Underwater Hockey World Championships

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Underwater Hockey World Championships
Tournament information
SportUnderwater Hockey
Established1980; 42 years ago (1980)
FormatGroups and Knockout
Current champion
Elite
New Zealand New Zealand (men's; 2018)
New Zealand New Zealand (women's; 2018)
Masters
France France (men's; 2018)
France France (women's; 2018)
U-24
Turkey Turkey (men's; 2019)
New Zealand New Zealand (women's; 2019)
U-19
New Zealand New Zealand (men's; 2019)
New Zealand New Zealand (women's; 2019)

The Underwater Hockey World Championship is the peak international event for the underwater sport of Underwater Hockey. The event is conducted on behalf of the Confédération Mondiale des Activités Subaquatiques (CMAS) by an affiliated national federation.

History[edit]

The championship was first held in 1980 in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada after the intended initial championship scheduled for 1979 was beset by difficulties and ultimately postponed, due to the invitation of a team from South Africa and the problems associated with apartheid.[citation needed]

Subsequently, a world championship has been held every two years in locations around the world up until 2006. 2006 saw many CMAS-affiliated national federations as well as the majority of the CMAS Underwater Hockey Commission members in dispute with CMAS over policy and governance matters concerning underwater hockey. Out of the divide the World Aquachallenge Association (WAA) - an alternative governing body - was born.[1]

In 2007 CMAS intended to incorporate the Underwater Hockey World Championship into its inaugural World Games event in Bari, Italy, an ambitious event intended to showcase all of the underwater disciplines (Underwater Rugby, Finswimming etc) governed by them in one place. As far as underwater hockey goes this event was poorly attended, in part due to it being 'out of synch' with many affiliated federations' training calendars and budgets. The following year - the 'normal' world championship year - the WAA organised their 'rival' 1st World Championship event in Durban, South Africa. This is now held by many to have been the official 2008 World Championship despite it being poorly attended too, in part this time because CMAS organised a major underwater hockey 'zone' event to be held in Istanbul, Turkey on exactly the same dates meaning a majority of European federations were forced to choose which championship their representative teams attended.[citation needed]

The WAA was short-lived and since 2008 CMAS has once again administered all the world championship events in various age/gender divisions with the most recent having been held in Quebec City, Canada in 2018. World championships in the different age categories are now scheduled for every second year.[2]

Editions Summary[edit]

Championships conducted by CMAS[edit]

Source:[3]

Key Cancelled[a]

Senior[edit]

