Under2 Coalition

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Under2 Coalition
TypeSubnational Coalition (operates via MOUs)
Membership206 subnational jurisdictions worldwide[1]
Establishment
• Signed by founding jurisdictions in Sacramento, California
May 19, 2015 (2015-05-19)[2]
Population
• 2017 estimate
1,180,000,000[1]
GDP (nominal)2017 estimate
• Total
$28.8 trillion[1]
• Per capita
$23,305

The Under2 Coalition is a coalition of subnational governments that aims to achieve greenhouse gases emissions mitigation. It started as a memorandum of understanding, which was signed by twelve founding jurisdictions on May 19, 2015 in Sacramento, California.[2] Although it was originally called the Under2 MOU, it became known as the Under2 Coalition in 2017. As of September 2018, the list of signatories has grown to over 220 jurisdictions which combined encompasses 1.3 billion people and 43% of the world economy.[1] The Under2 MOU was conceived through a partnership between the governments of California and Baden-Wurttemberg,[3] with The Climate Group acting as secretariat.[4]

Purpose and intent[edit]

The intent of the memorandum signatories is for each to achieve Greenhouse gas "emission reductions consistent with a trajectory of 80 to 95 percent below 1990 levels by 2050 and/or achieving a per capita annual emission goal of less than 2 metric tons by 2050.[5] The signatories believe these actions are consistent with findings of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) of what is necessary to avoid a 2 degree Celsius rise in average global temperatures.[6][7][5] Organizers are concerned that a rise in global temperature above 2 degrees Celsius would cause widespread environmental harm.[2]

Signatories to the memorandum are asked to submit a plan to meet the target reduction of green house gas emissions by 2 metric tons per capita by 2050.[6] Each of the governments also pledges to assist each other with scientific research, sharing of the available technologies and best practices in energy efficiency.[8]

The memorandum was developed just before the 2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference also known as COP 21 or Paris Agreement.[6] The Under2 MOU allows subnational governments such as cities, counties and states to highlight their work to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.[2]

History[edit]

Subnational governments like cities, states and provinces have traditionally relied on national governments to take the lead on transnational climate governance aimed at addressing climate change mitigation through inter-governmental agreements.[9] Some subnational governments have expressed frustration at the inaction of national leaders and took it upon themselves to create the subnational Under2 MOU agreement.[1][10] The major difference between an international treaty and the Under2 MOU agreement between subnational governments is that the Under2 MOU is non-binding.[2]

In December 2015, California and Baden-Wurttemberg, who spearheaded the Under 2 MOU, announced that The Climate Group would take on the role of secretariat for the pact.[11]

There have been efforts in the past to organize subnational governments to address climate change most notably through the Cities for Climate Protection Program - an effort associated with the International Union of Local Authorities and the United Nations Environment Programme. At its peak in 2010 the program had 700 municipal members who were required to provide among other things inventories and targets for greenhouse emissions. the International Union of Local Authorities provided technical assistance to the municipalities engaged in this planning.[12]

Before the Under2 MOU was conceived many subnational governments had taken the initiative to create a climate action plan. The purpose of a climate action plan is to identify the amount of greenhouse gas emissions produced by the jurisdiction and, in many cases, provide strategies to lower or stop greenhouse gas emissions altogether.[13] Some governments have found that the data produced by the climate action plan increases transparency and helps with longterm planning to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.[14] Since signatories to the Under2 MOU submit their action plans as an appendix to the document this is the first time some cities and states around the world are coming up with plans to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in their jurisdiction.

Participants[edit]

