|Ministry||Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology, India|
|Launched||28 January 2009|
|Budget||₹87.939 billion (US$1.4 billion) (through 31 March 2017) |
|Status||1.171 billion as of 15 Aug 2017 |
|This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Aadhaar is a 12 digit unique-identity number issued to all Indian residents based on their biometric and demographic data. The data is collected by the Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI), a statutory authority established on 12 July 2016 by the Government of India, under the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology, under the provisions of the Aadhaar (Targeted Delivery of Financial and other Subsidies, benefits and services) Act, 2016.
Aadhaar is the world's largest biometric ID system, with over 1.171 billion enrolled members as of 15 Aug 2017. As of this date, over 99% of Indians aged 18 and above had been enrolled in Aadhaar. World Bank Chief Economist Paul Romer described Aadhar as "the most sophisticated ID programme in world".
Prior to the enactment of the Act, UIDAI functioned as an attached office of Planning Commission (now NITI Aayog) since 28 January 2009. On 3 March 2016, a money bill was introduced in the Parliament to give legislative backing to Aadhaar. On 11 March 2016, the Aadhaar (Targeted Delivery of Financial and other Subsidies, benefits and services) Act, 2016 was passed in the Lok Sabha. On 26 March 2016, this Act was notified in the Gazette of India.
As of April 2017, a Constitution Bench of the Supreme Court of India is considering the legal validity of Aadhaar on right to privacy grounds. On 23 September 2013, the Supreme Court issued an interim order saying that "no person should suffer for not getting Aadhaar" as the government cannot deny a service to a resident if s/he does not possess Aadhaar, as it is voluntary and not mandatory. In another interim order on 11 August 2015, the Supreme Court of India ruled that "UIDAI/Aadhaar will not be used for any other purposes except PDS, kerosene and LPG distribution system" (which order was later amended to include Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme, all types of pensions schemes, employee provident fund and the Prime Minister Jan Dhan Yojana), and made it clear that even for availing these facilities Aadhaar card will not be mandatory. On 27 March 2017, the Supreme Court affirmed that Aadhaar can not be mandatory for availing benefits under welfare schemes, though it can be mandatory for other purposes (such as income tax filings, bank accounts etc.). On June 9, 2017, the Supreme Court of India partially read down a legal provision (Section 139AA of the Income Tax Act) which mandated an individual to link their Aadhaar for filing their Income Tax Returns.
- 1 Overview
- 2 Enrollment
- 3 Expenditure
- 4 History
- 5 Applications and related projects
- 6 Direct Benefit transfer (DBT)
- 7 Format of Aadhaar card
- 8 Aadhaar as digital identity
- 9 Impediments and other concerns
- 10 See also
- 11 References
- 12 Further reading
- 13 External links
The Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI) is a statutory authority established on 12 July 2016 by the Government of India under the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology, under the provisions of the Aadhaar Act 2016.
The UIDAI is mandated to assign a 12-digit unique identification (UID) number (termed as Aadhaar) to all the residents of India. The implementation of UID scheme entails generation and assignment of UID to residents; defining mechanisms and processes for interlinking UID with partner databases; operation and management of all stages of UID life cycle; framing policies and procedures for updation mechanism and defining usage and applicability of UID for delivery of various services among others. The number is linked to the resident's basic demographic and biometric information such as photograph, ten fingerprints and two iris scans, which are stored in a centralised database.
The Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI) was initially set up by the Government of India in January 2009, as an attached office under aegis of Planning Commission vide its a gazette notification. As per the notification, the UIDAI was given the responsibility to lay down plan and policies to implement UID scheme, to own and operate the UID database and be responsible for its updation and maintenance on an ongoing basis.
Starting with issuing of first UID in September 2010, the UIDAI has been targeting to issue an Aadhaar number to all the residents that (a) is robust enough to eliminate duplicate and fake identities, and (b) can be verified and authenticated in an easy and cost-effective way online anywhere, anytime. The Government of India in a notification dated 16 December 2010 recognizes the letter issued by Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI) containing details of name, address and Aadhaar number, as an officially valid document. It neither aims to replace any existing identity cards nor is it a cognizance of citizenship. Aadhaar neither confers citizenship nor guarantees rights, benefits, or entitlements. Aadhaar is a random number which never starts with a 0 or 1, and is not loaded with profiling or intelligence into identity numbers that makes it insusceptible to fraud, theft and provides privacy in such perspective. The unique ID would also qualify for as a valid ID while availing various government services, like a LPG connection or subsidised ration or kerosene from PDS or benefits under NSAP or pension schemes, e-sign, digital locker, Universal Account Number (UAN) under EPFO; and for some other services, like a SIM card or opening a bank account. According to the UIDAI website, any Aadhaar holder or service provider can verify an Aadhaar number for its genuineness through a user-friendly service of UIDAI called Aadhaar Verification Service (AVS) available on its website. Also, a resident already enrolled under National Population Register is not required to enrol again for Aadhaar.
