Una district

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Una district
ऊना ਊਨਾ
District of Himachal Pradesh
Location of Una district in Himachal Pradesh
Location of Una district in Himachal Pradesh
CountryIndia
StateHimachal Pradesh
HeadquartersUna, Himachal Pradesh
Tehsils5
Area
 • Total1,549 km2 (598 sq mi)
Population (2011)
 • Total5,21,057
 • Density340/km2 (870/sq mi)
 • Urban8.8%
Demographics
 • Literacy87.23%
 • Sex ratio977
Coordinates31°28′34″N 76°16′13″E / 31.47611°N 76.27028°E / 31.47611; 76.27028Coordinates: 31°28′34″N 76°16′13″E / 31.47611°N 76.27028°E / 31.47611; 76.27028
Average annual precipitation1253 mm
WebsiteOfficial website

Una(in Hindi ऊना, in Punjabi ਊਨਾ)is one of the districts of Himachal Pradesh, India. Una shares its border with the Hoshiarpur district and Rupnagar district of Punjab and Kangra, Hamirpur and Bilaspur district of Himachal Pradesh. The terrain is generally semi-hilly with low hills. Una has been identified as a main industrial hub and has become a transit town for travellers going to the famous city of Dharamshala or locations within the Himalayas such as Kullu, Manali, Jawalamukhi, and Chintpurni.

Una has five tehsils, namely Ghanari, Haroli, Amb, Bangana and Una itself.

Una is located at the foothills of Himalayas. It is the town of holy temples. It is known nationwide for its temple Mata Chintapurni Mandir, people from across the globe come to visit this holy place.

Una is home to the Kila, which is a historical fort and an ancestral home of the descendants of the first guru of the Sikhs, Guru Nanak.

Una although unchanged for the past century has shown huge appetite for growth and development. The city and urban area is expected to grow at a rapid pace.

Geography[edit]

Una lies in the southwestern part of Himachal Pradesh, with the beautiful Sivalik hills of the Himalayas gently rolling on one side. The Satluj river passes alongside Shahtalai hills, known for the shrine of Baba Balak Nath.

The altitudes vary from more than 408 meters in city Una to over 1000 meters in Chintpurni. Una district is bounded by the river Beas on the north and the river Sutlej in the east, the Swan river which is basically seasonal river flows 65 km right across the Jaswan Valley towards south until it submerges in the Sutlej river near Anandpur.[1]

Una is full of Fauna and Flora as the area cover mostly forest zone of Pines and Devdar trees. Una is home of many species of birds, Neel Gai , Wild Pig, deer, porcupine and Leopard also.

Climate[edit]

The climate of Una district is mostly sub tropical. Most part of the year remain cool due to winter season in October to February. Summer starts from March and remain till July. July to September remain mostly rainy due to Monsoon effect in the region.

The temperature hits between -3.5 degree Celsius in winter to 48 degree Celsius in summer.

The average rainfall is 1253 mm. The highest peak of the district Chintpurni also witnessed heavy snowfall in 2012.

Demographics[edit]

According to the 2011 census Una district has a population of 521,057,[2] roughly equal to the nation of Cape Verde.[3] This gives it a ranking of 543rd in India (out of a total of 640).[2] The district has a population density of 338 inhabitants per square kilometre (880/sq mi).[2] Its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was 16.24%.[2] Una has a sex ratio of 977 females for every 1000 males,[2] and a literacy rate of 87.23%.[2]

Religion in Una district (2011)[4]
Religion Percent
Hinduism
92.13%
Sikhism
4.99%
Islam
2.74%
Christianity
0.07%
Others
0.07%

In the 1961 Census of India, 71.2% of the Una tehsil of the Hoshiarpur district registered their language as Hindi and 28.4% registered it as Punjabi.

Rank Language 1961 census[5]
1 Hindi 71.2%
2 Punjabi 28.4%
3 Other 0.4%

Local languages are Himachali, Hindi and Punjabi. Punjabi with mixture of Himachali language is mostly used in plain areas of Una City, tehsil Ghanari and Haroli Tehsil. But in other areas like Bangana, Amb and Chintpurni Himachali language is widely spoken. Una(minus its present eastern side parts) had been a tehsil of the Hoshiarpur district until the Punjab Reorganisation Act, 1966 and Kangra district until 1972.

Due to religious contiguity and cultural affinity it was given to Himachal Pradesh.