Year Date Championship Location Nations Events Champions
1980 July 12 – 16 1st World Championship Canada Vancouver, Canada[5] 5 Men's Netherlands Netherlands[6]
1982 February 20 – 25 2nd World Championship Australia Brisbane, Australia[7] 3 Men's Australia Australia[6]
Women's Australia Australia[6]
1984 May 1 – 10 3rd World Championship United States Chicago, United States[8] 8 Men's Australia Australia[6]
Women's Australia Australia[6]
1986 April 16 – 27 4th World Championship Australia Adelaide, Australia[9] 7 Men's Canada Canada[6]
Women's Australia Australia[6]
1988 April 5 – 13 5th World Championship Netherlands Amersfoort, Netherlands[10] 9 Men's Australia Australia[6]
Women's New Zealand New Zealand[6]
1990 May 31 – June 9 6th World Championship Canada Montreal, Canada[11] 9 Men's Australia Australia[6]
Women's Australia Australia[6]
1992 May 12 – 20 7th World Championship New Zealand Wellington, New Zealand[12] 9 Men's Elite Australia Australia[6]
Men's Masters Australia Australia[6]
Women's South Africa South Africa[6]
1994 April 17 – 24 8th World Championship France Grand Couronne, France[13] 10 Men's Elite Australia Australia[6]
Men's Masters South Africa South Africa[6]
Women's Australia Australia[6]
1996 July 11 – 20 9th World Championship South Africa Durban, South Africa[14] 11 Men's Elite Australia Australia[6]
Men's Masters South Africa South Africa[6]
Women's South Africa South Africa[6]
1998 June 4 – 13 10th World Championship United States San José, United States[15] 14 Men's Elite France France[6]
Men's Masters South Africa South Africa[6]
Women's Elite South Africa South Africa[6]
Women's Masters South Africa South Africa[6]
2000 April 25 – 29 11th World Championship Australia Hobart, Australia[16] 15 Men's Elite Australia Australia[6]
Men's Masters Australia Australia[6]
Women's Elite Australia Australia[6]
Women's Masters South Africa South Africa[6]
2002 July 20 – 28 12th World Championship Canada Calgary, Canada[17] 13 Men's Elite Australia Australia[6]
Men's Masters United States United States[6]
Women's Elite Australia Australia[6]
Women's Masters South Africa South Africa[6]
Youth United Kingdom Great Britain[6]
2004 March 22 – 31 13th World Championship New Zealand Christchurch, New Zealand[18] 9 Men's: Elite New Zealand New Zealand[6]
Men's: Masters United States United States[6]
Men's: U-19 New Zealand New Zealand[6]
Women's: Elite Netherlands Netherlands[6]
Women's: Masters United States United States[6]
Women's: U-19 New Zealand New Zealand[6]
2006 August 15 – 24 14th World Championship United Kingdom Sheffield, United Kingdom[19][20] 17 Men's: Elite New Zealand New Zealand[21][6]
Men's: Masters United States United States[21][6]
Men's: U-19 New Zealand New Zealand[21][6]
Women's: Elite Australia Australia[21][6]
Women's: Masters United States United States[21][6]
Women's: U-19 New Zealand New Zealand[21][6]
2007 July 31 – August 4 Disputed 15th World Championship
(Part of 1st CMAS Games)
Italy Bari, Italy[22] 6 Men's: Elite Unknown
Women's: Elite Unknown
2009 August 21 – 29 16th World Championship Slovenia Kranj, Slovenia[23][24] 12 Men's: Elite South Africa South Africa[6]
7 Women's: Elite United Kingdom Great Britain[6]
2011 August 16 – 27 17th World Championship Portugal Coimbra, Portugal[25][26] 10 Men's: Elite Australia Australia[6]
8 Women's: Elite United Kingdom Great Britain[6]
2013 August 23 – September 1 18th World Championship[27] Hungary Eger, Hungary[28] 15 Men's: Elite France France[29][6]
9 Men's: Masters Australia Australia[29][6]
16 Women's: Elite New Zealand New Zealand[29][6]
6 Women's: Masters Australia Australia[29][6]
2016 March 22 – April 2 19th World Championship South Africa Stellenbosch, South Africa
[citation needed]
14 Men's: Elite Australia Australia[30]
13 Men's: Masters Australia Australia[30]
9 Women's: Elite South Africa South Africa[30]
8 Women's: Masters Australia Australia[30]
2018 July 18 – 28 20th World Championship Canada Quebec City, Canada[31] 14 Men's: Elite New Zealand New Zealand[32]
13 Men's: Masters France France[32]
9 Women's: Elite New Zealand New Zealand[32]
6 Women's: Masters France France[32]
2020,
moved to 2021,
later cancelled
July 20– August 1 Australia Gold Coast, Australia N/A Men's: Elite N/A
Men's: Masters N/A
Women's: Elite N/A
Women's: Masters N/A
2022 July 23 – 31 World Cup
(International Restart Event)[b]
Turkey Ankara, Turkey Men's: Elite TBA
Men's: Masters TBA
Women's: Elite TBA
Women's: Masters TBA
2023 July 18 – 30 21st World Championship Australia Brisbane, Australia Men's: Elite TBA
Men's: Masters TBA
Women's: Elite TBA
Women's: Masters TBA

Junior[edit]

Year Date Championship Location Nations Events Champions
2013 August 23 – September 1 2nd Junior World Championship[c] Hungary Eger, Hungary 6 Men's: U-23 New Zealand New Zealand[29][6]
7 Men's: U-19 Colombia Columbia[29][6]
5 Women's: U-23 New Zealand New Zealand[29][6]
4 Women's: U-19 New Zealand New Zealand[29][6]
2015 3rd Junior World Championship Spain Castello de la Plana, Spain 8 Men's: U-23 Turkey Turkey[6][34]
10 Men's: U-19 New Zealand New Zealand[6][34]
8 Women's: U-23 Colombia Columbia[6][34]
8 Women's: U-19 South Africa South Africa[6][34]
2017 4th Junior World Championship Australia Hobart, Australia 10 Men's: U-23 Turkey Turkey[35]
9 Men's: U-19 France France[35]
8 Women's: U-23 New Zealand New Zealand[35]
7 Women's: U-19 New Zealand New Zealand[35]
2019 5th Junior World Championship United Kingdom Sheffield, United Kingdom 11 Men's: U-24 Turkey Turkey[36]
7 Men's: U-19 New Zealand New Zealand[36]
7 Women's: U-24 New Zealand New Zealand[36]
5 Women's: U-19 New Zealand New Zealand[36]
2021,
moved to 2022
July 23 – 31 World Cup
(International Restart Event)[b][d]
Turkey Ankara, Turkey Men's: U-24 TBA
Men's: U-19 TBA
Women's: U-24 TBA
Women's: U-19 TBA
2024 6th Junior World Championship Turkey TBA, Turkey Men's: U-24 TBA
Men's: U-19 TBA
Women's: U-24 TBA
Women's: U-19 TBA