As of 15 August 2017,[update] 1.171 billion Aadhaar numbers had been issued. As of this date, more than 99% of the estimated population aged 18 and over had an Aadhaar number assigned, while 71% of 5-18 year olds, and 37% of below 5 year olds had an Aadhaar assigned.
Data below is sourced from the State-Wise Saturation Report on the Public Data Portal as of 16 August 2017[update]. Note that the number of Aadhaar numbers "Assigned" in this report appears to be lower than the total issued slightly (likely due to exclusion of invalidated numbers etc). Percentage figures are with respect to the estimated population in 2017.
|Rank||State / Union Territory||Population||AADHAARs Assigned||% of Population|
|11||Dadra & Nagar Haveli||373,636||353,242||95%|
|13||A & N Islands||414,057||383,656||93%|
|29||Daman & Diu||264,721||202,980||77%|
From the beginning of the project in 2009 through March 31, 2017, the government spent a total of ₹87.939 billion (US$1.4 billion) on the Aadhaar project.
|2009-10||₹262 million (US$4.1 million)|
|2010-11||₹2.684 billion (US$42 million)|
|2011-12||₹11.875 billion (US$190 million)|
|2012-13||₹13.387 billion (US$210 million)|
|2013-14||₹15.444 billion (US$240 million)|
|2014-15||₹16.153 billion (US$250 million)|
|2015-16||₹16.791 billion (US$260 million)|
|2016-17||₹11.328 billion (US$180 million)|
|Total||₹87.939 billion (US$1.4 billion)|
The budgeted amount for the project was reduced to ₹9.00 billion (US$140 million) in FY17-18 from ₹20.00 billion (US$310 million) in FY15-16, given the high enrolled percentage.
Previous identity card programs
In 1999 after the Kargil war, the Kargil Review Committee, headed by security analyst K. Subrahmanyam, was formed to study the state of national security. It submitted its report to the then Prime Minister, Atal Bihari Vajpayee on 7 January 2000. Among its various recommendations, was the proposal that citizens in villages in border region be issued identity cards on a priority basis, later such ID cards should be issued to all people living in border states.
A Group of Ministers (GoM), headed by L. K. Advani, was formed to study the recommendations and examine possible implemenatation. The GoM submitted its report in May 2001. It had accepted the recommendation for an id card. The report said that a "multi-purpose National Identity Card" project would be started soon. The card would be first issued in border villages and then elsewhere. In late September 2001, the Ministry of External Affairs proposed that a mandatory national identity card be issued. This announcement came after reports that some people had multiple Indian passports with different details. This was attributed to the lack of computerisation between the passport centres. In December 2003, the Citizenship (Amendment) Bill, 2003 was introduced in the Lok Sabha by L. K. Advani. It primarily aims to provide various rights to persons of Indian origin. However, the bill also introduced the Clause 14 (a) that said "The Central Government may compulsorily register every citizen of India and issue national identity card to him."
The UIDAI was established on 28 January 2009 after the Planning Commission issued a notification. On 23 June 2009, Nandan Nilekani, the co-founder of Infosys, was appointed by the then government to head the project. He was given the newly created position of the Chairman of UIDAI which was equivalent to a Cabinet minister. In April 2010, the logo and the brand name Aadhaar was launched by Nilekani. In May 2010, Nilekani said he would support a legislation to protect the data held by the UIDAI.
In July 2010, UIDAI published a list 15 of agencies which were qualified to provide training to personnel to be involved in the enrolment process. It also published a list of 220 agencies which were qualified to take part in the enrolment process. Before this, the project had been only 20 states and with LIC of India and State Bank of India as qualified registrars. This announcement introduced several private firms. It was estimated that to achieve the target of enrolling 40% of the population in two years, 31,019 personnel would be required and 155 training centres would be required to train them. It was also estimated that 4,431 enrolment centres and 22,157 enrolment stations would have to be established.
On 7 February 2012, the UIDAI launched an online verification system for Aadhar numbers. Using the system banks, telecom companies and government departments could enter an Aadhaar number and verify if the person was a resident of India.
On 26 November 2012, Prime Minister Manmohan Singh launched an Aadhaar-linked direct benefit transfer scheme. The project aimed to eliminate leakages in the system by directly transferring the money to the bank account of the recipient. The project was to be introduced in 51 districts on 1 January 2013 and then slowly expanded to cover all of India.
In late November 2012, a former Karnataka High Court judge, Justice K S Puttaswamy, and a lawyer, Parvesh Khanna, filed a Public Interest Litigation (PIL) against the government in the Supreme Court of India. They contented that the government was implementing the project without any legislative backing. In December 2011, the Parliamentary Standing Committee on Finance, led by Yashwant Sinha, rejected the National Identification Authority of India Bill, 2010 in its then present form and suggested modifications. It termed the project "unethical and violative of Parliament's prerogatives". On 23 September 2013, the Supreme Court issued an interim order saying that the government cannot deny a service to anyone who does not possess Aadhaar, as it is voluntary.
