Umm az-Zinat

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Umm az Zinat
Umm az Zinat is located in Mandatory Palestine
Umm az Zinat
Umm az Zinat
Arabic أُم الزينات
Name meaning the place of ornamentation or of festivals[1]
Subdistrict Haifa
Coordinates 32°38′50″N 35°03′47.8″E / 32.64722°N 35.063278°E / 32.64722; 35.063278Coordinates: 32°38′50″N 35°03′47.8″E / 32.64722°N 35.063278°E / 32.64722; 35.063278
Palestine grid 156/228
Population 1,470[2][3] (1945)
Area 22,156[3] dunams
Date of depopulation May 1948[4]
Cause(s) of depopulation Fear of being caught up in the fighting
Current localities Eliakim[5][6]

Umm az-Zinat (Arabic: أُم الزينات‎, Umm ez Zînât) was a Palestinian Arab village in the Haifa Subdistrict. It was depopulated during the 1948 War on May 15, 1948 by Golani Brigade's Fourth Battalion. It was located 20.5 km southeast of Haifa.

History[edit]

Ceramics from the Byzantine era have been found here.[7] Several rock cut tombs were found south and south west of the village. They have been dated to the Christian era.[8]

Ottoman era[edit]

In 1859, the English Consul Rogers stated that the population was 350 souls, with 25 feddans of cultivation.[9]

In 1870, Victor Guérin found the village to have four hundred and fifty inhabitants. Some gardens were surrounded by a cactus. The medhafeh, or guest house, also served as a mosque.[10]

In 1882, the Palestine Exploration Fund's Survey of Western Palestine (SWP) described the village as: "A good-sized village on a saddle, built principally of stone, with a well on the south. This seems to be an ancient site, having many well-cut rock-tombs."[9]

A population list from about 1887 showed that Umm ez-Zeinat had about 750 inhabitants; all Muslims.[11]

Umm al-Zinat had an elementary school for boys which was founded by the Ottomans in 1888.

British Mandate era[edit]

In the 1922 census of Palestine Umm al-Zainat had a population of 787; 782 Muslims and 5 Christians,[12] where the Christians were all Melkite.[13] This had increased in the 1931 census to 1,020 Muslims and 9 Christians, in a total of 209 houses.[14]

In 1945, the village had a population of 1,470; 1,450 Muslims and 20 Christians,[2] with a total of 22,156 dunams of land.[3] Of this, 1,742 dunums of land were for plantations and irrigable land, 9,879 for cereals,[15] while 69 dunams were classified as built-up land.[16]

1948, aftermath[edit]

Umm az-Zinat became depopulated in May 1948.[4] In early May, it was reported that the women and children of Umm az-Zinat had been evacuated.[17]

The Golani Brigade took the village on 15 May, 1948, and expelled the remaining villagers. In August 1948 Israeli troops returned, with orders to kill any males and expel any females they found in the village. At least 2 Palestinian men were killed, and a number of females were expelled.[18][19][20]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Palmer, 1881, p. 155
  2. ^ a b Department of Statistics, 1945, p. 15
  3. ^ a b c Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. Village Statistics, April, 1945. Quoted in Hadawi, 1970, p. 49
  4. ^ a b Morris, 2004, p. xviii, village #164. Also gives cause of depopulation.
  5. ^ Morris, 2004, p. xxii, settlement #117
  6. ^ Khalidi, 1992, p. 200
  7. ^ Dauphin, 1998, p. 694
  8. ^ Conder and Kitchener, 1882, SWP II, pp. 71-72
  9. ^ a b Conder and Kitchener, 1882, SWP II, p. 43
  10. ^ Guérin, 1875, pp. 244-245, 299
  11. ^ Schumacher, 1888, p. 178
  12. ^ Barron, 1923, Table XI, Sub-district of Haifa, p. 33
  13. ^ Barron, 1923, Table XVI, p. 49
  14. ^ Mills, 1932, p. 97
  15. ^ Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. Village Statistics, April, 1945. Quoted in Hadawi, 1970, p. 92
  16. ^ Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. Village Statistics, April, 1945. Quoted in Hadawi, 1970, p. 142
  17. ^ Morris, 2004, p. 175, note #67, p. 268
  18. ^ Morris, 2004, p. 244, notes #618-622, p. 297
  19. ^ Morris, 2004, p. 299
  20. ^ Morris, 2004, p. 444, note #192, p.460

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]