Unfair dismissal

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In labour law, unfair dismissal is an act of employment termination made without good reason or contrary to the country's specific legislation.

Situation per country[edit]

Australia[edit]

Relief from unfair dismissal was first established in a statutory scheme in South Australia in 1972,[1][2] followed thereafter by Western Australia,[3] Queensland,[4] New South Wales[5] and Victoria[6] in the early 1990s.[7] It was first adopted in 1984 at the Commonwealth level by the Commonwealth Conciliation and Arbitration Commission with its ruling in the Termination, Change and Redundancy Case,[8][9] and subsequent awards following it were upheld by the High Court of Australia.[10][11] The Parliament of Australia later extended its reach with the passage of the Industrial Relations Reform Act 1993,[12] as a consequence of the adoption of the ILO Termination of Employment Convention, 1982, together with the High Court's ruling in the Tasmanian Dams Case.[13]

In current Australian law, unfair dismissal occurs where the Fair Work Commission, acting under section 385 of the Fair Work Act 2009,[14][15] determines that:

  1. a person has been dismissed;[16]
  2. the dismissal was harsh, unjust or unreasonable;[17]
  3. it was not consistent with the Small Business Fair Dismissal Code;[18][19] and
  4. it was not a case of genuine redundancy.[20]

The scope of coverage is quite broad. The Commonwealth has declared that all employers falling within its jurisdiction are subject to the scheme, including:[21]

In addition, the States have delegated certain classes of employers by virtue of the Constitution's referral power:

Classes of referred employers, by State[21]
Class New South WalesNSW QueenslandQLD South AustraliaSA TasmaniaTAS Victoria (Australia)VIC Western AustraliaWA
Private employers[a 1] Green tickY Green tickY Green tickY Green tickY Green tickY
State government employers[a 1] Green tickY[a 2]
Local government employers[a 1] Green tickY Green tickY[a 2]
  1. ^ a b c which are not already regulated as constitutional corporations
  2. ^ a b except for law enforcement officials and executives in the public sector

In general, it covers those who have worked more than six months for an employer (or more than one year for a small business employer),[22] for which one or more or the following conditions must apply:[23]

  1. a modern award covers the person;
  2. an enterprise agreement applies to the person in relation to the employment;
  3. the person's annual rate of earnings is determined to be less than the high income threshold.[24]

Where the Fair Work Act does not apply, relief from unfair dismissal may arise under State laws.[25] In Western Australia, recourse may be available from the Western Australian Industrial Relations Commission.[26][27]

Canada[edit]

Labour law in Canada falls within both federal and provincial jurisdiction, depending on the sector affected. Complaints relating to unjust dismissal (French: congédiement injuste) (where "the employee has been dismissed and considers the dismissal to be unjust,"[28] which in certain cases also includes constructive dismissal)[29] can be made under the Canada Labour Code,[30] as well as similar provisions in effect in Quebec[31] and Nova Scotia,[32] all of which were introduced in the late 1970s.[33]

Under the federal Code, non-unionized employees with more than twelve months of continuous employment, other than managers, have the ability to file complaints for unjust dismissal within 90 days of being so dismissed.[34] In making the complaint, the employee has the right to "make a request in writing to the employer to provide a written statement giving the reasons for the dismissal," which must be supplied within 15 days of the request.[35] Complaints are initially investigated by an inspector, who will then work towards a settlement within a reasonable time,[35] failing which the Minister of Employment and Social Development may refer the matter to an adjudicator in cases other than where "that person has been laid off because of lack of work or because of the discontinuance of a function" or "a procedure for redress has been provided elsewhere in or under this or any other Act of Parliament."[36] Where the dismissal is determined to be unjust, the adjudicator has broad remedial authority, including ordering the payment of compensation and reinstatement to employment.[37]

While many employers have attempted to contract out of these provisions through the payment of a severance package together with a signed release from pursuing any claims under the Code,[37] the Supreme Court of Canada ruled in 2016 that the Code's provisions effectively ousted such common law remedies.[38]

France[edit]

Unfair dismissal became part of French labour law in 1973, but certain other protections had been previously instituted as far back as 1892.[39]

The Labour Code (French: Code du travail)[40] governs the procedure under which dismissal (French: licenciement)[a] may occur, as well as specifying the grounds under which it is valid or not. Dismissal may occur on grounds of personal performance (French: motif personnel) or economic reasons (French: motif économique).