In late September 2013, following the Supreme Court verdict, Union Minister of State for Parliamentary Affairs and Planning Rajeev Shukla said that the National Identification Authority of India Bill, 2010 would be attempted to be passed in the winter session of the Parliament. On 9 October 2013, the National Payments Corporation of India launched an Aadhaar-based remittance system. Using the system funds could be transferred to any Aadhaar-linked bank accounts, if only the Aadhaar number was known. It was announced that an SMS could be used for amounts up to ₹5,000 (US$78) and for amounts over that a mobile bank app could be used. By this time around 44 million Aadhaar numbers had been issued.
In March 2014, Nandan Nilekani resigned as the Chairman to contest in the general election on an Indian National Congress nomination from Bangalore South. His responsibilities taken over by 1981-batch IAS officer Vijay Madan, who was given an extension of his term as the director-general and mission director by the government. Nilekani lost to Ananth Kumar.
Before elections in March 2014, BJP national spokesperson Meenakshi Lekhi and general secretary Ananth Kumar had criticised the project for issuing Aadhaar to illegal immigrants. Lekhi pointed out that project continued to be run even after a parliamentary committee voted against and despite the Supreme Court order. Subramanian Swamy, another BJP leader and economist, said that UIDAI was a useless scheme and Nilekani should be prosecuted for wasting resources by hiring US firms.
On 10 June 2014, the new government disbanded four Cabinet Committees to streamline the decision making process; among them was also the Cabinet Committee on Aadhaar. Also in June 2014, the IT Department held a meeting with the secretaries of the states to receive feedback on the project.
On 1 July 2014, the former UIDAI Chairman Nandan Nilekani met with the Prime Minister Narendra Modi and Finance Minister Arun Jaitley to convince them of the project's merits. On 5 July 2014, Modi announced that his government retain the project and asked official to look into linking the project with passports. The Budget, allotted ₹20.3964 billion (US$320 million) to the project for the fiscal year 2014-15. It was a substantial increase from the previous year's ₹15.50 billion (US$240 million). Also in July, it was reported that UIDAI would hire an advertising agency and spend about ₹300 million (US$4.7 million) on an advertising campaign.
On 10 September 2014, the Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs gave approval to the Phase-V of the UIDAI project, starting the enrolment process in Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Chhattisgarh and Uttarakhand. The Union Cabinet allocated ₹12 billion (US$190 million) to the project in order to reach the target of 1 billion enrolments by the end of 2015.
On 18 June 2015, in a high-level review meeting on the progress of the UID project and DBT scheme, Prime Minister Narendra Modi asked the officials to accelerate the delivery of benefits and expand the applications of the Aadhaar (UID) platform. He also asked them to examine the possibility of incentivizing the states, through a one-time sharing of a portion of the savings. It was reported that the government was saving up to 14-15% in the direct benefit transfers of subsidies on LPG to the beneficiaries through Aadhaar.
Finding the experience with DBT scheme in LPG "very encouraging" with a reported savings to the tune of ₹127 billion (US$2.0 billion) to the public exchequer this year, Finance Minister Arun Jaitley on 5 July 2015, said, "If we can realize the government's JAM—Jan Dhan, Aadhaar, Mobile—vision we can ensure that money goes directly and more quickly into the pockets of the poor and from the savings we achieve, we can put even more money for the poor. If we can be careful in our design and implementation, we can extend DBT to other commodities, so that the poor get more money to spend for their upliftment." 
In March 2015, the Aadhaar-linked DigiLocker service was launched, using which Aadhaar-holders can scan and save their documents on the cloud, and can share it with the government officials whenever required without any need to carry them.
During the budget presentation on 29 February 2016, Finance Minister Arun Jaitley announced that a bill will be introduced within a week to provide legislative support to the Aadhaar. On 3 March 2016, the Aadhaar (Targeted Delivery of Financial and Other Subsidies, Benefits and Services) Bill, 2016 was introduced in the Parliament as a money bill by Jaitley. The decision to introduce it as a money bill was criticised by the opposition parties. Ghulam Nabi Azad, an INC leader, wrote in a letter to the Jaitley that the ruling party, BJP was attempting to bypass the Rajya Sabha, as they did not have the majority in the upper house. A money bill is only required to pass in the lower house Lok Sabha. Tathagata Satpathy of Biju Janata Dal (BJD) raised concerns that the project could be used for mass surveillance or ethnic cleansing in the future.
On 11 March 2016, the Aadhaar (Targeted Delivery of Financial and other Subsidies, benefits and services) Act, 2016, was passed in the Lok Sabha. During the Rajya Sabha debate on 16 March, Sitaram Yechury of CPI-M said that bill should not have been passed when the issue right to privacy was still in the Supreme Court. On 16 March 2016, the bill was returned to the Lok Sabha by the Rajya Sabha with some suggested amendments. The Lok Sabha was free to accept or reject the amendments. But, Lok Sabha rejected the amendments.
It is used for unique identification. Aadhaar has now become mandatory for availing almost any service. In Tamil Nadu, it is mandatory for providing ration. It is also being used for forensic purposes since it is a bio-metric identification. On 16 June 2017 the Center declared that Aadhaar will be mandatory for opening new bank accounts and for transactions above Rs. 50,000.All existing account holders will also have to submit their Aadhaar details by December 31, 2017, failing which accounts will be deemed invalid.
