Union Pacific 4014

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Union Pacific 4014
UP 4014 Friesland, WI (48379660372).jpg
Union Pacific Big Boy No. 4014 running through Friesland, Wisconsin during its Southwest tour on July 25, 2019
Type and origin
References:[1][2]
Power typeSteam
BuilderAmerican Locomotive Company (ALCO)
Serial number69585
Build dateNovember 1941
Rebuild dateJuly 2016–May 2019
Specifications
Configuration:
 • Whyte4-8-8-4
 • UIC(2′D)D2′ h4
Gauge4 ft 8+12 in (1,435 mm) standard gauge
Leading dia.36 in (914 mm)
Driver dia.68 inches (170 cm)
Trailing dia.42 in (1,067 mm)
Minimum curve288 ft (88 m) radius/ 20°
Wheelbase
  • Locomotive: 72 ft 5+12 in (22.09 m)
  • Overall: 117 ft 7 in (35.84 m)
Length
  • Locomotive: 85 ft 7.8 in (26.11 m)
  • Overall: 132 ft 9+78 in (40.48 m)
Width11 ft (3.35 m)
Height16 ft 2+12 in (4.94 m)
Axle load67,500 lb (30,617 kilograms)
Adhesive weight540,000 lb (244,940 kilograms)
Loco weight762,000 lb (345,637 kilograms)
Tender weight436,500 lb (197,993 kilograms)
Total weight1,198,500 lb (543,630 kilograms)
Tender type25-C
Fuel typeNo. 5 fuel oil, originally coal
Fuel capacity6,450 US gal (24,400 l; 5,370 imp gal) of No. 5 oil
6,100 US gal (23,000 l; 5,100 imp gal) usable
Water cap25,000 US gal (95,000 l; 21,000 imp gal)
Sandbox cap.8,000 lb (3,629 kilograms)
Firebox:
 • Firegrate area
150 sq ft (14 m2) (grate removed in 2019)
Boiler95 in (2,400 mm)
Boiler pressure300 lbf/in2 (2.1 MPa)
Feedwater heaterElesco TP400 Exhaust Steam Injector
Heating surface5,889 sq ft (547 m2)
 • Tubes967 sq ft (90 m2)
 • Flues4,218 sq ft (392 m2)
 • Tubes and flues5,185 sq ft (482 m2)
 • Firebox704 sq ft (65 m2)
Superheater:
 • TypeType E
 • Heating area2,466 sq ft (229 m2)
CylindersFour, outside
Cylinder size24 in × 32 in (610 mm × 813 mm)
Valve gearWalschaerts
Valve typePiston
Valve travel7 in (178 mm)
Valve lap1+38 in (35 mm)
Valve lead14 in (6 mm)
Train heatingSteam heat
Loco brakePneumatic, Schedule 8-ET
Train brakesPneumatic
Safety systemsCab signals
Performance figures
Maximum speed80 mph (130 km/h)
Power output7,000 hp (5,200 kW) @ Cylinder
Tractive effort138,240 lbf (614.9 kN)
Factor of adh.3.91
Career
OperatorsUnion Pacific
Class4884-1[3]
Number in class15
Numbers
  • UP 4014
Nicknames"The Big Boy"
DeliveredDecember 1941
First runDecember 1941 (revenue service)
May 4, 2019 (excursion service)
Last runJuly 21, 1959 (revenue service)
RetiredDecember 7, 1961 (revenue service)
RestoredMay 1, 2019
Current ownerUnion Pacific (Union Pacific Heritage Fleet)
DispositionOperational, based at the Union Pacific steam shop in Cheyenne, Wyoming

Union Pacific 4014, also known as the "Big Boy", is a steam locomotive owned and operated by the Union Pacific Railroad for their heritage fleet. It is a four-cylinder simple articulated 4-8-8-4 "Big Boy" type built in 1941 by the American Locomotive Company (ALCO) of Schenectady, New York. No. 4014 is the only operating Big Boy of the eight that remain in existence.

