Al-Tahzib. Hyderabad Deccan. 
  • Ibn Sa`d, Mohammed. al-Tabaqat al-Kubra. Dar Sader. 
  • ibn Abd al-Birr, Yusuf (1960). al-Isti‘ab, recherch by Ali Mohammad Bejavi. Cairo. 
  • Ibn Qutaybah, Abdullah (1969). al-Ma'arif, research by Therwat Akasheh. Cairo. 
  • ibn Kathir, Abdullah (1988). al-Bidayah wa al-Nihayah, research by Ali Shiri. Dar Ihya al-Turath al-Arabi. 
  • Ibn Majah, Muhammad (1981). Sunan. Istanbul. 
  • ibn Hanbal, Ahmad (1981). Musnad. Cairo. 
  • Baladhuri, Ahmad (1959). Ansab al Ashraf, research by Muhammad Hamidullah. Cairo. 
  • Al-Dhahabi, Ahmad (1986). Seir Alam Al-Nubala, research by Shu’aib al-Arnaou and others. Beirut. 
  • Zuhri, Abdullah (1981). al-maghzi al-nabawiyya, research by Soheil Zakar. Dar al-fikr. 
  • al-Tabarani, Sulayman (1981). Al-Mujam al-Kabir, research of Hamdi Abdul-Majid Salafi. Baghdad. 
  • al-Tabarsi (1966). Al-Ihtijaj, vol. 1. Dar ol-no'man. 
  • Al-Kulayni, Muhammad (1980). al-Kafi, Revised by Ali Akbar Ghaffariy. Beirut. 
  • ibn al-Hajjaj, Muslim (1980). Sahih, annotator: Muhammad Fuad ‘Abd al-Baqi. Istanbul. 
  • Al-Waqidi, Muhammad (1966). al-Maghazi, research by Marsden, Johns. London. 
  • Mahallati, Zabihollah (1979). al-rayahin al-sharia. Hekmat.