Direct Benefit transfer (DBT)
Aadhaar project has been linked to some public subsidy and unemployment benefit schemes like the domestic LPG scheme and MGNREGS. In these Direct Benefit Transfer schemes, the subsidy money is directly transferred to a bank account which is Aadhaar-linked.
On 29 July 2011, the Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas signed a memorandum of understanding with UIDAI. The Ministry had hoped the ID system would help them eliminate loss of the subsidised kerosene and LPG. In May 2012, the government announced that it will begin issuing Aadhaar-linked MGNREGS cards. On 26 November 2012, a pilot project was launched in 51 district.
Under the original policy for liquified petroleum gas subsidies, the customers bought gas cylinders from retailers at subsidised prices, and the government compensated companies for their losses. Under the current Direct Benefit Transfer of LPG (DBTL), introduced in 2013, customers had to buy at the full price, and the subsidy would be then directly credited to their Aadhaar-linked bank accounts. This scheme, however, did not take off, as in September 2013, a Supreme Court order put a halt on it. Subsequently, GOI constituted a committee to review the "Direct Benefits Transfer for LPG Scheme" to study the shortcomings in the scheme and recommend changes. The DBTL scheme was modified later as PAHAL by the new government in November 2014. Under PAHAL, subsidies could be credited to one's bank account even if the one did not have an Aadhaar number. Official data show that cooking gas consumption during the January–June period grew at a slower 7.82%, nearly four percentage points less than 11.4% growth in the same period last year.
The PAHAL scheme has covered 118.9 million of the 145.4 million active LPG consumers till March, as stated by the Petroleum Minister in the Parliament. Thereby, the DBT has become a "game changer" for India, claimed the Chief Economic Adviser to the Finance Ministry, Government of India, Arvind Subramanian, for in case of LPG subsidy, DBT had resulted in a 24% reduction in the sale of subsidized LPG, as "ghost beneficiaries" had been excluded. The savings to the government were to the tune of ₹127 billion (US$2.0 billion) in 2014-15. The success of the modified scheme helped fuel marketing companies save almost ₹80 billion (US$1.2 billion) from November 2014 to June 2015, said oil company officials. The DBT for the public distribution system (PDS) will be rolled out in September 2015.
Prime Minister Narendra Modi has asked for integration of all land records with Aadhaar at the earliest, emphasising at his monthly PRAGATI (Pro-Active Governance And Timely Implementation) meeting on 23 March 2016 that this is extremely important to monitor the successful implementation of the Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana or crop insurance scheme.
Aadhaar-enabled biometric attendance systems
In July 2014, Aadhaar-enabled biometric attendance systems was introduced in government offices. The system was introduced to check late arrival and absenteeism of government employees. The public could see the daily in and out of employees on the website attendance.gov.in. However, in October 2014, the website was closed to the public but is now (as on 24 March 2016) active and open to public access. The employees use the last four digits (last eight digits for government employee registering as of August 2016) of their Aadhaar number and their fingerprints, for authentication.
Other uses by central government agencies
In November 2014, it was reported the Ministry for External Affairs was considering making Aadhaar a mandatory requirement for passport holders. In February 2015, it was reported that people with Aadhaar number will get their passports issued within 10 days, as it allowed the verification process to be easier by checking if applicant had any criminal records in the National Crime Records Bureau database. In May 2015, it was announced that the Ministry of External Affairs was testing the linking of passports to the Aadhaar database.
In October 2014, the Department of Electronics and Information Technology said that they were considering linking Aadhaar to SIM cards. In November 2014, the Department of Telecom asked all telecom operators to collect Aadhaar from all new applicants of SIM cards. On 4 March 2015, Aadhaar-linked SIM cards began to be sold in some cities in a pilot project. The purchase could activate the SIM at the time of purchase by submitting his Aadhaar number and pressing his fingerprints on a machine. It is part of the Digital India plan. The Digital India project aims to provide all government services to citizens electronically and is expected to be completed by 2018.
In July 2014, Employees' Provident Fund Organisation of India (EPFO) began linking provident fund accounts with Aadhaar numbers. In November 2014, EPFO became an UIDAI registrar and began issuing Aadhaar number to provident fund subscribers. In December 2014, Labour Minister Bandaru Dattatreya clarified that an Aadhaar number was not necessary for any provident fund transaction.
In August 2014, Prime Minister Modi directed the Planning Commission of India to enroll all prisoners in India under UIDAI.
In December 2014, it was proposed by the Minister for Women and Child Development Maneka Gandhi that Aadhaar should be made mandatory for men to create a profile on matrimonial websites, to prevent fake profiles. In July 2015, the Department of Electronics and Information Technology (DeitY) called a meeting of meeting of various matrimonial sites and other stakeholders discuss the use of Aadhaar to prevent fake profile and protect women from exploitation.
On 3 March 2015, the National Electoral Roll Purification and Authentication Programme (NERPAP) of the Election Commission was started. It aims to link the Elector's Photo Identity Card (EPIC) with the Aadhaar number of the registered voter. It is aims to create an error-free voter identification system in India, especially by removing duplications.