Championships conducted by WAA[edit]

The 1st WAA World Championships is considered by some as being the legitimate 15th Championships.[37]

Year Date Championship Location Nations Events Champions
2008 April 25 – May 3 Alternative 15th World Championships South Africa Durban, South Africa[38][39] 10 Men's: Elite France France[6]
Men's: Masters South Africa South Africa[6]
Men's: U-19 Spain Spain[6]
Women's: Elite Australia Australia[6]
Women's: U-19 New Zealand New Zealand[6]

Results by Nation[edit]

Key Most successful in given category
Nation Titles Men's Elite Women's Elite Men's Masters Women's Masters Men's U-23/24 Women's U-23/24 Men's U-19 Women's U-19
 Australia 25 11: 1982, 1984, 1988, 1990, 1992, 1994, 1996, 2000, 2002, 2011, 2016 8: 1982, 1984, 1986, 1990, 1994, 2000, 2002, 2006, 2008[e] 4: 1992, 2000, 2013, 2016 2: 2013, 2016
 New Zealand 20 3: 2004, 2006, 2018 3: 1988, 2013, 2018 1: 2013 3: 2013, 2017, 2019 4: 2004, 2006, 2015, 2019 6: 2004, 2006, 2008,[e] 2013, 2017, 2019
 South Africa 12 1: 2009 4: 1992, 1996, 1998, 2016 3: 1996, 1998, 2008[e] 3: 1998, 2000, 2002 1: 2015
 France 6 3: 1998, 2008,[e] 2013 1: 2018 1: 2018 1: 2017
 United States 5 3: 2002, 2004, 2006 2: 2004, 2006
 Turkey 3 3: 2015, 2017, 2019
 Great Britain 2: 2009, 2011 1: 2002
 Colombia 2 1: 2015 1: 2013
 The Netherlands 1: 1980 1: 2004
 Canada 1 1: 1986
 Spain 1: 2008[e]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The 2020 World Championships, later moved to 2021, was cancelled due to the COVID-19 pandemic.[4]
  2. ^ a b The 2022 Underwater Hockey World Cup, originally intended to be the 21st World Championship, will be the first major international tournament since the COVID-19 pandemic and will serve as a warm up to the next world championships in 2023. Winners of the tournament will not be crowned world champions.[33]
  3. ^ Held simultaneously with 18th World Championship
  4. ^ Held simultaneously with Senior and Masters World Cup
  5. ^ a b c d e WAA

References[edit]

