Union (Yes album)

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Union
Yes - Union.jpg
Studio album by Yes
Released 30 April 1991
Recorded 1989–1991
Studio
Genre
Length 59:50 (LP)
65:23 (International CD)
69:52 (European, Japanese CD)
Label Arista
Producer
Yes chronology
Big Generator
(1987)Big Generator1987
Union
(1991)
Yesyears
(1991)Yesyears1991
Singles from Union
  1. "Lift Me Up"
    Released: April 1991
  2. "Saving My Heart"
    Released: July 1991
  3. "I Would Have Waited Forever"
    Released: 1991

Union is the thirteenth studio album by the English rock band Yes, released on 30 April 1991 by Arista Records. Production began in 1990 following the amalgamation of two bands featuring current and previous members of Yes at the time: Yes, consisting of Chris Squire, Trevor Rabin, Tony Kaye, and Alan White; and Anderson Bruford Wakeman Howe (ABWH), consisting of Jon Anderson, Steve Howe, Rick Wakeman, and Bill Bruford. The album is a collection of tracks written and performed by each group separately. Recording was met with differences from the beginning, including the merger of the two groups, internal relations, and the decision by producer Jonathan Elias to have session musicians play parts already put down by Wakeman and Howe.

Union was released to a mixed critical reception and the majority of the band have openly stated their dislike for the album, its production, and the difficulties faced with making it. The album reached number 7 in the UK and number 15 in the US. Three singles were released from the album: "Lift Me Up", "Saving My Heart", and "I Would Have Waited Forever". "Lift Me Up" topped the Billboard Hot Mainstream Rock Tracks chart for six weeks. In the United States, Union was certified gold in its first two months by the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) for shipment of 500,000 copies. In 1992, Howe's guitar solo, "Masquerade", received a Grammy Award nomination for Best Rock Instrumental Performance. Yes supported Union with their 1991–1992 world tour that featured all eight members playing on stage; at its conclusion, Bruford, Wakeman, and Howe left the band.

Background[edit]

In 1983, Yes reformed following the addition of returning singer Jon Anderson, joining bassist Chris Squire, drummer Alan White, guitarist Trevor Rabin, and keyboardist Tony Kaye. The line-up went on to record Yes' most commercially successful albums, 90125 (1983) and Big Generator (1987), for Atco Records. In 1988, Anderson left Yes and formed Anderson Bruford Wakeman Howe (ABWH), a new group with past Yes members Steve Howe, Rick Wakeman and Bill Bruford, who also brought in bassist Tony Levin. ABWH released their self-titled album for Arista Records in 1989 and supported it with a world tour. During this time, the four-member Yes began to write new material with their former producer Eddy Offord[1] and held sessions for potential new singers including Supertramp lead vocalist Roger Hodgson and American singer and bassist Billy Sherwood of World Trade.[2]

In 1990, ABWH started to write and record a second studio album with Levin at Studio Miraval in Correns, France with producer Jonathan Elias,[1] who previously worked with Anderson to contribute to his first solo album, Requiem for the Americas (1990).[3] Bruford described the material written by Howe, Levin, and himself during this time, prior to Anderson's involvement, as "terrific", and had high hopes for ABWH's future.[4][5] Matters became an issue when Arista asserted none of their songs were suitable for radio airplay or release as a single.[6] After several tracks had been put down, Anderson stopped by in Los Angeles, California to record his vocals.[1] While there, he reunited with Rabin and heard tracks that Yes were working on and suggested to Rabin that he sing on them,[1] and asked Rabin to contribute a song for ABWH to record.[7] "What I read into that was they needed a single" recalled Rabin, who was primarily responsible for Yes's hit singles throughout the 1980s. Rabin agreed and sent three demos to ABWH, including "Lift Me Up",[2] but requested that only one of his demos be used.[7] Anderson wished to use all three, however, which started discussions among the two bands' management to have Yes and ABWH produce an album together.[8]

The suggestion to merge received a mixed reaction from the band members. Rabin thought the idea "was useful and convenient to everyone, because we wanted to go on the road, and it was a quick way".[8] Squire called Yes's involvement into the project as a "salvage job".[9] Howe and Bruford resisted the idea, and saw no need to become part of Yes once again as they had reached substantial success as ABWH.[8] Bruford added: "ABWH was a group in the making ... However, the politicians got involved and that idea was quickly crushed".[9][5] Following a period of negotiations, Atco agreed to release Yes from the label for them to sign a four-album contract with Arista for an undisclosed sum, thus giving the green-light for a collaborative album released under Arista.[10] As part of the deal, Atco retained the rights to the band's back catalogue.[11] Squire remembered a "huge, 90-page contract" was produced to settle the various legal issues between the two bands, labels and promoters.[9]

Recording and production[edit]

Producer Jonathan Elias's decision to have session musicians overdub Wakeman and Howe's parts proved to be controversial with fans and critics.

