The generation of pseudo-random numbers having an approximately normal distribution is sometimes accomplished by computing the sum of a number of pseudo-random numbers having a uniform distribution; usually for the sake of simplicity of programming. Rescaling the Irwin–Hall distribution provides the exact distribution of the random variates being generated.
This distribution is sometimes confused with the Bates distribution, which is the mean (not sum) of n independent random variables uniformly distributed from 0 to 1.
The Irwin–Hall distribution is similar to the Bates distribution, but still featuring only integers as parameter. An extension to real-valued parameters is possible by adding also a random uniform variable with N − trunc(N) as width.
When using the Irwin–Hall for data fitting purposes one problem is that the IH is not very flexible because the parameter n needs to be an integer. However, instead of summing n equal uniform distributions, we could also add e.g. U + 0.5U to address also the case n = 1.5 (giving a trapezoidal distribution).
Hall, Philip. (1927) "The Distribution of Means for Samples of Size N Drawn from a Population in which the Variate Takes Values Between 0 and 1, All Such Values Being Equally Probable". Biometrika, Vol. 19, No. 3/4., pp. 240–245. doi:10.1093/biomet/19.3-4.240JSTOR2331961
Irwin, J.O. (1927) "On the Frequency Distribution of the Means of Samples from a Population Having any Law of Frequency with Finite Moments, with Special Reference to Pearson's Type II". Biometrika, Vol. 19, No. 3/4., pp. 225–239. doi:10.1093/biomet/19.3-4.225JSTOR2331960