The locomotive operated in revenue service until 1959. It was donated to the Railway and Locomotive Historical Society in late 1961 and thereafter displayed in Fairplex at the RailGiants Train Museum in Pomona, California. In 2013, Union Pacific re-acquired the locomotive and launched a restoration project at their Steam Shop in Cheyenne, Wyoming. In May 2019, No. 4014 was operated for the first time after sitting dormant for almost six decades. Restoration work on No. 4014 was completed on May 1, 2019 and it ran its first excursion, doubleheaded with Union Pacific 844, three days later on May 4, 2019. Now part of the Union Pacific's heritage fleet, it now operates in excursion service, in addition to hauling revenue freight during ferry moves.[4]

Design[edit]

The Big Boy class was developed by Union Pacific and the American Locomotive Company (ALCO) to handle the grades of the Wasatch Range.[5] UP determined that its goals for the new class could be achieved by making several changes to the existing 4-6-6-4 Challenger design by enlarging the firebox to about 235 by 96 inches (5.97 m × 2.44 m) (about 155 sq ft or 14.4 m2), lengthening the boiler, adding four driving wheels and reducing the diameter of the driving wheels from 69 to 68 in (1,753 to 1,727 mm).[1]

The Big Boy was articulated like the Mallet locomotive design, although without compounding.[6] It was designed for stability at 80 miles per hour (130 km/h), allowing for a wide margin of reliability and safety, as steam locomotives normally operated well below that speed in freight service.[7] Peak horsepower was reached around 35 mph (56 km/h); optimal tractive effort was reached around 10 mph (16 km/h).[7] It is longer than two city buses and weighs more than a Boeing 747.[8]

History[edit]

Revenue service and retirement (1941–1959)[edit]

UP No. 4014 on static display at the RailGiants Train Museum in Pomona, California, in 2005

ALCO built No. 4014 in November 1941 and delivered it the following month to Union Pacific, which placed it in revenue service.[1] No. 4014 was part of the first group of 20 Big Boys, classified as 4884-1.[3] Designed to haul 3,600-short-ton (3,214-long-ton; 3,266 t) trains over Utah's Wasatch Range, No. 4014 and the 24 other Big Boys routinely pulled trains of up to 4,200 short tons (3,750 long tons; 3,810 t).[1] No. 4014's last routine repairs took place in 1956.[9]

No. 4014 completed its final revenue run on July 21, 1959, just hours before the last revenue run by any Big Boy.[1] It had traveled 1,031,205 miles (1,659,564 km) during its twenty years of revenue service.[1] Union Pacific retired No. 4014 on December 7, 1961.[7] All of the Big Boys were retired by 1962, their duties assumed by diesel locomotives and gas turbine-electric locomotives (GTELs).[1][10] That same year, Union Pacific donated No. 4014 to the Southern California chapter of the Railway and Locomotive Historical Society in Pomona, California, where it became one of the eight Big Boys preserved around the United States.[7][11][a]

Ownership transfer (2012–2014)[edit]

Union Pacific SD70Ms Nos. 4014 and 4884 haul Big Boy No. 4014 over the Cajon Pass to Cheyenne, Wyoming, for restoration.[12][b]

In late 2012, Union Pacific officials announced that they would obtain a Big Boy locomotive, restore it to operating condition, and use it in excursion service.[15]

On July 23, 2013, the Southern California chapter of the Railway and Locomotive Historical Society agreed to transfer ownership of No. 4014 back to Union Pacific.[16][c]

On November 14, 2013, No. 4014 began its journey to the UP Steam Shop in Cheyenne.[19][20] It was pulled from its display site at the museum, on temporary track, to the adjacent parking lot.[19][20] On January 26, 2014, No. 4014 was pulled from the Los Angeles County Fairplex to the Covina station on Metrolink trackage by No. 1996, an SD70ACe diesel locomotive painted in Southern Pacific colors.[21] It presently arrived at UP's West Colton Yard in Bloomington, California,[22] where it sat on display until April 28, when it began its journey to Cheyenne.[12] After arriving at the Steam Shop's roundhouse on May 8,[23] No. 4014 sat largely idle for two years while the UP steam crew worked to overhaul No. 844.[24][25] The Steam Shop also used the time to expand and upgrade its facilities to accommodate a Big Boy.[26]