Union includes nine tracks recorded by ABWH, these being "I Would Have Waited Forever", "Shock to the System", "Without Hope You Cannot Start the Day", "Silent Talking", "Angkor Wat", "Dangerous (Look in the Light of What You're Searching For)", "Holding On", "Evensong", "Take the Water to the Mountain", and "Masquerade".[1] Collectively they were recorded in five different studios, including Studio Guillaume Tell in Paris, SARM West Studios in London, Record Plant Studios in Los Angeles, and Vision Sound Studios in New York City.[1] Howe recorded "Masquerade" at Langley Studios located at his home in Devon, England.[1]

The recording of the ABWH tracks were met with personnel and musical differences which led to friction. When Elias accepted Anderson's invitation to produce the ABWH tracks, with Anderson credited as an associate, Elias felt uneasy about the task as a Yes album of "fresh" material was something he thought was too difficult to achieve, following the band's history of internal issues. He aimed to present the "high technical edge" that Yes were known for within the structure of more concise and direct songs, similar to what Yes had done in the 1980s and not present technical prowess, or "how many notes could be played" in a given song section.[12] Anderson resisted such an approach as he wished to distance himself from the commercial and pop-oriented music that had been such a large influence on Yes across the decade.[13]

Matters were complicated further during the group sessions in the studio. Elias recalled the lack of material and the tension between Anderson and Howe, including the refusal from one to stay in the studio with the other without him.[14] In addition, Wakeman and Howe had agreed to solo commitments prior to recording, so their respective keyboard and guitar tracks were stored onto a computer, but not finalised and mastered.[15] In their absence from the studio, Elias and Anderson brought in a number of session musicians to play new parts from the recorded arrangements as they were dissatisfied with what Wakeman and Howe had put down. Elias said, "We weren't looking for only the early-'70s pyro technique. We wanted something more modern".[16] Elias attempted to help the situation by bringing in a Hammond organ for Wakeman to play, but the keyboardist refused as he thought the instrument was outdated. Elias concluded that ABWH "didn't care about a note of music", and was relieved to have finished some of the material considering the difficulties and his dislike to some chords and melodies.[14]

"Elias would come in and tell me to make the tracks sound like 90125 ... Anderson would come in later and tell me to make them sound as far from 90125 as possible."
—Jim Crichton on producer Jonathan Elias and singer Jon Anderson.[17]

Among the eleven additional keyboard and synthesiser players listed on the liner notes is Jim Crichton, founder and bassist of Saga, and his assistant, Brian Foraker.[1] They received the tracks and "tried to fill in the gaps ... What would Rick do here, and what sound Rick would use there", from his own studio.[18] Crichton thought "Dangerous (Look in the Light of What You're Searching For)" was a particularly strong track in its demo form, but its final version was substandard.[19] Wakeman criticised Elias for allowing the edits,[15] and the two addressed each other's issues in different publications of Keyboard magazine. Elias "never questioned Rick's technical ability" and stressed that Union was not an album of "major opuses" and felt Wakeman had "lost his edge".[12] Howe's parts were played by Jimmy Haun who had worked on Squire's band, The Chris Squire Experiment.[8][20] Elias ranked his time with Haun as the best experience during the making of the album.[14] Howe called Haun an "average guitarist" and described his changes as to "having an abortion". Elias maintained the view that he and Anderson agreed that outside musicians were needed and described Howe's reaction as merely "bruised ego from ... a very good guitar player".[16]

White estimated the Yes group had roughly three months to finish their tracks.[11] Squire added vocals to "I Would Have Waited Forever", "Without Hope (You Cannot Start the Day)", and "Dangerous (Look in the Light of What You're Searching For)".[1]