  1. ^ "2008 Meeting Minutes" (PDF). WAA. Retrieved 8 June 2013.
  2. ^ "About Underwater Hockey". CMAS.
  3. ^ "Championships Archive".
  4. ^ "🇦🇺 21th CMAS Underwater Hockey World Championships. Gold Coast, Australia – Suspended". 29 March 2021.
  5. ^ "1980 World Underwater Hockey Championship Finals - Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada". www.underwaterhockey-archive.com. Retrieved 8 June 2013.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn "World Championship Results". 19 April 2012.
  7. ^ "1982 World Underwater Hockey Championship Finals - Brisbane, Australia". www.underwaterhockey-archive.com. Retrieved 8 June 2013.
  8. ^ "1984 World Underwater Hockey Championship Finals - Chicago, United States Of America". www.underwaterhockey-archive.com. Retrieved 8 June 2013.
  9. ^ "1986 World Underwater Hockey Championship Finals - Adelaide, Australia". www.underwaterhockey-archive.com. Retrieved 8 June 2013.
  10. ^ "1988 World Underwater Hockey Championship Finals - Amersfoort, Netherlands". www.underwaterhockey-archive.com. Retrieved 8 June 2013.
  11. ^ "1990 World Underwater Hockey Championship Finals - Montreal, Quebec, Canada". www.underwaterhockey-archive.com. Retrieved 9 June 2013.
  12. ^ "1992 World Underwater Hockey Championship Finals - Wellington, New Zealand". www.underwaterhockey-archive.com. Retrieved 9 June 2013.
  13. ^ "1994 World Underwater Hockey Championship Finals - Amersfoort, Netherlands". www.underwaterhockey-archive.com. Retrieved 9 June 2013.
  14. ^ "1996 World Underwater Hockey Championship Finals - Durban, South Africa<". www.underwaterhockey-archive.com. Retrieved 9 June 2013.
  15. ^ "1998 World Underwater Hockey Championship Finals - San Jose, United States Of America". www.underwaterhockey-archive.com. Retrieved 9 June 2013.
  16. ^ "2000 World Underwater Hockey Championship Finals - Amersfoort, Netherlands". www.underwaterhockey-archive.com. Retrieved 9 June 2013.
  17. ^ "2002 World Underwater Hockey Championship Final - Calgary, Alberta, Canada". www.underwaterhockey-archive.com. Retrieved 9 June 2013.
  18. ^ "2004 World Underwater Hockey Championship FINAL - Christchurch, New Zealand, 22nd to 31st March 2004". www.underwaterhockey-archive.com. Retrieved 9 June 2013.
  19. ^ "2006 - 14th World Underwater Hockey Championship Final - Sheffield, United Kingdom 15th August to 24th August 2006". www.underwaterhockey-archive.com. Retrieved 9 June 2013.
  20. ^ "2006 CMAS Underwater Hockey World Championships, Sheffield, UK (Official Website)". 2006 World Championship Committee. Archived from the original on December 2, 2008. Retrieved 10 July 2013.
  21. ^ a b c d e f "Home". uwhworlds2006.net.
  22. ^ "1st CMAS World Games Underwater Hockey Tournament Bari, Italy - 31st July to 4th August 2007". www.underwaterhockey-archive.com. Retrieved 9 June 2013.
  23. ^ "2nd CMAS WORLD GAMES UNDERWATER HOCKEY TOURNAMENT Kranj, Slovinia - 21st to 29th August 2009". www.underwaterhockey-archive.com. Retrieved 9 June 2013.
  24. ^ "KRANJ 16th CMAS UNDERWATER HOCKEY WORLD CHAMPIONSHIP". CMAS. Retrieved 9 June 2013.
  25. ^ "3rd CMAS World Underwater Hockey Games (17th World Championship) Elite Teams Tournament Coimbra, Portugal, 16th to 27th August 2011". www.underwaterhockey-archive.com. Retrieved 9 June 2013.
  26. ^ "17th Underwater Hockey World Championship". CMAS. Retrieved 9 June 2013.
  27. ^ "18th CMAS WC 2013 Initial Groups" (PDF). CMAS Underwater Hockey Commission. Retrieved 23 August 2013.
  28. ^ "Underwater Hockey World Championship 2013 Eger - Hungary. Information Pack is out". CMAS. Retrieved 8 June 2013.
  29. ^ a b c d e f g h "Underwater Hockey World Championship 2013 Eger- Hungary. Information Pack is out".
  30. ^ a b c d "🇿🇦 Final Results 19th CMAS Underwater Hockey World Championship. South Africa 2016". 2 April 2016.
  31. ^ "2018 World Underwater Hockey Championship Finals - Quebec City, Quebec, Canada". www.cmas.com. 27 November 2018.
  32. ^ a b c d "Underwater Hockey Scores".
  33. ^ "🇹🇷 CMAS Underwater Hockey World Cup – Istambul, Turkey 2022". 26 March 2022.
  34. ^ a b c d https://www.cmas.org/document?sessionId=&fileId=3728&language=1[bare URL PDF]
  35. ^ a b c d "4th Age Group Underwater Hockey Championship".
  36. ^ a b c d "Overall Results".
  37. ^ "2008 - 15th World Underwater Hockey Championship (sic) Durban, Natal, South Africa. 25th April - 3rd May 2008". www.underwaterhockey-archive.com. Retrieved 9 June 2013.
  38. ^ "World Championship results". World Aquachallenge Association. Retrieved 8 June 2013.
  39. ^ "2008 - 15th World Underwater Hockey Championship (sic) Durban, Natal, South Africa. 25th April - 3rd May 2008". www.underwaterhockey-archive.com. Retrieved 9 June 2013.

External links[edit]