Unconditional Surrender (sculpture)
Unconditional Surrender is a series of sculptures by Seward Johnson resembling a photograph by Alfred Eisenstaedt, V–J day in Times Square, but said by Johnson to be based on a similar, less well known, photograph by Victor Jorgensen. The original statue was first installed in Sarasota, Florida, then was moved to San Diego, California, and New York City, New York. Copies have been installed in Hamilton, New Jersey; Pearl Harbor, Hawaii; and Normandy, France.
Original Sarasota installation
Seward Johnson first built a life-size bronze precursor to the huge statues of Unconditional Surrender using computer technology. A 25-foot (7.6 m)-tall styrofoam version of the work was part of a temporary exhibition in Sarasota, Florida in 2005, at its bay front. He proceeded with the manufacture of aluminum versions of the 25-feet-tall statue, marketing them through a foundation he had created. He offered copies ranging from $542,500 for styrofoam, $980,000 for aluminum, and $1,140,000 for bronze. Johnson established the Sculpture Foundation to disseminate his work. Interest in a revisit to Sarasota in 2009 was cultivated by a director of a bayfront biannual show and an aluminum copy was placed at the bayfront, again temporarily. An "88-year-old donor, who served in the U.S. Navy during World War II" offered to pay half a million dollars for it against an initial asking price of $680,000.
While some members of the community supported the statue, others felt the statue was not good enough to be displayed on the bay front. The Chairwoman of the Public Art Committee at the time said that "it doesn't even qualify as kitsch...It is like a giant cartoon image drafted by a computer emulating a famous photograph. It's not the creation of an artist. It's an artist copying a famous image." The statue was immediately controversial, with some people calling for its removal for various reasons, including the fact that it may constistute copyright infringement.
Joel May, a Sarasota architect and a member of the city's public art committee, raised an issue of possible copyright infringement, because of the similarity of the sculpture to V–J day in Times Square, published in Life in 1945 and still protected by copyright. Johnson said he was aware of this issue, and had used another photograph of the kissing couple taken by Victor Jorgensen, which is in the public domain. The attorney for the municipal government said that the attorneys for Johnson and the donor had fulfilled the requirements set by the city commission, making way for exhibition of the statue for at least ten years.
An automobile crash occurred on April 26, 2012 during which the Sarasota copy of the statue was struck by a vehicle and was damaged. The impact knocked about a 3-foot-wide hole out of the sailor's foot and added more hairline cracks to its frame. This led to the statue being taken down by the city, which laid the statue onto its side, close to the site, while insurance companies negotiate over liability and repair issues. The minimum distance for a road hazard established by the state of Florida is fourteen feet, but barely met that standard because it was erected near one of the busiest and most complex intersections in the city. The statue attracted visitors who gathered around the base and often backed up to the curb to take photographs. No one was present when the automobile jumped the curb and careened into the statue. Debate about returning the statue to that location has begun, with an editorial calling for moving the statue to a safer location, as had been advocated by critics before the statue was placed for the controversial ten-year display. The statue was re-erected near the Sarasota shoreline in December 2012.
After being exhibited in Florida, the statue was moved to San Diego, California, on a flatbed truck. The second place to exhibit Unconditional Surrender was in Tuna Harbor Park (formerly G Street Mole Park) where the Port of San Diego installed one temporarily in 2007. The statue, made of a foam core with a urethane outer layer, was scheduled to be on loan through August 2010; however, it remained installed until May 2012, when it was dismantled and shipped to New Jersey for restoration.
The statue's placement was criticized by multiple people. Robert L. Pincus, art critic of The San Diego Union Tribune, said that according to "theme-park logic" the statue suited the site, in front of the Midway Aircraft Museum, and that it pleased couples who mimicked the pose, but that it was kitsch and "The figures look like something from a cheap souvenir factory, blown up beyond any reason." Other critics stated that the statue "was not artistically or [a]esthetically pleasing."
In March 2012, the San Diego Unified Port District voted to purchase a permanent bronze replacement for the loaner. This controversial move resulted in the resignation of three board members. Despite the controversy, construction of the new weather-resistant bronze statue proceeded, in part due to a fundraising campaign by the Midway Museum that raised US$1 million.
Another Unconditional Surrender sculpture, on loan from Johnson's Sculpture Foundation, was installed in Hamilton, New Jersey. Writing up this event, a staff writer for The Trentonian described Unconditional Surrender as a "masterpiece".
In August 2011, a life-size version of the statue was unveiled in Waikiki, Hawaii, and later taken to the USS Missouri in Pearl Harbor, where it was to stay to commemorate the 66th anniversary of the end of World War II.
This installation was also controversial. In October 2014, French feminist group Osez La Feminisme petitioned to have the statue removed and sent back to the United States, stating, "the sailor could have laughed with these women, embraced them, asked if he could kiss them with joy. No, he chose to grab them, with clenched fists, to kiss them. It was an assault." Following this incident, the Caen memorial placed a plaque under the sculpture to explain the nurse's identity.
New York City
On August 12, 2015, the original sculpture was temporarily installed in Times Square, New York City, near where the original photo was taken. It was to be displayed through August 16 for a "Times Square Kiss-In" event.
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- "http://ulocal.kitv.com/_Vanita-Rae-Smith-After-Unveiling-Kiss-Statue/photo/14729759/62911.html?as=62911 Vanita Rae Smith After Unveiling Kiss Statue"
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- "Iconic 'kiss' sculpture depicts sexual assault says French feminist group". Telegraph.co.uk. October 10, 2014.
- Alanna Martinez (August 12, 2015). "Monumental—and Controversial—’Kissing Sailor’ Sculpture Comes to Times Square". The Observer. Retrieved August 13, 2015.
- Media related to Unconditional Surrender (sculpture) at Wikimedia Commons