Umm Kulthum bint Jarwal

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Umm Kulthum bint Jarwal, also known as Mulayka, was a wife of Umar and a companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.

Biography[edit]

She was born in Mecca as a member of the Khuza'a tribe. Her father was either Jarwal ibn Malik[1]:204 or his son 'Amr ibn Jarwal.[2]:92

She married Umar ibn al-Khattab before 616,[2]:92 and they had two sons, Zayd "the Younger" and Ubaydallah. Umar was concurrently married to Zaynab bint Madhun, who bore him three children,[1]:204 and to Qurayba bint Abi Umayya,[3]:510 who was childless. Umar converted to Islam in 616.[1]:207 The whole family emigrated to Medina in 622,[3]:218 although Umm Kulthum and Qurayba were still polytheists.[3]:510[4]

Soon after the Treaty of Hudaybiya in 628, Muhammad announced a revelation that Muslims were ordered to "hold not to the cords of disbelieving women." Accordingly, Umar divorced Umm Kulthum and Qurayba, and they both returned to Mecca.[1]:204[3]:510[4]

The sources do not indicate the order of Umm Kulthum’s subsequent marriages. She married Abu Jahm ibn Hudhayfa in Mecca "while they were both polytheists," i.e., before January 630.[2]:92 Abu Jahm was, like Umar, a member of the Adi clan of the Quraysh.[3]:510 He was known in the community as "a great beater of women."[5][6]:192[7][8]

Whether before or after this, Umm Kulthum was also one of the wives of Safwan ibn Umayya, a member of the Juma clan[2]:92 who was a leader in the Quraysh opposition to Muhammad.[3]:318–319, 370[9][10] He became a Muslim after the Conquest of Mecca[2]:185 but continued to live in Mecca.[11]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Muhammad ibn Saad. Kitab al-Tabaqat al-Kabir vol. 3. Translated by Bewley, A. (2013). The Companions of Badr. London: Ta-Ha Publishers.
  2. ^ a b c d e Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari. Tarikh al-Rusul wa'l-Muluk. Translated by Fishbein, M. (1998). Volume 8: The Victory of Islam. Albany: State University of New York Press.
  3. ^ a b c d e f Muhammad ibn Ishaq. Sirat Rasul Allah. Translated by Guillaume, A. (1955). The Life of Muhammad. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  4. ^ a b Bukhari 3:50:891.
  5. ^ Muslim 9:3526.
  6. ^ Muhammad ibn Saad. Kitab al-Tabaqat al-Kabir vol. 8. Translated by Bewley, A. (1995). The Women of Madina. London: Ta-Ha Publishers.
  7. ^ Muslim 9:3512.
  8. ^ Nasa'i 4:26:3247.
  9. ^ Muhammad ibn Umar al-Waqidi. Kitab al-Maghazi. Translated by Faizer, R., Ismail, A., & Tayob, A. K. (2011). The Life of Muhammad, pp. 217, 284-286, 295. London & New York: Routledge.
  10. ^ Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari. Tarikh al-Rusul wa'l-Muluk. Translated by McDonald, M. V., & annotated by Watt, W. M. (1987). Volume 7: The Foundation of the Community, pp. 78-80, 106. Albany: State University of New York Press.
  11. ^ Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari. Tarik al-Rusual wa'l-Muluk. Translated by Landau-Tasseron, E. (1998). Volume 39: Biographies of the Prophet's Companions and Their Successors, p. 81. Albany: State University of New York Press.