Restoration (2016–2019)[edit]

One of No. 4014's driving wheels on the lathe at the Strasburg Rail Road's workshop in 2017

In August 2016, UP officials announced that restoration work on No. 4014 had begun under Heritage Fleet Operations director Ed Dickens.[27][28] By early 2017, the locomotive had been completely disassembled.[29] Some new parts were fabricated, including the rod brasses, top boiler check valve and lubricator check valves.[29] The driving wheels were sent to be repaired by the Strasburg Rail Road in Strasburg, Pennsylvania.[30][31]

The work included one major alteration: converting the coal-burning locomotive to run on No. 5 fuel oil. This was done by replacing the firebox grates with a fire pan and an oil burner.[32] This made No. 4014 the first Big Boy to undergo a coal-to-oil conversion since No. 4005, which ran on oil from 1946 until it was converted back to coal in 1948 due to uneven heating in its large, single-burner firebox.[11][33] No. 4014's old firebox grates were saved and sent for the restoration of Milwaukee Road No. 261.[34]

In March 2018, it was reported that the process of putting the locomotive back together had begun;[32] ten months later, the locomotive's restoration was nearly finished.[35]

In December 2018, Union Pacific asked the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) to exempt UP Nos. 4014, 844 and 3985 from federal Positive Train Control (PTC) requirements;[36] in February 2019, the FRA officials responded that such waivers were not needed.[37]

On February 6, 2019, No. 4014's boiler passed a hydrostatic test.[38][39] The locomotive was successfully test fired on April 9.[40] Around 9 p.m. on May 1, 2019, it moved under its own power for the first time in more than 59 years.[41] The following evening, the locomotive made its first test run from Cheyenne to Nunn, Colorado.[42]

Excursion service (2019–present)[edit]

First run of UP 4014 in May 2019.

Upon the completion of the restoration, No. 4014 joined the railroad's never retired No. 844 in excursion service.[43][44] No. 4014 also became the world's largest operational steam locomotive, displacing (and later replacing) No. 3985.

In May 2019, No. 4014 made its first excursion run amid the celebrations marking 150 years since the completion of the First Transcontinental Railroad.[45][46] Following its May 4th christening at the Cheyenne Depot Museum, No. 4014 — doubleheaded along with No. 844 — traveled to Ogden, Utah.[47][48] No. 4014 subsequently made two additional tours on its own, with the first tour taking it through the Midwestern United States, including a brief stop at the Lake Superior Railroad Museum,[49] from July 8th to August 8th[50][51] and the second tour taking it through the Southwestern United States from September 27th to November 26th.[52][53] As of January 2020, No. 4014 has officially replaced No. 3985 in excursion service due to No. 3985's poor mechanical condition.[d][e]

Due to the COVID-19 pandemic in March 2020, UP cancelled all of their 2020 steam excursions and stated that Nos. 4014 and 844 will not operate for the 2020 operating season.[58] However, UP stated that No. 4014 will return to the rails again later in 2021.

Incidents[edit]