Other uses by states
In Hyderabad region of Telangana state, Aadhaar numbers were linked to ration cards to remove duplicate ration cards. The project was started in July 2012 and was carried out despite the 2013 Supreme Court order. More than 63,932 ration cards in the white category, and 2,29,757 names were removed from its database in the drive between July 2012 and September 2014. In August 2012, Andhra Pradesh, asked citizens to surrender illegal ration cards, before it began to link them with Aadhaar numbers. By September 2014, 15 lakh illegal ration cards had been surrendered. In April 2015, the state of Maharashtra began enrolling all school students in the state in the Aadhaar project to implement the Right to Education Act properly.
Format of Aadhaar card
The full Aadhaar card is a colour document (referred to as the Aadhaar letter), often printed on glossy paper that is also obtainable electronically online via PDF. According to the government, a black and white version of the document is valid. It is printed on A4 paper and folded in half in portrait (to produce a front and back) that is approximately 93mm by 215mm once margins are removed. Some agencies may laminate the document for no more than ₹30. It has a cutoff card sized portion at the bottom with the key information. Some individual agencies produce and charge for a PVC card version (cut-off of the bottom section) falsely marketed as a smartcard despite caution from the government.
Top section (letter)
- Heading: Unique Identification Authority of India, Government of India. (In state language and English)
- Enrolment No
- Full name of Holder (In state language and English)
- Name of father (or husband)
- Phone number
- A PDF electronic signature self-signed by the "UNIQUE IDENTIFICATION AUTHORITY OF INDIA"
- A QR code
- Download Date and Generation Date
- Aadhaar No (In state language and English)
- On the rear, Emblem of the Republic of India and logo of AADHAAR
- General information about the Aadhaar card: (In state language and English)
- Aadhaar is a proof of identity, not of citizenship.
- To establish identity, authenticate online.
- This is electronically generated letter.
- Aadhaar is valid throughout the country.
- Aadhaar will be helpful in availing Government and Non-Government services in future.
Bottom section (a cutoff card sized paper)
- Front heading: Government of India (In state language and English), with Emblem
- Photograph of the holder
- Full Name (In state language and English)
- Date of Birth (In state language and English)
- Gender (In state language and English)
- A QR Code
- Aadhaar No (In state language and English)
- Rear heading: Unique Identification Authority of India (In state language and English), with logo
- Name of father (or husband)
- Address (In state language and English)
- Aadhaar Number (In state language and English)
The QR Code contains an encoded version of some of the data in XML format in English only:
- UID - Aadhaar number
- Full name of holder
- Year of birth
- Name of father (or husband)
- Full date of birth
Aadhaar as digital identity
A number of features make the Aadhaar card a digital identity, and facilitate digital identity.
- The document of the card itself is electronic in PDF format,
- A QR Code provides digital XML representation of some core details of the card.
- The number and some limited details can be validated online (with the notable exclusion of the name),
- Updating details can be done electronically using a mobile phone number and/or email as the second factor of authentication,
- The system collects a photo, all 10 finger scans, and eye scan, however there is no known common usage of this data to date to electronically validate a holder.
Impediments and other concerns
In October 2010, R. Ramakumar, an economist at the Tata Institute of Social Sciences, wrote in an editorial for The Hindu that the project was being implemented without any cost-benefit or feasibility studies to ensure whether the project will meet its stipulated goals. He also pointed the government was obscuring the security aspects of Aadhaar and focusing on the social benefit schemes. He quoted former chief of the Intelligence Bureau Ajit Doval who had said that originally Aadhaar aimed to weed out illegal aliens.
In March 2011, Rajanish Dass of IIM Ahmedabad's Computer and Information Systems Group, published a paper titled "Unique Identity Project in India: A divine dream or a miscalculated heroism". Dass claimed that even if enrolment is voluntary, it is being made mandatory by indirect means. He pointed out that essential schemes like the National Food Security Act, 2013 was being linked to UIDAI. He also pointed the feasibility of a project of this size had not been studied and raised concerns about the quality of the biometric data being collected. He cited another researcher Usha Ramanathan that UIDAI will ultimately have to become profit-making to sustain itself.
On 9 November 2012, the National Institute of Public Finance and Policy published a paper titled A cost-benefit analysis of Aadhaar. The paper claimed that by 2015-16 the benefits of the project will surpass the costs, and by 2020-21 the total benefit would be ₹251 billion (US$3.9 billion) against the total expenditure of ₹48.35 billion (US$750 million). The benefits would come from plugging leakages in various subsidy and social benefit schemes.
In March 2016, the International Institute for Sustainable Development released a report that the benefit from Aadhaar-linked LPG subsidy scheme for 2014-15 was ₹140 million (US$2.2 million) and for 2015-16 was ₹1.209 billion (US$19 million). This sum was much lower than the number stated by Finance Minister Arun Jaitley in the Lok Sabha. He had said in March 2016 that the government had saved ₹150 billion (US$2.3 billion) from the scheme. The paper said that the government was also including the savings from the efforts of oil marketing companies (OMCs) prior to the introduction of Aadhaar. The method used by the OMCs to weed out duplicates and ghost customers was 15–20 times more effective than the Aadhaar-based method.
