Union Correctional Institution
|Location||7819 NW 228th Street
|Managed by||Florida Department of Corrections|
The Union Correctional Institution, formerly referred to as Florida State Prison, Raiford Prison and State Prison Farm is a Florida Department of Corrections state prison located in unincorporated Union County, Florida, near Raiford.
First opened in 1913, the prison expanded and restructured many times. State Prison Farm was well known as one of the last prisons in America to abolish the practice of convict leasing in 1923. In 1955 the first buildings of the East Unit were established, across the Bradford county line to the south. In July 1972, the East Unit became the new Florida State Prison, and the old prison was redesignated as Union Correctional Facility.
As of 2016 Union remains one of the largest prisons in the Florida system. It houses a maximum capacity of 2,172 adult male prisoners at a range of security levels (Maximum, Close, Medium, Minimum, and Community).
State Prison Farm
Florida’s largest and oldest correctional institution was established in 1913 to house infirm inmates who could not be leased to private businesses. The initial population of the prison was close to 600 inmates, both male and female. Given the official name of Raiford Penitentiary, the facility was referred to almost exclusively as “State Prison Farm”, as convicts’ duties routinely included farming the 18,000-acre (73 km2) prison property. The population at the facility remained fairly constant during these early years; the number of inmates needed for the farm would dictate the initial capacity for the prison.
In January 1919, Captain J. S. Blitch was appointed warden and attempted to bring about positive change to the facility. The inmates were rewarded for their labors in the field with theatrical productions, and weekly baseball games. However, continued reports of guards beating inmates soured the positive image that Blitch was trying to publicize. Brutal treatment of inmates in the convict lease system would lead to the abandonment of convict lease in 1923. By the early 1920s, the large State Prison Farm property consisted of approximately 4,000 acres (16 km2) under cultivation, kept in large part by the prisoners. Also on the property existed a shoe factory that made 10 pairs of shoes per day. Living conditions in the prison were very poor. The women especially lived in horrid conditions, housed separately from the men in overcrowded, wooden dormitories.
Race was a major source of conflict in the early years of the State Prison Farm. A study conducted in 1928 of the 1,101 received prisoners show that 674 (61%) of the total male inmates were of color and 427 (39%) were white. Segregation existed in all aspects of prison life, from working areas to hospitals to bathrooms. Eighty-three percent of executions at Raiford were of people of color, despite the fact that a much greater percentage of the Florida population was white.
Florida State Prison
Following the abolition of convict lease and the subsequent increase in the inmate population, the prison structure changed. In 1927, a license tag factory was constructed, adding to the already extensive production line of the prison. The Main Housing Unit (“The Rock") was erected in 1928, a major step in the process of increasing the prison population. This building was kept in use until court order in 1985. (“The Rock” remained at the prison site unused until demolition in 1999.) By 1932, the inmate population was over 2,000, and a mess hall, auditorium and library had been added. The expanding prison also added a laundry and shirt factory around this time. Shortly after, in 1935, a maximum security building was constructed, the “Flat Top”. This proved vital in the expansion of the center, as from this stage forward the prison would remain a maximum security facility. This was also the year the “West Unit” was built to house female offenders which remained in use until 1954 when the Florida Correctional institution in Ocala was opened and all the female inmates were transferred from Raiford to the new facility (the West Unit remained in use as a medical facility until 1968). In 1955, the “East Unit”, a new maximum security facility was completed.
The East Unit became a separate institution in July 1972, renamed Florida State Prison. The original prison site became known as Union Correctional Institution. A new Death Row was constructed in 1992, coinciding with the relocation of inmates from the State Prison next door. The present-day facility still uses many of the older buildings. The prison has an eclectic range of facilities, from hearing impaired and elderly accommodation to designated confinement space. The prison also has a variety of living residences, such as cell units, house units and self-contained houses.
A 1999 report by the St. Petersburg Times took a detailed look into issues of one sided report of racism and diversity in the Union Correctional Institution. The report stated that more than half of the inmates were black, and more than 75% of the guards were white. This alone was grounds for racial tension. Several officers and inmates reported a clique of racist guards, distinguishable by the cord key chains they would wear. Problems turned out to be far more significant, however, after a review of public records and court files revealed over 100 black agency employees were involved in lawsuits alleging rampant racism and discrimination in the prison system. Perhaps worst of these allegations, a black recreation manager once arrived at his desk to find across his bulletin board the letters “KKK”. The report also included the story of a 1993 incident; inmates on death-row were exposed to a man wearing a KKK-style white sheet walking by their cells.[dead link]
- Bobby Joe Long—Serial killer, sentenced to death for two murders
- Randy Schoenwetter—Sentenced to death for the murders of a ten-year-old girl and her father.
- Joe Elton Nixon
- Oba Chandler—executed in November 2011
- Loran Cole—Sentenced to death for murder
- Daniel Conahan—Sentenced to death for the Hog trail murders
- Adrian Noel Doorbal and Daniel Lugo—Both sentenced to death for their roles in the "Sun Gym gang" murders that formed the basis for the film Pain & Gain
- Donald Dillbeck—Sentenced to death for murdering a woman
- Lucious Boyd— Sentenced to death for the torture/murder of Dawnia Dacosta.
- Donald Dufour—Sentenced to death for murdering a woman.
- Kevin Foster—Sentenced to death for murdering a music teacher
- Clarence Earl Gideon—Conviction overturned following successful appeal to United States Supreme Court
- Eddie James - Sentenced to death for the murder of an 8 year-old girl and her grandmother.
- Danny Rolling—"The Gainesville Ripper", executed in 2006
- Troy Victorino—Sentenced to death for the Deltona massacre
- Paul Durousseau—Serial killer, sentenced to death for nine murders
- George Trepal—Sentenced to death for the thallium murder of Peggy Carr.
- Daniel Lugo—Sentenced to death for two murders and racketeering, along with other charges
- Gary Ray Bowles—Serial killer, sentenced to death
- Giuseppe Zangara—Attempted assassin of President Franklin D. Roosevelt and assassin of Mayor Anton Cermak
- "Union Correctional Institution." Florida Department of Corrections. Retrieved on August 15, 2010.
- "Union Correctional Institution". Florida Department of Corrections. Retrieved July 28, 2010.
- Bradford County Telegraph, February 14, 1919
- Garrett, Paul W.; MacCormick, Austin H., eds. (1929). Handbook of American Prisons and Reformatories, 1929. New York: National Society of Penal Information. ISBN 1-153-48674-1. OCLC 8163144.
- "Union Correctional Institution (Raiford - Florida Death Row)". Florida Support. Retrieved July 26, 2010.
- "Diversify Corrections Series: EDITORIALS". St. Petersburg Times. Florida. December 22, 1999. p. 20.A.
- Francisco Alvarado, Pain & Gain: Where the Real-Life Sun Gym Gang Characters Are Now, New Times, April 4, 2013, accessed May 3, 2013.
-  (Daniel Lugo), Florida Department of Corrections, accessed May 3, 2013.
- Inmate Population Information Detail (Noel Doorbal), Florida Department of Corrections, accessed May 3, 2013.