  • On May 16, 2019, No. 4014 partially derailed,[why?] with two axles from one set of drive wheels falling into the gauge, while entering the yard at Rawlins, Wyoming;[59] the derailed drive wheels were returned to the rails within three hours.[60]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Surviving tender No. 25-C-116 was connected with 4014 and placed on display at Fairplex (RailGiants Train Museum) in Pomona, California. The tender was connected with No. 4014 for 55 years.
  2. ^ On April 10, 2019, the diesel locomotive numbered 4014 was redesignated as 4479 on the UP active locomotive roster, allowing the "Big Boy" to retain the number.[13][14]
  3. ^ On February 22, 2014, UP EMD SD40-2C No. 3105 (née Missouri Pacific No. 6027), UP insulated boxcar No. 453665, and bay window caboose UP No. 24567 (née Rock Island No. 17149) took No. 4014's place in the museum.[17][18]
  4. ^ Union Pacific announced their decision to retire No. 3985 in January 2020 as it felt that the steam team can only operate two steam locomotives at a time and because of No. 3985's poor mechanical condition.[54][55][56]
  5. ^ Retired Challenger 3985 tender No. 25-C-311 is now connected to Big Boy 4014 as of April 2019.[57]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g "Union Pacific No. 4014" (PDF). RailGiants Train Museum. The Railway and Locomotive Historical Society, Southern California Chapter. August 2014. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 30, 2016. Retrieved April 30, 2019.
  2. ^ "Big Boy No. 4014" (PDF) (Press release). Union Pacific. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 30, 2016. Retrieved May 4, 2019.
  3. ^ a b Drury, George H. (2015). Guide to North American Steam Locomotives (2nd ed.). Kalmbach Publishing. p. 319. ISBN 978-1-62700-259-2.
  4. ^ Wrinn, Jim (July 8, 2019). "Big Boy No. 4014 departure delayed this morning". Trains. Archived from the original on July 9, 2019. Retrieved July 10, 2019.
  5. ^ Glischinski, Steve (August 21, 2013). "Big Boy story began in 1940". Trains. Archived from the original on June 24, 2018. Retrieved July 11, 2019.
  6. ^ Morrison, Tom (2019). The American Steam Locomotive in the Twentieth Century (1st ed.). McFarland & Company. pp. 533–534. ISBN 978-1-4766-6582-5.
  7. ^ a b c d Vantuono, William C. (July 28, 2013). "UP: A return to steam for Big Boy 4014". Railway Age. Archived from the original on April 28, 2019. Retrieved April 28, 2019.
  8. ^ Gruver, Mead (May 8, 2019). "Refurbished 'Big Boy' locomotive weighs more than a Boeing 747". The Associated Press. USA Today. Archived from the original on June 8, 2019. Retrieved June 12, 2019.
  9. ^ "Big Wheels Not Yet Turnin'". Community Ties. Union Pacific. August 15, 2013. Archived from the original on December 10, 2017. Retrieved May 5, 2019.
  10. ^ Klein, Maury (2006). Union Pacific: Volume II, 1894-1969 (2nd ed.). University of Minnesota Press. p. 479. ISBN 978-0-8166-4460-5.
  11. ^ a b Wrinn, Jim (February 15, 2018). "Where to find Big Boy locomotives". Trains. Archived from the original on September 28, 2018. Retrieved June 12, 2019.
  12. ^ a b Forgione, Mary (April 28, 2014). "Big Boy's wheels to roll Monday on epic California-Wyoming journey". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on September 9, 2016. Retrieved April 30, 2019.
  13. ^ "Union Pacific to renumber SD70M No. 4014 before Big Boy runs". Trains. June 27, 2018. Archived from the original on October 18, 2018. Retrieved April 28, 2019.
  14. ^ "Diesel No. 4014 gets new number ahead of Big Boy debut". Trains. May 16, 2019. Archived from the original on May 28, 2019. Retrieved May 28, 2019.
  15. ^ "Union Pacific studying Big Boy restoration project". Trains. December 7, 2012. Archived from the original on January 19, 2013. Retrieved April 27, 2019.