Lack of legislation and privacy concerns
In late November 2012, a former Karnataka High Court judge, Justice K. S. Puttaswamy, and a lawyer, Parvesh Khanna, filed a Public Interest Litigation (PIL) against the government in the Supreme Court of India. They had contended that government was implementing the project without any legislative backing. They pointed out that the National Identification Authority of India Bill, 2010 which introduced in the Rajya Sabha was still pending. They said that since UIDAI was running on only an executive order issued on 28 January 2009, it cannot collect biometric data of citizens as it would be a violation of privacy under Article 21 of the Constitution.
On 23 September 2013, the Supreme Court issued an interim order saying that "no person should suffer for not getting the Aadhaar card in spite of the authority making it mandatory". The court noted that the government had said that Aadhaar is voluntary.
On 2 February 2015, the Supreme Court asked the new government to clarify its stance on the project. This was in response to a new PIL filed by Mathew Thomas, a former army officer. Thomas had claimed that government was ignoring previous orders while pushing ahead with the project and that the project was unconstitutional as it allowed profiling of citizens. The government in a reply on 12 February said that it will continue the project. On 16 July 2015, the government requested the Supreme Court to revoke its order, saying that it intends to use Aadhaar for various services. On 21 July 2015, the Court noted that some states were insisting on Aadhaar for benefits despite its order.
On 11 August 2015, the Supreme Court directed the government to widely publicise in print and electronic media that Aadhaar is not mandatory for any welfare scheme. The Court also referred the petitions claiming Aadhaar is unconstitutional to a Constitutional Bench.
Legality of sharing data with law enforcement
In 2013 Goa, the CBI was trying to solve the case of a rape of a schoolgirl. It approached a Goa local court saying that they had acquired some fingerprints from the scene and they could be matched with the UIDAI database. The court asked UIDAI to hand over all data of all persons in Goa to CBI.
The UIDAI appealed in the Bombay High Court saying that accepting such a request would set precedent for several more such requests. The High Court rejected the argument and on 26 February 2014 in an interim order directed Central Forensic Science Laboratory (CFSL) to study technological capability of the database to see if it can solve such a crime. The UIDAI then appealed in the Supreme Court. It argued that the chance of a false positive was 0.057% and with 600 million people in its database it would result in hundreds of thousands of false results.
The Supreme Court, on 24 March 2014, restrained the central government and the Unique Identification Authority of India from sharing data with any third party or agency, whether government or private, without the consent of the Aadhaar-holder in writing. Vide another interim order dated 16 March 2015, the Supreme Court of India has directed the Union of India and States and all their functionaries should adhere to the order passed by this court on 23 September 2013. It observed that some government agencies were still treating Aadhaar as mandatory and asked all agencies to issue notifications clarifying that it was not mandatory.
Land Allotment Dispute
In September 2013, the Delhi Development Authority accepted a complaint from the India Against Corruption activist group and cancelled a land allotment to UIDAI. The land was previously owned by BSNL, and MTNL had also laid claims on it. It was of an estimated ₹9 billion (US$140 million) value, but it had been allotted to UIDAI at a very cheap rate.
The issue of constructing UIDAI HQs and UIDAI Regional Office, Delhi's building was resolved with Department of Telecom (DoT). Following which, the Ministry of Urban Development has issued a notification on 21 May 2015 clearing the titles of the land in favour of UIDAI including land use.
In an August 2009 interview with the Tehelka, former chief of the Intelligence Bureau (IB), Ajit Doval, said that it was originally intended to flush out illegal immigrants, but social security benefits were later added to avoid privacy concerns. In December 2011, the Parliamentary Standing Committee on Finance, led by Yashwant Sinha, rejected the National Identification Authority of India Bill, 2010 and suggested modifications. It expressed objections to the issuing of Aadhaar numbers to illegal immigrants. The Committee said that the project was being implemented in an unplanned manner and by bypassing the Parliament.
In May 2013, deputy director general of UIDAI, Ashok Dalwai, admitted that there had been some errors in the registration process. Some people had received Aadhaar cards with wrong photographs or fingerprints. According to Aloke Tikku of Hindustan Times, some officials of the Intelligence Bureau (IB) had criticised the UIDAI project in September 2013. The unnamed IB officials have said that Aadhaar number cannot be treated as a credible proof of residence. As under the liberal pilot phase, where a person claims to live was accepted as the address and recorded.
Gajanan Khergamker in a commentary in Tehelka has argued that the Aadhaar threatens to legitimise the illegals living in the country. He said that frequently local bureaucrats and politicians give away documents like ration cards to illegal immigrants for political or personal gains. He pointed out that the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of US prohibits discrimination based on collected biomedical data, but India has no such safeguards for its citizens. He said the data being collected was worth fortunes and India was a "sitting duck" without proper protective legislation.