Artwork[edit]

Roger Dean was hired to design the art for the album. After the release of Big Generator, Dean was asked by Phil Carson to design a new band logo, and came up with a square design, but it was not used due to Anderson forming ABWH. When it came to Union, Dean decided to use the Yes logo he designed in 1972 and the square design.[21]

Music and lyrics[edit]

Howe used his guitar riff for "I Would Have Waited Forever" on "Sensitive Chaos", a track on his future solo album Turbulence (1991).[22] Elias thought the track best represented "both early and late Yes styles".[23] "Masquerade" is an acoustic guitar solo written and performed by Howe. He recorded the track in fifteen minutes at his home studio using a two-channel Revox deck, "away from all the arguments and politics" that came with making the album.[8] He recorded other acoustic tracks on a Spanish guitar for the album, including one titled "Baby Georgia", but Arista decided to use "Masquerade", a track Howe almost decided against sending because he thought it was not as strong as the others.[24] "Lift Me Up" was written by Squire and Rabin. The two used a dictionary to look for suitable rhyming words for the song's lyrics, which is how they came up with the word "imperial" in its chorus. According to Rabin, the song concerns a homeless person who enters a restaurant to use the bathroom, only to have the people inside telling him to leave. "And he just looks up to the sky [and says] ... you know, help me out".[24] Rabin completed two different mixes of the track but Arista founder Clive Davis disliked them. After Squire suggested to bring in someone else, Paul Fox was subsequently hired and finished a mix that was used on the album with assistance by Ed Thacker. Rabin, feeling the original mix was superior, thought Fox's work was "very good" but it suffered from not having a clear idea on what was wanted.[24] "Without Hope (You Cannot Start the Day)" originated from Elias who recorded a basic outline of the track in an afternoon and sent the tape to Wakeman to add his keyboards.[24] Elias and Anderson felt dissatisfied with Wakeman's parts; Elias wished for something "simple and gentle" but instead got a piece that to Elias "sounded like a Rachmaninoff piano concerto", and recorded new piano parts.[25] Rabin felt "Saving My Heart" was not suitable to include on a Yes album, a similar feeling he had for the band's most successful single, "Owner of a Lonely Heart". He originally planned to develop the track with Hodgson before Anderson heard it and wished to work on it for Union. The song displays pop and reggae influences. Rabin was unhappy with the song's final mix as it did not turn out the way he wished.[25]

"Miracle of Life" is a track Rabin described as a protest song; the inspiration for its lyrics came from watching a news report on the slaughtering of dolphins in Denmark. Howe thought the track was "very good".[25] "Silent Talking" is a song that Howe originally connected with a track he wrote titled "Seven Castles". Howe thought it contained some of the better guitar work on the album, but felt Anderson put down his vocals during the second half in too soon after his solo began.[25] The song features a guitar riff from Howe that is also included in his solo album Turbulence (1991). "The More We Live – Let Go" is the first song that Squire and Sherwood wrote together. Sherwood and producer Eddy Offord wanted Squire to re-record the bass parts that Sherwood had put down on the demo version, but Squire refused as he liked Sherwood's rendition and wanted it on the album. To Sherwood, the writing and recording process was so successful, he and Squire agreed to continue writing from then on.[26] The pair also wrote "Love Conquers All", a track with Rabin on lead vocals and released on the Yes box set Yesyears (1991).[27] "Angkor Wat", named after the Cambodian temple of the same name, was written by Elias, Anderson and Wakeman. During the final days of recording, Elias wanted Wakeman to record some atmospheric keyboard sounds that were then layered and formed as a track. Wakeman recorded each layer without hearing what he recorded before.[28] The song features a Cambodian poem at the end read by Pauline Cheng.[1] "Evensong" is taken from the middle section of a drum and bass duet performed by Bruford and Levin on the ABWH tour. The title comes from an evening prayer service held in English churches.[28]

Release[edit]

Union was released on 30 April 1991.[29] The album was a success on the charts, reaching its peak of number seven on the UK Albums Chart in May 1991 during a six-week stay.[30] In the United States, it debuted on the Billboard 200 chart at number thirty-five, the week of 18 May 1991.[31] The album climbed on the following week, reaching its peak at number fifteen on the week ending 25 May.[32] It was present on the chart for a total of nineteen weeks.[33]

