Umm Kulthum bint Muhammad

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Umm Kulthum bint Muhammad
أم كلثوم بنت محمد
أم كلثوم بنت محمد.png
Born603 AD
DiedNovember, 630 (aged 27)
Resting placeAl-Baqi
Spouse(s)Uthman
Parents
RelativesQasim (full-brother)
Ruqayyah (full-sister)
Zainab (full-sister)
Abdullah (full-brother)
Fatimah (full-sister)
Ibrahim (half-brother)
Ali (brother-in-law & cousin)
Abu al-As (brother-in-law & maternal-cousin)
FamilyHouse of Muhammad

Umm Kulthum (Arabic: أم كلثوم‎) (c.603–630) was the third daughter of the Islamic prophet Muhammad by his first wife Khadijah bint Khuwaylid.

Conversion to Islam[edit]

She was born in Mecca, probably the fifth of their six children.[1]:10 She was legally married before August 610 to Utayba ibn Abi Lahab, but the marriage was never consummated.[1]:26[2]:163 She was still living with her parents when Muhammad first declared himself a prophet, and Umm Kulthum became a Muslim soon after her mother did.[1]:26

After Muhammad warned Abu Lahab of hellfire in 613, Abu Lahab told Utayba that he would never speak to him again unless he divorced Umm Kulthum, so he did.[1]:26 Her maternal brother, Hind ibn Abi Hala, asked Muhammad, "Why did you separate Umm Kulthum from Utayba?" Muhammad replied, "Allah did not allow me to marry her to a person who is not going to Paradise."[3]

Muhammad left Mecca in September 622. Before long Zayd ibn Harithah brought instructions to Umm Kulthum and her sister Fatima to join their father in Medina.[2]:171–172 Their uncle Al-Abbas put them on a camel; but as they were setting off, Huwayrith ibn Nuqaydh goaded the animal so that it threw them to the ground.[4]:773 However, Umm Kulthum and Fatima arrived safely in Medina.[1]:26[2]:163 Muhammad remembered the assault and, when he conquered Mecca in 630, he sentenced Huwayrith to death.[5]:551

Second marriage[edit]

After the death of her sister Ruqayya left Uthman a widower, he married Umm Kulthum. The marriage was legally contracted in August/September 624,[6]:128[2]:163 but they did not live together until December. The marriage was childless.[1]:26[2]:163

Soon after the Battle of Uhud, Umm Kulthum answered the door to a man who said he owed money to Uthman. Umm Kulthum sent for her husband and learned that the visitor was a cousin from the enemy army who was seeking protection. Uthman was displeased but he went to ask Muhammad about it. While he was out, some Muslims entered the house and asked Umm Kulthum where the fugitive was. She pointed to his hiding-place behind a water-skin, and they pulled him out. They brought him before Muhammad just as Uthman was pleading for the safe-conduct. Muhammad granted Uthman the right of protection for three days, so Uthman quickly gave his cousin a camel to assist his escape. But after three days, the Muslims overtook him on the road and killed him anyway.[7]:162

Anas ibn Malik recalled: "I saw Umm Kulthum, the daughter of Allah's Messenger, wearing a striped silk cloak."[1]:26

Death[edit]

Umm Kulthum died in November/December 630.[1]:26[2]:11,163 Her father tearfully conducted her funeral prayers; then Ali, Usama ibn Zayd and Abu Talha laid the corpse.[1]:27[2]:11–12,163 Muhammad said, "If I had ten daughters, I would marry them all to Uthman."[1]:26 Uthman was known as Dhu al-Nurayn ("the possessor of the two lights") because it was believed that no other man had ever been married to two daughters of a prophet.[8]:369

Twelver Shia View[edit]

Some Shia accounts don't consider her to have been a biological daughter of Muhammad; they consider Fatimah as his only biological daughter.[9][10]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Muhammad ibn Saad. Kitab al-Tabaqat al-Kabir vol. 8. Translated by Bewley, A. (1995). The Women of Madina. London: Ta-Ha Publishers.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari. Tarikh al-Rusul wa'l-Muluk. Translated by Landau-Tasseron, E. (1998). Volume 39: Biographies of the Prophet's Companions and Their Successors. Albany: State University of New York Press.
  3. ^ Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani, Al-Isaba vol. 6 #9013.
  4. ^ Abdulmalik ibn Hisham. Notes to Ibn Hisham's Life of Muhammad. Translated by Guillaume, A. (1955). The Life of Muhammad. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  5. ^ Muhammad ibn Ishaq. The Life of Muhammad. Guillaume, A. (1955). The Life of Muhammad. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  6. ^ Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari. Tarikh al-Rusul wa'l-Muluk. Translated by Poonawala, I. K. (1990). Volume 9: The Last Years of the Prophet. Albany: State University of New York Press.
  7. ^ Muhammad ibn Umar al-Waqidi. Kitab al-Maghazi. Translated by Faizer, R., Ismail, A., & Tayob, A. K. (2011). The Life of Muhammad. Oxford & New York: Routledge.
  8. ^ Ismail ibn Umar ibn Kathir. Al-Sira al-Nabawiyya. Translated by Le Gassick, T. (1998). The Life of the Prophet Muhammad, vol. 2. Reading, U.K.: Garnet Publishing.
  9. ^ Yasin T. al-Jibouri (1994), Khadija Daughter of Khuwaylid Archived 2006-07-05 at the Wayback Machine
  10. ^ Ordoni, Abu Muhammad; Muhammad Kazim Qazwini (1992), Fatima the Gracious, Ansariyan Publications. ISBN B000BWQ7N6