Where the employer believes that there is a valid reason (French: cause réelle et sérieuse) for dismissal on personal grounds, it must give five working days' notice to the employee that a meeting with him must take place, and a decision to dismiss (exercised in writing, sent by registered mail) can only be made not less than two days afterwards.[41]

Where dismissal occurs on economic grounds,[42] the employee has the right to be notified of the employer's obligation during the following 12 months to inform him of any position that becomes available that calls for his qualifications. Failure to give prior notice, as well as failure to advise of any open position, will be causes for unfair dismissal.[43]

An employee may challenge a dismissal by making a complaint to the Labour Court (French: Conseil de prud'hommes).[44]

Where an employee has at least two years' service, the employer faces several claims:

  • Failure to follow procedural requirements may result in compensation of one month's pay being awarded to the employee.[45]
  • Where unfair dismissal (French: licenciement sans cause réelle et sérieuse) has been determined to have occurred, the Court may order reinstatement of employment (French: réintegration). If either party refuses to accept that remedy, compensation of not less than six months' pay will be awarded instead[46][47] The employer will also be ordered to repay any unemployment benefits the employee may have received, to a maximum of six months' paid.[48]

Where unfair dismissal occurs because of the failure to observe the notification obligations for recall rights, the Court may award:[43]

  • where the employee has at least two year's service and the workforce consists of at least 11 workers, a minimum of two months' pay
  • in all other cases, an amount in line with the existence and extent of any detriment the employee faced.

Where an employee has less than two years' service, or where the workforce has fewer than 11 employees, recall rights are not available,[49] as well as the normal remedies for unfair dismissal.[50] The remedy of one month's pay is still available in cases involving failure to follow procedural requirements, and an appropriate amount of compensation may still be ordered in cases where dismissal was improperly executed (French: licenciement abusif).[51][47]

Where an employee has had at least one year's service, the employer also faces a separate claim for severance pay (French: indemnité de licenciement). The amount is equal to 20% of the base monthly pay times the number of years' service up to 10 years, plus 2/15 of base monthly pay times the number of years' service greater than 10 years.[52][53]

Namibia[edit]

Unfair dismissal in Namibia is defined by the Labour Act, 2007, under which the employer has the burden of the proof that a dismissal was fair.[54] Explicitly listed as cases or unfair dismissal are those due to discrimination in terms of race, religion, political opinion, marital or socio-economic status, as well as dismissals that arise from trade union activities. Any termination of employment that does not give any valid and fair reason is automatically assumed unfair.[55]

United Kingdom[edit]

After the release of the Donovan Report in 1968, the British Parliament passed the Industrial Relations Act 1971 which introduced the concept of unfair dismissal into UK law and its enforcement by the National Industrial Relations Court. The Trade Union and Labour Relations Act 1974 abolished the court and replaced it with a network of industrial tribunals (later renamed employment tribunals). The scheme is currently governed by Part X of the Employment Rights Act 1996.[56]

Employees have the right not to be unfairly dismissed (with the exception of a number of exclusions).[57] Following discussions with an employer, an employee can agree not to pursue a claim for unfair dismissal if they reach a settlement agreement (historically a compromise agreement).[58] For a settlement agreement to be binding the employee must have taken advice as to the effect of the agreement from a relevant independent adviser, that is a qualified lawyer; a Trade Union certified and authorised officer, official, employee or member; or a certified advice centre worker.[59]

In 2011, Aikens LJ summarized the jurisprudence on what constitutes an unfair dismissal:[60]

