Underground hydrogen storage
Underground hydrogen storage is the practice of hydrogen storage in caverns, salt domes and depleted oil/gas fields. Large quantities of gaseous hydrogen have been stored in caverns by ICI for many years without any difficulties. The storage of large quantities of hydrogen underground in solution-mined salt domes, aquifers or excavated rock caverns or mines can function as grid energy storage which is essential for the hydrogen economy. By using a turboexpander the electricity needs for compressed storage on 200 bar amounts to 2.1% of the energy content.
Chevron Phillips Clemens Terminal
The Chevron Phillips Clemens Terminal in Texas has stored hydrogen since the 1980s in a solution-mined salt cavern. The cavern roof is about 2,800 feet (850 m) underground. The cavern is a cylinder with a diameter of 160 feet (49 m), a height of 1,000 feet (300 m) and a usable hydrogen capacity of 1,066 million cubic feet (30.2×106 m3), or 2,520 metric tons (2,480 long tons; 2,780 short tons).
- Sandia National Laboratories released in 2011 a life cycle cost analysis framework for geologic storage of hydrogen.
- The European project Hyunder indicated in 2013 that for the storage of wind and solar energy an additional 85 caverns are required as it cannot be covered by PHES and CAES systems.
- ETI released in 2015 a report The role of hydrogen storage in a clean responsive power system noting that the UK has sufficient salt bed resources to provide tens of GWe.
- RAG Austria AG successfully finished a hydrogen storage project in a depleted oil an gas field in Austria in 2017 and is currently conducting its second project "Underground Sun Conversion".
- Grid energy storage
- Hydrogen infrastructure
- Hydrogen economy
- Hydrogen turboexpander-generator
- Power to gas
- Timeline of hydrogen technologies
- 1979 - Underground hydrogen storage. Final report.
- hydrogen storage cavern system
- Underground hydrogen storage problems in Russia[permanent dead link]
- Energy storage 2012
- 1994 - ECN abstract
- 2006-Underground hydrogen storage in geological formations
- Brookhaven National Lab -Final report
- Large-scale hydrogen underground storage for securing fu-ture energy supplies Archived 2014-07-28 at the Wayback Machine
- LINDBLOM U. E. ; A conceptual design for compressed hydrogen storage in mined caverns
- Energy technology analysis.Pag.70
- ORNL-Pag.20 Archived 2008-12-06 at the Wayback Machine
- a life cycle cost analysis framework for geologic storage of hydrogen
- Storing renewable energy: Is hydrogen a viable solution?[permanent dead link]
- The role of hydrogen storage in a clean responsive power system
- Hydrogen Supply Availability with Cavern Storage
- Large Hydrogen Underground Storage
- Wasserstoff-Speicherung in Salzkavernen zur Glättung des Windstromangebots (German)
- 1993-Energy and hydrogen Pag.48
- 2009-SNL-Geologic Storage of Hydrogen
- Hydrogen stored in salt caverns could be converted into flexible power source archive