According to the 2001 census, the total population of Una was 447,967 with a sex-ratio of 997. The literacy rate stood at 81.09%. In 2011, population figures were raised to 521,057 with decreased sex ratio of 977. The literacy rate increased to 87.23%. The total area of the district is 1,549 km2 (598 sq mi). The urban population contributes nearly 9% of the total population. Hinduism is the most prominent religion. Sikhism and Islam have sizable number of followers. Christians and others form non-scalable minorities.

Economy[edit]

The people of Una mainly earn their livelihood through agriculture. Una is also becoming an industrial hub. The region near Baba Rudru temple, that comprises Basal and Dhamandri village has become an industrial hub. Factories like Inox Wind in Basal village near Ramlila ground is providing jobs to locals as well as to those coming from other states. There is a hub of small scale Katha factories. Mahavir Katha Udyog, Kamal Katha Udyog, Master Katha Udyog and Khanna Katha Udyog are prominent manufacturers of Katha. In addition of that there is cylinder factory named Him Cylinders and Steel Plant by the name of Him alloys. The International Cars and Motor has also one their plant in the City. The Jeevan Market has many shops dealing in all types of products.

New mall and Multiplex is expected to open in Rakkar area which is becoming the new face of modern urban, well planned, neat and clean city with all the advanced facilities like banks, private and convent schools, best hotels, showrooms etc. Now Nestle is setting up his factory in nearby industrial area Tahliwal, cremica is already present there, some big industries are also moved in like Inox Wind in Basal and some other industrial units in Dhamandari. Facilities like gyms in village panchayats and playgrounds are some remarkable facilities that people of Una enjoy.

Culture[edit]

Attire[edit]

Kurta and Pajama is the culturally accepted dress for men. Office-going men wear shirts and pants. Women wear Salwar Kameez on most casual and formal occasions. A Sari is also worn, especially to weddings.

Young people mostly wear western styled clothing: tight-fitted jeans and shirts. Unisex clothing is gaining acceptance, especially in the suburbs.

Shawl is worn in the winters. They can be plain or embroidered (especially for women).

Temples[edit]

Chintpurni is the most visited temple by Hindus and Sikhs, especially on weekends and on special religious days. The Hindu genealogy registers at Chintpurni, Himachal Pradesh are kept at Chintpurni.

Mahakaal Mahakaali Temple is a temple situated in Rakkar Colony, Una dedicated to the Goddess Mahakali & Lord of Lords Mahakaal. [6]

Bhadurkali Mata Mandir, Guga Jahar Peer, Dera Baba Barbhag Singh MAIRI, Dera Baba Rudru in Nari village; Radhe Krishna Mandir, founded by Baba Bal, Kotla Kalan; Baba Moni temple, Ghanari Jogi Panga: Dharamshala Mahanta; Dhunsar Mahadev Temple, Talmehra; Pir Nigaha, Madanpur Basoli; Shivbari Temple, Gagret; Dmamiya, Ispur, Suhin Guga, Lohara Mandir are some other popular temples. Ashatbhuja Mandir in village Panoh , made by Pandava is also famous where devotees from Himachal and Punjab especially in Navratra to seek blessings.

Brahmahooti, situated near Mehatpur, is one of the two temples in India dedicated to God Brahma, the other being in Pushkar, Rajasthan. Though less known, this temple is situated close to a serene lake in the laps of hills.

Festivals[edit]

Transport[edit]

Una is connected by road and only one railway line through Una that currently enters Una from Nangal (Punjab) and runs all the way to Amb. The NH-22 national highway passes through the city. Una is located just about 375 km (233 mi) north of New Delhi and 120 km (75 mi) from Chandigarh. The city is connected by a broad gauge railway line, which is the only one in the whole state. Two express trains (Himachal Express and Jan Shatabdi Express) connect it to Delhi daily. The nearest domestic airport is based in Chandigarh but a full-fledged nearest airport for international operations is in Amritsar.

Tourist attractions[edit]

Famous destinations near Una[edit]

External links[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Swan River". Archived from the original on 2012-10-01.
  2. ^ a b c d e f "District Census 2011". Census2011.co.in. 2011. Retrieved 2011-09-30.
  3. ^ US Directorate of Intelligence. "Country Comparison:Population". Retrieved 2011-10-01. Cape Verde 516,100 July 2011 est.
  4. ^ http://www.census2011.co.in/census/district/235-una.html
  5. ^ http://14.139.60.114:8080/jspui/bitstream/123456789/955/8/Pathankot%20Tehsil%20(25-46).pdf
  6. ^ "Mahakaal Mahakali Temple". Punjab Kesari.