On 2 July 1991, Union was certified gold by the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) for shipment of 500,000 copies.[29]

In 1992, "Masquerade" received a Grammy Award nomination for Best Rock Instrumental Performance. Howe described the nomination for his track as "pure justice", following the difficulties in making the album.[8]

Yes released three singles from Union in 1991. "Lift Me Up" was the lead single, released in April 1991. It became one of the band's most successful singles, spending six weeks at number one from its third week on the Billboard Album Rock Tracks chart, later known as the Mainstream Rock Tracks chart. It was number one from the week of 4 May to 8 June 1991.[34][35] It reached a peak of eighty-six on the Billboard Hot 100 singles chart.[36] The second single, "Saving My Heart", released in July 1991, reached a high of number nine on the Album Rock Tracks chart a month later.[37] "I Would Have Waited Forever" was the final single released.[38]

Reception[edit]

Professional ratings
Review scores
Source Rating
Allmusic 2.5/5 stars[39]
Rolling Stone 2/5 stars[40]

The album received mixed reviews from critics. Chuck Eddy gave it two stars out of five for Rolling Stone, calling it "an eclectic miscarriage that almost isn't even worth laughing about", and wished the album had more memorable hooks, riffs, and concise lyrics.[40] Q magazine issued a review from Robert Sandall, who thought Union "veers alarmingly between ... neurotically jumpy overarrangements and competing time signatures" from ABWH and "heads-down riffing" from the Yes members. Sandall picked out "Lift Me Up" as one of the few "strong, anthemic tunes" that remain "unscathed" from the collision of such varied styles, which makes Union "one of the least ridiculous Yes albums in recent memory".[41] In The Washington Post, Gil Grifin noted that "musically and conceptually", the band are "reaching for its glorious past" which resulted in an album not entirely appealing. Though "Lift Me Up", "The More We Live – Let Go" and "Saving My Heart" are picked as more favourable tracks, Grifin concludes with "the aloofness of 'Union' is often sleep-inducing".[42] Union received two and a half stars out of five in a retrospective review by Bruce Eder for AllMusic. Eder thought it was always difficult for the album to live up to expectations given the amount of musical talent involved. Nevertheless, he judged its songs "reasonably solid", and cites the harmonies in "I Would Have Waited Forever" from Anderson and Squire and Howe's "Masquerade" as highlights. But he thought "Lift Me Up" is a "forced exercise in heaviness" and "Without Hope (You Cannot Start the Day)" a "composed-by-numbers" track.[39]

Most of the band have negative opinions on the album. Wakeman stated he was dissatisfied with the production, commenting that most of his contributions were so altered in the final result that he could not recognise them, adding that he called the album Onion because "it made me cry every time I heard it". Rabin thought it lacked a linking thread and ranked 90125 and Big Generator as better.[13][23] "I don't hate Union as much as Rick," he stated in 2016, "but it was a peculiar record. It was instigated by Clive Davis and made largely in isolation by the musicians and Jon, so the title is misleading. To me, Union is more of a failed project than a real album."[43] Bruford remains very critical: "It was probably not only the most dishonest title that I've ever had the privilege of playing drums underneath, but the single worst album I've ever recorded."[44]

The music portal Ultimate Classic Rock ranked Union last in its list of best Yes albums.[45]

Track listing[edit]

Note: "Angkor Wat" and "Give & Take" are not included on the LP version.[46]

No. Title Writer(s) Producer(s) Length
1. "I Would Have Waited Forever" Jon Anderson, Steve Howe, Jonathan Elias Jonathan Elias 6:32
2. "Shock to the System" Anderson, Howe, Elias Elias 5:09
3. "Masquerade" Howe Howe 2:17
4. "Lift Me Up" Trevor Rabin, Chris Squire Rabin 6:30
5. "Without Hope You Cannot Start the Day" Anderson, Elias Elias 5:18
6. "Saving My Heart" Rabin Rabin 4:41
7. "Miracle of Life" Rabin, Mark Mancina Rabin, Mancina, Eddy Offord 7:30
8. "Silent Talking" Anderson, Howe, Rick Wakeman, Bill Bruford, Elias Elias 4:00
9. "The More We Live – Let Go" Squire, Billy Sherwood Offord 4:51
10. "Angkor Wat" Anderson, Wakeman, Elias Elias 5:23
11. "Dangerous (Look in the Light of What You're Searching For)" Anderson, Elias Elias 3:36
12. "Holding On" Anderson, Elias, Howe Elias 5:24
13. "Evensong" Tony Levin, Bruford Elias 0:52
14. "Take the Water to the Mountain" Anderson Elias 3:10