Continent/Region State/Province Signatories[1]
NORTHERN AMERICA CANADA
British Columbia (founding signatory)
Northwest Territories
Ontario (founding signatory)
Quebec
Vancouver (city)
UNITED STATES
Austin (city)
California (founding signatory)
Connecticut
Los Angeles (city)
Massachusetts
Minnesota
New Hampshire
New York City
New York State
Oakland (city)
Oregon (founding signatory)
Portland (city)
Rhode Island
Sacramento (city)
San Francisco (city)
Seattle (city)
Vermont (founding signatory)
Washington State (founding signatory)
LATIN AMERICA BRAZIL
Acre (founding signatory)
Amazonas
Mato Grosso
Pernambuco
Rondônia
São Paulo (city)
São Paulo (state)
Tocantins
CHILE
Santiago (city)
COLOMBIA
Guainía
Guaviare
MEXICO
Aguascalientes
Baja California (founding signatory)
Chiapas
Hidalgo
Jalisco (founding signatory)
Mexico City
Mexico State
Michoacán
Quintana Roo
Tobasco
Yucatán
PERU
Loreto
San Martín
Ucayali
EUROPE AUSTRIA
Lower Austria
FRANCE
Alsace
Aquitaine
Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes
Bas-Rhin
Brittany
Midi-Pyrénées
Pays de la Loire
La Réunion
GERMANY
Baden-Württemberg (founding signatory)
Bavaria
Hesse
North Rhine-Westphalia
Schleswig-Holstein
Thuringia
HUNGARY
Budapest (city)
ITALY
Abruzzo
Basilicata
Emilia-Romagna
Lombardy
Piedmont
Sardinia
Veneto
THE NETHERLANDS
Drenthe
North Brabant
North Holland
South Holland
PORTUGAL
Azores
Madeira
SPAIN
Andalusia
Basque Country
Catalonia (founding signatory)
Navarra
SWEDEN
Jämtland Härjedalen
SWITZERLAND
Basel-Landschaft
Basel-Stadt
UNITED KINGDOM
Bristol (city)
Manchester (city)
Scotland
Wales (founding signatory)
AFRICA KENYA
Laikipia County
IVORY COAST
Assemblée des Régions de Côte d'Ivoire
NIGERIA
Cross River State
MOZAMBIQUE
Nampula (city)
SENEGAL
Guédiawaye (city)
SOUTH AFRICA
KwaZulu-Natal
Western Cape
ASIA CHINA
Alliance of Peaking Pioneer Cities
Jiangsu
Sichuan
Zhenjiang (city)
INDIA
Chhattisgarh
Sikkim
Telangana
West Bengal
INDONESIA
East Kalimantan
South Sumatra
West Kalimantan
JAPAN
Gifu Prefecture
NEPAL
Kathmandu Valley
OCEANIA AUSTRALIA
Australian Capital Territory
Queensland
South Australia
Victoria

National Endorsements[edit]

Canada, Costa Rica, Czech Republic, Denmark, Fiji, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, Mexico, The Netherlands, Norway, Panama, Peru, Sweden, United Kingdom

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e "Under2 Coalition". Under2 Coalition. Retrieved 2018-10-19.
  2. ^ a b c d "Jerry Brown signs non-binding climate pact with other leaders". sacbee. Retrieved 2016-12-10.
  3. ^ "California Champions Cross-Border Climate Innovations". The American Prospect. Retrieved 2016-12-10.
  4. ^ "Under2 Coalition". The Climate Group. Retrieved 2017-07-07.
  5. ^ a b Under2 MOU, "Global Climate Leadership Memorandum Of Understanding", section II.A.
  6. ^ a b c "California driving global low-carbon effort". UPI. Retrieved 2016-12-10.
  7. ^ Gillis, Justin (2013-08-19). "Climate Panel Cites Near Certainty on Warming". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2016-12-10.
  8. ^ Wright, David (2016). "Cross-Border Constraints on Climate Change Agreements: Legal Risks in the California-Quebec Cap-and-Trade Linkage". Environmental Law Reporter. 46: 10478–10495 – via Fusion.
  9. ^ "Common But Differentiated Responsibilities Beyond the Nation State: How Is Differential Treatment Addressed in Transnational Climate Governance Initiatives? - ProQuest". search.proquest.com. Retrieved 2016-12-22.
  10. ^ Barnosky, Anthony D.; Ehrlich, Paul R.; Hadly, Elizabeth A. (2016-03-15). "Avoiding collapse: Grand challenges for science and society to solve by 2050". Elementa: Science of the Anthropocene. 4 (1): 000094. doi:10.12952/journal.elementa.000094. ISSN 2325-1026. Archived from the original on 2016-04-20.
  11. ^ "Baden-Württemberg and California welcome 43 new signatories to the Under 2 MOU". The Climate Group. Retrieved 2017-07-07.
  12. ^ "How US cities dropped climate protection commitments in response to mainstream political opposition and programmatic stagnation". USAPP. 2015-08-13. Retrieved 2016-12-22.
  13. ^ Bassett, Ellen; Shandas, Vivek (2010-09-29). "Innovation and Climate Action Planning". Journal of the American Planning Association. 76 (4): 435–450. doi:10.1080/01944363.2010.509703. ISSN 0194-4363.
  14. ^ "El gobernador de Jalisco da conferencia durante COP22". www.animalpolitico.com. Retrieved 2016-12-22.