Overlaps with National Population Register
The Aadhaar and the similar National Population Register (NPR) projects have been reported to be having conflicts. In January 2012, it was reported that UIDAI will share its data with NPR and NPR will continue to collect its own data. In January 2013, then Home Minister Sushilkumar Shinde said that Aadhaar was not an identity card but a number, while NPR was necessary for national security purposes. The 2013 Supreme Court order did not affect the NPR project as it was not linked to any subsidy.
In July 2014, a meeting was held to discuss the possibility of merging the two projects Aadhaar and NPR, or making them complementary. The meeting was attended by Home Minister Rajnath Singh, Law and Justice and Telecom Minister Ravi Shankar Prasad and Minister of State for Planning Rao Inderjit Singh. However, later in the same month, Rao Inderjit Singh told the Lok Sabha that no plan to merge the two projects has been made.
In order to make Aadhaar accessible to often undocumented poorer citizens, obtaining an Aadhaar card does not require significant documentation, with multiple options available. In theory, the use of biometric facilities should reduce or eliminate duplication. So, in theory while it may be possible to obtain the card under a false name, it is less likely to be able to obtain another Aadhaar card under a different (or real) name. There have been however cases where the biometrics requirements have been circumvented and potentially fraudulent Aadhaars have been issued.
The Aadhaar card itself is not a secure document (being printed on paper) and according to the agency should not be treated as an Identity card, however is often treated as such, however with currently no practical way to validate the card (e.g. by Police at airport entry locations) it is of questionable utility as an Identity card. "There are five main components in an Aadhaar app transaction – the customer, the vendor, the app, the back-end validation software, and the Aadhaar system itself. There are also two main external concerns – the security of the data at rest on the phone and the security of the data in transit. At all seven points, the customer’s data is vulnerable to attack ... The app and validation software are insecure, the Aadhaar system itself is insecure, the network infrastructure is insecure, and the laws are inadequate." claims Bhairav Acharya, Program Fellow, New America.
The Aadhaar card is usually simply printed on glossy paper, and the government has stated black and white copies are valid. Some agencies charge extra to laminate the document. Other agencies have been reported charging ₹50 to 200 to produce a PVC version of the card, and it is marketed by them as a smart card, despite having no official validity and no chip.
Certain mobile apps claim to verify an Aadhaar card using a QR code scanner. However the QR code is not a secure representation of an Aadhaar card either and can be copied and edited. The only way to validate an Aadhaar card is to perform an online validation, that will confirm that the card number is valid, confirm the postal code and gender of the holder (but not their name or photo). In theory this means that is possible to create a false Aadhaar card using the number of a genuine holder from the same postal code with the same gender, with the card subject to a number of cases of counterfeiting.
The digital document itself is self-signed by a non-internationally recognised certificate authority (n)Code Solutions, a division of Gujarat Narmada Valley Fertilizers Company Ltd (GNFC) and needs to be manually installed on the PC. This is despite Entrust assisting on the development of the solution.
While the service is free for citizens, some agents have been charging fees. Despite the modern processes there are cases where enrolments are lost in the system without explanation. mAadhaar is official mobile application developed by Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI) to provide an interface to Aadhaar Number Holders to carry their demographic information viz. Name, Date of Birth, Gender & Address along with photograph as linked with their Aadhaar Number in smart phones 
Documentary proof may be difficult to obtain, with the system requiring documents such as bank accounts, Insurance policies, driving licences etc. that themselves increasingly require an Aadhaar card to originate, or similar documentary evidence as an Aadhaar card. This may lead to a significant minority underclass of undocumented citizens who will find it harder to obtain necessary services. Introducers and Heads of family may also assist in documentation, however for many agencies and legitimate applications, this facility may not be practical.
Non resident Indians, Overseas citizens of India and other resident foreigners may also find it difficult to avail of services they could previously freely obtain, such as local SIM cards, despite assurances to the contrary.
The amount of detailed personal information being collected is of extremely high importance to an individual. However once collected, it is not being treated with the required sensitivity of privacy concerns. Major financial transactions are linked with information collected in Aadhar. Data leaks are a gold mine for hackers and criminals who now use sophisticated hackers. Government department and various other agencies that collect this information, banks, etc using this information cannot be trusted to maintain the secrecy with all this collected information. Another case wherein Aadhar data collected by Reliance Jio was leaked online, and may now be widely available with hackers. On 2017 July the Aadhaar Card of privacy Issue was discussed at Supreme Court. 
- "About UIDAI". UIDAI. Retrieved 25 July 2017.
- "UIDAI Finance and Budge Section". UIDAI. Retrieved 6 June 2017.
- "Public Data Portal". UIDAI. Retrieved 16 Aug 2017.
- "Public Data Portal State Wise Saturation". UIDAI. Retrieved 16 Aug 2017.
- "'Adhaar' most sophisticated ID programme in the world : World Bank - Daijiworld.com". Daiji World. Retrieved 17 March 2017.
- "Aadhaar legislation tabled as a money Bill". The Hindu Business Line. 3 March 2016.