  1. The reason for the dismissal of an employee is a set of facts known to an employer, or it may be a set of beliefs held by him, which causes him to dismiss an employee.
  2. An employer cannot rely on facts of which he did not know at the time of the dismissal of an employee to establish that the "real reason" for dismissing the employee was one of those set out in the statute or was of a kind that justified the dismissal of the employee holding the position he did.
  3. Once the employer has established before a tribunal that the "real reason" for dismissing the employee is one within [ERA 1996] s. 98(1)(b), ie. that it was a "valid reason", the Employment Tribunal has to decide whether the dismissal was fair or unfair. That requires, first and foremost, the application of the statutory test set out in [ERA 1996] s. 98(4)(a).
  4. In applying that sub-section, the tribunal must decide on the reasonableness of the employer's decision to dismiss for the "real reason". That involves a consideration, at least in misconduct cases, of three aspects of the employer's conduct. First, did the employer carry out an investigation into the matter that was reasonable in the circumstances of the case; secondly, did the employer believe that the employee was guilty of the misconduct complained of and, thirdly, did the employer have reasonable grounds for that belief. If the answer to each of those questions is "yes", the tribunal must then decide on the reasonableness of the response of the employer.
  5. In doing the exercise set out above, the tribunal must consider, by the objective standards of the hypothetical reasonable employer, rather than by reference to its own subjective views, whether the employer has acted within a "band or range of reasonable responses" to the particular misconduct found of the particular employee. If it has, then the employer's decision to dismiss will be reasonable. But that is not the same thing as saying that a decision of an employer to dismiss will only be regarded as unreasonable if it is shown to be perverse.
  6. The tribunal must not simply consider whether they think that the dismissal was fair and thereby substitute their decision as to what was the right course to adopt for that of the employer. It must determine whether the decision of the employer to dismiss the employee fell within the band of reasonable responses which "a reasonable employer might have adopted".
  7. A tribunal may not substitute its own evaluation of a witness for that of the employer at the time of its investigation and dismissal, save in exceptional circumstances.
  8. A tribunal must focus its attention on the fairness of the conduct of the employer at the time of the investigation and dismissal (or any appeal process) and not on whether in fact the employee has suffered an injustice.

See also[edit]

Further reading[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ the term congédiement is used in Canada, where licenciement only refers to a layoff

References[edit]