Union Tour[edit]

Yes supported Union with their 1991–1992 tour, covering North America, Europe and Japan. The tour's line-up consisted of all eight members involved with Union performing together. Despite most of the Yes members disdain for the album, most have reflected positively on the tour. Wakeman said the tour was "the most fun I've ever had on a Yes tour."[47] The live album Union Live was released in 2011. At its conclusion, the 1983–1988 line-up of Anderson, Rabin, Squire, Kaye, and White continued as Yes and started work on the next Yes album, Talk (1994).

Chart performance[edit]

Chart (1991) Peak
position
Dutch Albums (MegaCharts)[48] 17
German Albums (Offizielle Top 100)[49] 15
Swedish Albums (Sverigetopplistan)[50] 32
Swiss Albums (Schweizer Hitparade)[51] 16
UK Albums (OCC)[52] 7
US Billboard 200[53] 15

Personnel[edit]

Credits are adapted from the 1991 CD liner notes.[1]

Yes

Additional musicians and personnel

Production

  • Jon Anderson – associate producer
  • Jonathan Elias – producer
  • Steve Howe – producer
  • Eddy Offord – producer, mixer
  • Trevor Rabin – producer
  • Mark Mancina – producer, programming
  • Billy Sherwood – producer, engineer
  • Brian Foraker – engineer, mixer
  • Chris Fosdick – additional engineering, mixer on "Angkor Wat"
  • Buzz Borrowes – additional engineering, assistant engineer
  • Sophie Masson – assistant engineer
  • Richard Edwards – assistant engineer
  • Renny Hill – assistant engineer
  • Matt Gruber – assistant engineer
  • Michael Sweet – assistant engineer
  • Paul Berry – assistant engineer
  • Steve Wellner – assistant engineer
  • Lolly Grodner – assistant engineer
  • Susan Kent – production co-ordinator
  • Paul Fox – mixer
  • Ed Thacker – mixer
  • Mike Shipley – mixer
  • Steve Harrison – assistant engineer
  • Stan Katayama – engineering
  • Greg Calbi – mastering
  • Roger Dean – design and paintings
  • Carolyn Quan – art director
  • Kai Krause – computer graphics

References[edit]