  16. ^ "Union Pacific Railroad Acquires Big Boy Locomotive No. 4014". Union Pacific. July 23, 2013. Archived from the original on June 24, 2018. Retrieved April 30, 2019.
  17. ^ "Union Pacific SD40-2C No. 3105". RailGiants Train Museum. Archived from the original on April 27, 2019. Retrieved April 28, 2019.
  18. ^ "UP No. 3105 Heads Home to RailGiants Museum". Community Ties. Union Pacific. February 21, 2014. Archived from the original on August 2, 2016. Retrieved May 1, 2019.
  19. ^ a b "Big Boy No. 4014 Prepares to Leave Pomona". Community Ties. Union Pacific. November 14, 2013. Archived from the original on May 30, 2017. Retrieved May 5, 2019.
  20. ^ a b Allen, David (November 14, 2013). "Big Boy lumbers to life at Pomona fairgrounds". Inland Valley Daily Bulletin. Archived from the original on June 7, 2019. Retrieved June 7, 2019.
  21. ^ "Fans Welcome Big Boy No. 4014's Return to the National Rail Network". Community Ties. Union Pacific. January 27, 2014. Archived from the original on May 1, 2019. Retrieved May 14, 2019.
  22. ^ "West Colton Yard" (PDF) (Press release). Union Pacific. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 6, 2019. Retrieved June 6, 2019.
  23. ^ Rader, Anna (May 8, 2014). "Union Pacific Big Boy 4014 Arrives In Cheyenne". Wyoming Public Media. Archived from the original on October 1, 2015. Retrieved April 30, 2019.
  24. ^ ""Living Legend" Northern No. 844". Union Pacific. Archived from the original on April 21, 2019. Retrieved May 3, 2019.
  25. ^ Fike, Ellen (August 20, 2017). "Big Boy 4014 restoration still set for completion in 2019". Wyoming Tribune Eagle. Archived from the original on January 14, 2019. Retrieved June 7, 2019.
  26. ^ "Work on Big Boy locomotive goes slowly". Omaha World-Herald. November 24, 2014. Archived from the original on July 1, 2019. Retrieved July 1, 2019.
  27. ^ "Steam Update: Big Boy No. 4014 Restoration Begins". Inside Track. Union Pacific. August 11, 2016. Archived from the original on August 6, 2018. Retrieved April 27, 2019.
  28. ^ "Big Boy Work Begins". Trains. August 12, 2016. Archived from the original on July 10, 2018. Retrieved April 28, 2019.
  29. ^ a b "Steam Update: With Disassembly Complete, Big Boy Fabrication Underway". Inside Track. Union Pacific. February 1, 2017. Archived from the original on August 22, 2017. Retrieved August 5, 2019.
  30. ^ "Progress report on Union Pacific Big Boy 4014". Trains. March 3, 2018. Archived from the original on July 27, 2018. Retrieved May 4, 2019.
  31. ^ "Union Pacific confirms Big Boy 4-8-8-4 No. 4014 for Ogden in 2019 and more". Trains. May 10, 2018. Archived from the original on October 18, 2018. Retrieved May 4, 2019.
  32. ^ a b "Putting the 'Big Boy' Back Together". Inside Track. Union Pacific. March 22, 2018. Archived from the original on September 17, 2018. Retrieved April 27, 2019.
  33. ^ Frank, Al. "Big Boy". Forney Museum of Transportation. Archived from the original on December 10, 2018. Retrieved July 27, 2019.
  34. ^ Glischinski, Steve (March 29, 2017). "Minnesota steam engine to use Big Boy fire grates". Trains. Archived from the original on March 31, 2017. Retrieved August 5, 2019.
  35. ^ "Steam Update: Big Boy's Restoration Nearly Complete". Inside Track. Union Pacific. January 29, 2019. Archived from the original on April 27, 2019. Retrieved April 27, 2019.
  36. ^ "Big Boy 4014 gets drivers; UP asks for PTC waivers for three steam locomotives". Trains. December 13, 2018. Archived from the original on June 8, 2019. Retrieved June 9, 2019.
  37. ^ Wrinn, Jim (February 28, 2019). "FRA: UP doesn't need waiver to run steam 11,000 miles in 2019". Trains. Archived from the original on June 9, 2019. Retrieved June 9, 2019.
