Union Fire Company
Union Fire Company, sometimes called Benjamin Franklin's Bucket Brigade, was a volunteer fire department formed in Philadelphia in 1736 with the assistance of Benjamin Franklin. The first fire fighting organization in Philadelphia, though followed within the year by the Fellowship Fire Company. The fire company was formed on 7 December, 1736 after a series of publications in the Pennsylvania Gazette by Franklin and others pointing out the need for more effective handling of fires in Philadelphia and remained active until approximately 1820.
The Union Fire Company was an association for mutual assistance. Each member agreed to furnish, at his own expense, six leather buckets and two stout linen bags, each marked with his name and the name of the company, which he was to bring to every fire. The buckets were for carrying water to extinguish the flames, and the bags were to receive and hold property which was in danger, to save it from risk of theft. The members pledged themselves to repair to any place in danger upon an alarm of fire with their apparatus. Some were to superintend the use of the water, others were to stand at the doors of houses in danger, and to protect the property from theft. On an alarm of fire at night it was agreed that lights should be placed in the windows of houses of members near the fire "in order to prevent confusion, and to enable their friends to give them more speedy and effectual assistance.'
According to Scharf and Westcott, the company was limited to 30 members who met eight times a year and were fined if they were late to or missed a meeting. The company had no president, but a treasurer and a clerk, take in turns from the general membership, who not only managed communications with other members but also inspected the gear. Scharf and Westcott note that this structure was the basis for all fire companies in Philadelphia until the Revolutionary War. The early members of the Company included Isaac Paschal, Samuel Powell, William Rawle, and Samuel Syme.
With respect to the equipment, Scharf and Westcott note the following:
At this time engines and buckets were the only available apparatus, as pumps were few, and the supply of water scant. The engine of the Union Company, it is believed, was imported from England, as were also those of the other companies formed down to 1768. The engine of the Union Company was probably kept in a house in Grindstone Alley, which runs north from Market Street to Church Alley, west of Second Street.
In 1752, the Union Fire Company went in with the Hand-in-Hand Fire Company to purchase a fire bell which was placed on Fourth Street where it could be heard throughout the city. By 1791, the Company was in possession of an 80 feet (24 m) fire hose, considerably shorter than the 120 feet (37 m) hose owned by the Fellowship Fire Company. In addition, in that year, according to Franklin autobiography editor John Bigelow, the Company possessed 250 buckets, 13 ladders, two hooks and "no bags."
- Chaplin, Joyce (2007). The First Scientific American: Benjamin Franklin and the Pursuit of Genius. Basic Books. p. 81. ISBN 0-465-00956-5.
- Burt, Nathaniel (1999). The Perennial Philadelphians: The Anatomy of an American Aristocracy. University of Pennsylvania Press. p. 142. ISBN 0-8122-1693-8.
- Scharf and Westcott, 1889.
- "Citizen Ben". PBS. Retrieved 2008-11-18.
- Footnote from original source, including an advertisement from 1768, omitted. Of note therein, Scharf and Westcott report that "The Northern Liberty Fire Company, founded May 1, 1756, was probably the first to encourage domestic manufacture." p. 1884
- Weigley, Russell Frank; Nicholas B. Wainwright; Edwin Wolf (1982). Philadelphia: A 300 Year History. W. W. Norton & Company. p. 78. ISBN 0-393-01610-2.
- Bigelow, John (1869). Benjamin Franklin, ed. Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin. J. B. Lippincott & co. p. 250.
- Scharf, John Thomas; Thompson Westcott (1884). History of Philadelphia, 1609-1884. L. H. Everts & co. public domain