Citations

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Union (CD version) (Media notes). Arista Records. 1991. 261 558. 
  2. ^ a b Kirkman 2013, p. 102.
  3. ^ "Jonathan Elias - Requiem for the Americas: Songs from the Lost World - Credits". AllMusic. Retrieved 6 September 2016. 
  4. ^ Welch 2008, p. 226.
  5. ^ a b Chambers 2002, p. 114.
  6. ^ Chambers 2002, p. 112.
  7. ^ a b Morse 1996, p. 90.
  8. ^ a b c d e f Morse 1996, p. 91.
  9. ^ a b c Chambers 2002, p. 113.
  10. ^ Morse, Steve (11 April 1991). "Yes puts it all back together again". The Boston Globe. Retrieved 6 September 2016 – via Highbeam Research. (Subscription required (help)). 
  11. ^ a b Jaeger, Barbara (12 April 1991). "Yes – They didn't take 'no' for an answer". The Record. Bergen County, New Jersey. Retrieved 6 September 2016 – via Highbeam Research. (Subscription required (help)). 
  12. ^ a b Chambers 2002, p. 117.
  13. ^ a b Chambers 2002, p. 118.
  14. ^ a b c Potts, Henry (March 2001). "Bondegezou Interviews – Jonathan Elias (Mar '01)". Retrieved 17 June 2017. 
  15. ^ a b Morse 1996, p. 92.
  16. ^ a b Boehm, Mike (5 August 1991). "Fine Howe-Do-You-Do for Band Yes". The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 6 September 2016. 
  17. ^ Welch 2008, pp. 266–267.
  18. ^ Chambers 2002, p. 115.
  19. ^ Chambers 2002, p. 116.
  20. ^ Jimmy Haun Interview at Bondegezou
  21. ^ Welch 2008, p. 228.
  22. ^ Popoff 2016, p. 121.
  23. ^ a b Chambers 2002, p. 119.
  24. ^ a b c d Morse 1996, p. 93.
  25. ^ a b c d Morse 1996, p. 94.
  26. ^ "#askYES – Q&A with Billy Sherwood – 6 April 2016". YesWorld. 6 April 2016. Retrieved 7 September 2016. 
  27. ^ Welch 2008, p. 227.
  28. ^ a b Morse 1996, p. 95.
  29. ^ a b "American album certifications – Yes – Union". Recording Industry Association of America. Retrieved 6 September 2016. 
  30. ^ "Yes - Artists - Official Charts". Official Charts. Retrieved 8 September 2016. 
  31. ^ "Billboard 200: The Week of May 18, 1991". Billboard. Retrieved 8 September 2016. 
  32. ^ "Billboard 200: The Week of May 25, 1991". Billboard. Retrieved 8 September 2016. 
  33. ^ "Artists / Yes: Chart History: Billboard 200". Billboard. Retrieved 8 September 2016. 
  34. ^ "Mainstream Rock Songs: The Week of May 4, 1991". Billboard. Retrieved 8 September 2016. 
  35. ^ "Mainstream Rock Songs: The Week of June 8, 1991". Billboard. Retrieved 8 September 2016. 
  36. ^ "Yes - Artists - The Hot 100". Billboard. Retrieved 8 September 2016. 
  37. ^ "Yes - Artists - Mainstream Rock Tracks". Billboard. Retrieved 8 September 2016. 
  38. ^ I Would Have Waited Forever (Media notes). Arista Records. 1991. ASCD-2344. 
  39. ^ a b Eder, Bruce. Union – Yes at AllMusic. Retrieved 20 June 2012.
  40. ^ a b Eddy, Chuck (1 July 1991). "Yes: Union". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 7 September 2016. 
  41. ^ Sandall, Robert (1 June 1991). "Yes - Union". Q4. Retrieved 7 September 2016. 
  42. ^ Griffin, Gil (19 July 1991). "Art Rock Again? In a Word, Yes". The Washington Post. Retrieved 7 September 2016 – via Highbeam Research. (Subscription required (help)). 
  43. ^ Ling, Dave: "Anderson Rabin Wakeman"; Classic Rock #227, September 2016, p100
  44. ^ The Prog Rock years. Rock Family Trees. YouTube.com. Event occurs at 44:30. 
  45. ^ Yes Albums Ranked Worst to Best. Ultimate Classic Rock. Retrieved on 13 October 2016.
  46. ^ Union (LP version) (Media notes). Arista Records. 1991. 211 558. 
  47. ^ Brewer, Jon (18 June 2007). Classic Artists: Yes (DVD). Retrieved 21 May 2017. 
  48. ^ "Dutchcharts.nl – Yes – Union" (in Dutch). Hung Medien. Retrieved 8 September 2016.
  49. ^ "Longplay-Chartverfolgung at Musicline" (in German). Musicline.de. Phononet GmbH. Retrieved 8 September 2016.
  50. ^ "Swedishcharts.com – Yes – Union". Hung Medien. Retrieved 8 September 2016.
  51. ^ "Swisscharts.com – Yes – Union". Hung Medien. Retrieved 8 September 2016.
  52. ^ "Yes | Artist | Official Charts". UK Albums Chart Retrieved 8 September 2016.
  53. ^ "Yes Chart History (Billboard 200)". Billboard. Retrieved 8 September 2016.

Bibliography

  • Chambers, Stuart (2002). Yes: An Endless Dream of '70s, '80s and '90s Rock Music: An Unauthorized Interpretative History in Three Phases. General Store Publishing House. ISBN 978-1-894-26347-4. 
  • Kirkman, John (2013). Time and a Word: The Yes Interviews. Rufus Publications. 
  • Morse, Tim (1996). Yesstories: "Yes" in Their Own Words. St Martin's Press. ISBN 978-0-312-14453-1. 
  • Popoff, Martin (2016). Time and a Word: The Yes Story. Soundcheck Books. ISBN 978-0-993-21202-4. 
  • Welch, Chris (2008). Close to the Edge – The Story of Yes. Omnibus Press. ISBN 978-1-84772-132-7.