  38. ^ "'Big Boy' passes early pressure test". Trains. February 6, 2019. Archived from the original on May 4, 2019. Retrieved June 27, 2019.
  39. ^ Wrinn, Jim (February 8, 2019). "Big Boy 4014, a hydrostatic test, and why UP can beat the usual six month rule". Trains. Archived from the original on May 30, 2019. Retrieved May 30, 2019.
  40. ^ "Big Boy No. 4014 fired up for the first time; May 12 excursion announced". Trains. April 10, 2019. Archived from the original on April 10, 2019. Retrieved April 16, 2019.
  41. ^ Wrinn, Jim (May 2, 2019). "Under its own power, Big Boy moves outside of shop". Trains. Archived from the original on May 2, 2019. Retrieved May 2, 2019.
  42. ^ Wrinn, Jim (May 3, 2019). "Big Boy debuts with test run". Trains. Archived from the original on May 3, 2019. Retrieved May 3, 2019.
  43. ^ Scott, Ramsey (May 4, 2019). "The Big Boy leaves the shop and heads into history". Wyoming Tribune Eagle. Archived from the original on May 4, 2019. Retrieved June 7, 2019.
  44. ^ Sweeney, Steve (May 4, 2019). "UP steam crew has Big Boy ready to roll". Trains. Archived from the original on May 6, 2019. Retrieved July 17, 2019.
  45. ^ "World's Largest Steam Locomotive Returns to the Rails as Union Pacific Commemorates Transcontinental Railroad's 150th Anniversary". Union Pacific. March 14, 2019. Archived from the original on May 2, 2019. Retrieved May 2, 2019.
  46. ^ Wrinn, Jim (May 4, 2019). "Big Boy christened, begins trip to Golden Spike celebration". Trains. Archived from the original on May 5, 2019. Retrieved May 5, 2019.
  47. ^ O'Donoghue, Amy (May 9, 2019). "Thousands turn out as Big Boy locomotive rolls into Ogden". Deseret News. Archived from the original on May 9, 2019. Retrieved May 12, 2019.
  48. ^ "Union Pacific Recreates Historic Steam Meet, Commemorating 150th Anniversary of the Transcontinental Railroad's Completion". Union Pacific. May 9, 2019. Archived from the original on June 11, 2019. Retrieved June 11, 2019.
  49. ^ "Festival of Steam with Big Boy No. 4014". Lake Superior Railroad Museum. Retrieved 2021-03-07.
  50. ^ "Union Pacific's Big Boy No. 4014 Locomotive Prepares for 'Great Race Across the Midwest'". Union Pacific. June 13, 2019. Archived from the original on July 8, 2019. Retrieved July 8, 2019.
  51. ^ Cole, Kevin (July 9, 2019). "Union Pacific's Big Boy, the world's largest steam railroad engine, rolls through Nebraska this week". Omaha World-Herald. Archived from the original on July 9, 2019. Retrieved July 18, 2019.
  52. ^ Wrinn, Jim (September 4, 2019). "Union Pacific Big Boy No. 4014 will depart on its fall tour Sept. 27". Trains. Archived from the original on September 28, 2019. Retrieved September 28, 2019.
  53. ^ "Union Pacific's Big Boy No. 4014 Locomotive Concludes 150th Anniversary Celebration with 'Great Race Across the Southwest'". Union Pacific. September 5, 2019. Archived from the original on September 6, 2019. Retrieved September 28, 2019.
  54. ^ Keefe, Kevin. "The Challenger at high tide". Classic Trains.
  55. ^ "Union Pacific No. 3985's next stop". Retrieved April 5, 2020.
  56. ^ Union Pacific Permanently Retires Challenger 4-6-6-4 Steam Railway issue 503 March 2020 page 21
  57. ^ Wrinn (2020), p. 143.
  58. ^ "Union Pacific Steam Schedule". Union Pacific. Archived from the original on July 1, 2020. Retrieved April 12, 2021.
  59. ^ Wrinn, Jim (May 16, 2019). "Big Boy stubs its toe with derailment". Trains. Archived from the original on May 22, 2019. Retrieved June 9, 2019.
  60. ^ Cobb, Debbie (May 17, 2019). "Big Boy Derailed On Way To Laramie, Back On Schedule". KCGY. Archived from the original on May 17, 2019. Retrieved June 9, 2019.

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]