  1. ^ Chapman, Anna (2009). "10: The Decline and Restoration of Unfair Dismissal Rights". In Forsyth, Anthony; Stewart, Andrew. Fair Work: The New Workplace Laws and the Work Choices Legacy. Sydney: Federation Press. p. 208. ISBN 978-1-86287-736-8. 
  2. ^ Industrial Conciliation and Arbitration Act, 1972 (SA) (No 125 of 1972), s. 15(1)(e)
  3. ^ Industrial Relations Amendment Act 1993 (WA) (No 15 of 1993), ss. 6–7
  4. ^ Industrial Relations Act 1990 (Qld) No 28 of 1990, s. 2.2(3)(c), whose scope was later extended by the Industrial Relations Reform Act 1994 (Qld) No 12 of 1994
  5. ^ Industrial Arbitration (Unfair Dismissal) Amendment Act 1991, (NSW) No 11 of 1991, whose scope was later extended by the Industrial Relations Act 1996, (NSW) No 17 of 1996, Part 6
  6. ^ Employee Relations Act 1992, (Vic) No 83 of 1992, Part 5, Division 1
  7. ^ Voll 2005, p. 538.
  8. ^ Southey 2015, p. 152.
  9. ^ Termination, Change and Redundancy Case, (1984) 8 IR 34 (2 August 1984).
  10. ^ Southey 2015, p. 153.
  11. ^ Re Ranger Uranium Mines Pty Ltd; Ex parte Federated Miscellaneous Workers' Union of Australia [1987] HCA 63, (1987) 163 CLR 656 (16 December 1987); Re Federated Storemen & Packers Union of Australia; Ex parte Wooldumpers (Vic) Ltd (the "Wooldumpers case") [1989] HCA 10, (1989) 166 CLR 311 (10 February 1989)
  12. ^ Industrial Relations Reform Act 1993, No. 109 of 1993
  13. ^ Voll 2005, p. 537.
  14. ^ Fair Work Act 2009 (Cth) s 385
  15. ^ "Unfair dismissal". Fair Work Commission. Retrieved 25 July 2016. 
  16. ^ within the meaning of the Fair Work Act 2009 (Cth) s 386
  17. ^ within the meaning of the Fair Work Act 2009 (Cth) s 387
  18. ^ "Small Business Fair Dismissal Code". Fair Work Commission. Retrieved 25 July 2016. 
  19. ^ Fair Work Act 2009 (Cth) s 388
  20. ^ within the meaning of the Fair Work Act 2009 (Cth) s 389
  21. ^ a b "Benchbook: Unfair Dismissals" (PDF). Fair Work Commission. July 2016. pp. 25–27. 
  22. ^ Fair Work Act 2009 (Cth) s 383
  23. ^ Fair Work Act 2009 (Cth) s 382
  24. ^ as determined under the Fair Work Act 2009 (Cth) s 333
  25. ^ "Termination of Employment: National Guidelines for Managers and Supervisors in Australia" (PDF). Clayton Utz. 2015. 
  26. ^ "Unfair Dismissals and Contractual Entitlements". Western Australian Industrial Relations Commission. Retrieved 25 July 2016. 
  27. ^ Industrial Relations Act 1979 (WA) s 23A
  28. ^ CLC, s. 240
  29. ^ "Unjust Dismissal". Employment and Social Development Canada. January 5, 2016. 
  30. ^ Canada Labour Code, R.S.C. 1985, c. L-2, Part III, Div. XIV
  31. ^ Act respecting labour standards, CQLR, c. N‑1.1, ss. 82, 82.1(3), 124, 126; applying to those who have worked for at least two years who have "not been dismissed for a good and sufficient cause." (French: congédié sans une cause juste et suffisante)
  32. ^ Labour Standards Code, R.S.N.S. 1989, c. 246, ss. 6, 21, 23, 71 and 72, 78; applying to those who have worked for at least ten years who have been discharged or suspended "without just cause."
  33. ^ Act to amend the Canada Labour Code, S.C. 1977‑78, c. 27, s. 21; Act respecting labour standards, S.Q. 1979, c. 45, s. 124; Act to Amend Chapter 10 of the Acts of 1972, the Labour Standards Code, S.N.S. 1975, c. 50, s. 4
  34. ^ Ruslim 2014, p. 5.
  35. ^ a b CLC, s. 241
  36. ^ CLC, s. 242
  37. ^ a b Ruslim 2014, p. 6.
  38. ^ Fine, Sean (July 14, 2016). "Supreme Court ruling protects federally regulated workers from unfair dismissal". The Globe and Mail. , discussing Wilson v Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd 2016 SCC 29 (14 July 2016)
  39. ^ Voize-Valayre, Roland (1991). "The French Law of Unjust Dismissals". New York University Journal of International Law and Politics. New York University. 23 (2): 519–598. 
  40. ^ Code du travail(French)
  41. ^ "La procédure en cas de licenciement pour motif personnel" [Procedure where dismissal occurs on personal grounds]. travail-emploi.gouv.fr (in French). Retrieved August 9, 2016. 
  42. ^ "La définition du licenciement pour motif économique" [Definition of dismissal on personal grounds]. travail-emploi.gouv.fr (in French). Retrieved August 9, 2016. 
  43. ^ a b "La priorité de réembauche" [The priority for recall]. travail-emploi.gouv.fr (in French). Retrieved August 9, 2016. 
  44. ^ "Le conseil de prud'hommes" [The Labour Court]. travail-emploi.gouv.fr (in French). December 8, 2015. Retrieved August 8, 2016. 
  45. ^ Code du travail, art. L1235-2
  46. ^ Code du travail, art. L1235-3
  47. ^ a b "Le licenciement pour motif personnel : les causes possibles" [Permissible reasons for dismissal on personal grounds]. travail-emploi.gouv.fr (in French). September 17, 2015. Retrieved August 9, 2016. 
  48. ^ Code du travail, art. L1235-4
  49. ^ Code du travail, art. L1235-14
  50. ^ Code du travail, art. L1235-14
  51. ^ Code du travail, art. L1235-5
  52. ^ Code du travail, art. L1234-9, R1234-2
  53. ^ "L'indemnité légale de licenciement" [Severance pay]. travail-emploi.gouv.fr (in French). August 3, 2016. Retrieved August 8, 2016. 
  54. ^ "Labour Law: An overview of the relevant provisions of the Labour Act, Act 11 of 2007" (PDF). The Law Society of Namibia. p. 13. Retrieved August 2, 2016. 
  55. ^ s. 33, Labour Act, 2007, Act No. 11 of 2007
  56. ^ UK Parliament. Employment Rights Act 1996 as amended (see also enacted form), from legislation.gov.uk.
  57. ^ Dismissal: Your Rights, UK.Gov
  58. ^ "Settlement agreements". Acas. Retrieved August 2, 2016. 
  59. ^ ERA 1996, s. 203
  60. ^ Orr v Milton Keynes Council [2011] EWHC Civ 62 at para. 78, [2011] 4 All ER 1256 (1 February 2011)

External links[edit]