Gambier extract is used or has been used as a catechu for chewing with areca and betel, for tanning and dyeing, and as herbal medicine. Gambier extract was also used by native people as a medical treatment or prevention of diseases that were believed to be spread by now obsolete medical theory of miasma.
The Indians invented paan, a gambir paste, that was believed to help prevent miasma; it was considered as the first antimiasmatic application. The gambir tree is found in Southern India and Sri Lanka.
- "The Plant List: A Working List of All Plant Species". Retrieved May 16, 2014.
- "Miasma Analysis" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 June 2017. Retrieved 15 January 2018.