|Umm az Zinat|
|Name meaning||the place of ornamentation or of festivals|
|Date of depopulation||May 1948|
|Cause(s) of depopulation||Fear of being caught up in the fighting|
Umm az-Zinat (Arabic: أُم الزينات, Umm ez Zînât) was a Palestinian Arab village in the Haifa Subdistrict. It was depopulated during the 1948 War on May 15, 1948 by Golani Brigade's Fourth Battalion. It was located 20.5 km southeast of Haifa.
In 1882, the Palestine Exploration Fund's Survey of Western Palestine (SWP) described the village as: "A good-sized village on a saddle, built principally of stone, with a well on the south. This seems to be an ancient site, having many well-cut rock-tombs."
Umm al-Zinat had an elementary school for boys which was founded by the Ottomans in 1888.
British Mandate era
In the 1922 census of Palestine Umm al-Zainat had a population of 787; 782 Muslims and 5 Christians, where the Christians were all Melkite. This had increased in the 1931 census to 1,020 Muslims and 9 Christians, in a total of 209 houses.
In 1945, the village had a population of 1,470; 1,450 Muslims and 20 Christians, with a total of 22,156 dunams of land. Of this, 1,742 dunums of land were for plantations and irrigable land, 9,879 for cereals, while 69 dunams were classified as built-up land.
The Golani Brigade took the village on 15 May, 1948, and expelled the remaining villagers. In August 1948 Israeli troops returned, with orders to kill any males and expel any females they found in the village. At least 2 Palestinian men were killed, and a number of females were expelled.
- Palmer, 1881, p. 155
- Department of Statistics, 1945, p. 15
- Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. Village Statistics, April, 1945. Quoted in Hadawi, 1970, p. 49
- Morris, 2004, p. xviii, village #164. Also gives cause of depopulation.
- Morris, 2004, p. xxii, settlement #117
- Khalidi, 1992, p. 200
- Dauphin, 1998, p. 694
- Conder and Kitchener, 1882, SWP II, pp. 71-72
- Conder and Kitchener, 1882, SWP II, p. 43
- Guérin, 1875, pp. 244-245, 299
- Schumacher, 1888, p. 178
- Barron, 1923, Table XI, Sub-district of Haifa, p. 33
- Barron, 1923, Table XVI, p. 49
- Mills, 1932, p. 97
- Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. Village Statistics, April, 1945. Quoted in Hadawi, 1970, p. 92
- Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. Village Statistics, April, 1945. Quoted in Hadawi, 1970, p. 142
- Morris, 2004, p. 175, note #67, p. 268
- Morris, 2004, p. 244, notes #618-622, p. 297
- Morris, 2004, p. 299
- Morris, 2004, p. 444, note #192, p.460
- Barron, J. B., ed. (1923). Palestine: Report and General Abstracts of the Census of 1922. Government of Palestine.
- Conder, Claude Reignier; Kitchener, H. H. (1882). The Survey of Western Palestine: Memoirs of the Topography, Orography, Hydrography, and Archaeology. 2. London: Committee of the Palestine Exploration Fund.
- Department of Statistics (1945). Village Statistics, April, 1945. Government of Palestine.
- Dauphin, Claudine (1998). La Palestine byzantine, Peuplement et Populations. BAR International Series 726 (in French). III : Catalogue. Oxford: Archeopress. ISBN 0-860549-05-4.
- Guérin, Victor (1875). Description Géographique Historique et Archéologique de la Palestine (in French). 2: Samarie, pt. 2. Paris: L'Imprimerie Nationale.
- Hadawi, Sami (1970). Village Statistics of 1945: A Classification of Land and Area ownership in Palestine. Palestine Liberation Organization Research Center.
- Khalidi, Walid (1992). All That Remains: The Palestinian Villages Occupied and Depopulated by Israel in 1948. Washington D.C.: Institute for Palestine Studies. ISBN 0-88728-224-5.
- Mills, E., ed. (1932). Census of Palestine 1931. Population of Villages, Towns and Administrative Areas. Jerusalem: Government of Palestine.
- Morris, Benny (2004). The Birth of the Palestinian Refugee Problem Revisited. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-00967-6.
- Mülinen, Egbert Friedrich von 1908, Beiträge zur Kenntnis des Karmels "Separateabdruck aus der Zeitschrift des Deutschen Palëstina-Vereins Band XXX (1907) Seite 117-207 und Band XXXI (1908) Seite 1-258." Umm ez-Zeinat: p.353 ff.
- Palmer, E. H. (1881). The Survey of Western Palestine: Arabic and English Name Lists Collected During the Survey by Lieutenants Conder and Kitchener, R. E. Transliterated and Explained by E.H. Palmer. Committee of the Palestine Exploration Fund.
- Schumacher, G. (1888). "Population list of the Liwa of Akka". Quarterly statement - Palestine Exploration Fund. 20: 169–191.
- Welcome To Umm al-Zinat
- Umm al-Zinat, Zochrot
- Survey of Western Palestine, Map 8: IAA, Wikimedia commons
- Umm al-Zinat from the Khalil Sakakini Cultural Center
- Um Al-Zinat, from Dr. Moslih Kanaaneh
- Umm Zinat, from Zochrot
- Sixth Procession of Return by ADRID in Umm a-Zinat, 2003
- Ninth Procession of Return to Um a-Zinat, 2006