- "Aadhaar bill passed in Lok Sabha". Live Mint. 11 March 2016. Retrieved 11 March 2016.
- Correspondent, Legal. "Supreme Court counters push for Aadhaar". The Hindu. Retrieved 2017-04-02.
- "Don’t tie up benefits to Aadhaar, court tells Centre". The Hindu. 24 September 2013. Retrieved 27 May 2015.
- "Aadhaar Card Not Mandatory, Supreme Court Rules". NDTV. 11 August 2015. Retrieved 6 September 2015.
- "SC rules Aadhaar card not mandatory, says government cannot share any personal information". IBNLive. 11 August 2015. Retrieved 6 September 2015.
- "Aadhaar Card not proof of citizenship: Calcutta HC". Retrieved 25 June 2017.
- "UID an assault on individual liberty: Activists". Rediff. 6 September 2010. Retrieved 29 May 2015.
- "AADHAR: Union Cabinet of Ignorance!". Rediff. Retrieved 29 May 2015.
- "Nine issues to debate on Aadhaar Bill". The Hindu. 11 March 2016. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 28 June 2016.
- "Notification No.-A-43011/02/2009-Admn.I, 28 January 2009, Planning Commission, Government of India" (PDF). UIDAI. 28 January 2009. Retrieved 7 July 2015.
- "Learning with the Times: What is Aadhaar?". The Times of India. 4 December 2010. Retrieved 29 May 2015.
- Haryana Review 2013
- Chin, Roger (June 2015). "India's Aadhaar Project: The Unprecedented and Unique Partnership for Inclusion" (PDF). Journal of Administrative Science.
- "Government of India Notification (No. 14/2010 / F. No. 6/2/2007 – ES)". Reserve Bank of India. 15 March 2011. Retrieved 7 July 2015.
- "Nilekani to give numbers, ministries to issue cards". The Economic Times. 16 July 2009. Retrieved 27 May 2015.
- Sulthan. "Aadhar card is not a proof of citizenship !!!". Sulthan Academy. Retrieved 2017-04-02.
- "Move to link digital locker with Aadhaar challenged". The Hindu. 5 July 2015. Retrieved 8 August 2015.
- "EPFO revives Aadhaar for rolling out unique account numbers". The Indian Express. 23 July 2014. Retrieved 31 May 2015.
- "Nilekani takes charge, says first set of IDs in 12-18 months". The Times of India. 24 July 2009. Retrieved 27 May 2015.
- "Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) By Customers: Aadhaar Payment Bridge (APB) System" (PDF). National Payments Corporation of India. Retrieved 7 July 2015.
- "India launches Aadhaar verification services, enrolment centers". ZDNet. 27 May 2013. Retrieved 8 August 2015.
- "Verify Aadhaar". UIDAI. Retrieved 9 July 2015.
- "Where to Enroll". UIDAI. Retrieved 9 July 2015.
- "A committee and some questions: A first-person account with regard to the Kargil Review Committee Report and its implications.". Frontline. 4 February 2000.
- "The Kargil Review Committee Report: 'The fallacy of showing the LOC as running northeast to the Karakoram Pass must be exposed'". Rediff. 4 March 2000. Retrieved 26 May 2015.
- "What the UID conceals". The Hindu. 21 October 2010. Retrieved 26 May 2015.
- "Group of Ministers' Report on "Reforming the National Security System"". Press Information Bureau. 23 May 2001. Retrieved 26 May 2015.
- "Govt in no position to check passport fraud". The Times of India. 21 September 2001. Retrieved 26 May 2015.
- "Obtaining second passport is easy". The Times of India. 23 September 2001. Retrieved 26 May 2015.
- "Dual citizenship Bill passed". The Hindu. 22 December 2003. Retrieved 26 May 2015.
- "The Citizenship (Amendment) Act, 2003". Indian Kanoon. Retrieved 26 May 2015.
- "The Citizenship Act, 1955 (as of 2005)" (PDF). Ministry of Home Affairs (India). Retrieved 26 May 2015.
- "The Citizenship (Amendment) Act, 2003" (PDF). PRS Legislative Research. Retrieved 26 May 2015.
- "UIDAI: Inside the World's Largest Data Management Project". Forbes (India). 29 November 2010. Retrieved 26 May 2015.
- "Creation of position of the Chairperson UID Authority of India". Press Information Bureau. 25 June 2009. Archived from the original on 5 July 2009. Retrieved 27 May 2015.
- "UID number gets brand name, logo". The Hindu. 27 April 2010. Retrieved 26 May 2015.
- "UIDAI will back law to protect data: Nilekani". The Hindu. 20 May 2010. Retrieved 26 May 2015.
- "UIDAI empanels enrolment & training agencies". Business Standard. 18 July 2010. Retrieved 26 May 2015.
- "UIDAI launches online verification of Aadhaar numbers". The Economic Times. 8 February 2012. Retrieved 27 May 2015.
- "PM launches Aadhar-based direct cash transfers in 51 districts of India". NDTV. 26 November 2012. Retrieved 27 May 2015.
- "Cash transfer of subsidies in 51 districts begins on Jan 1". The Tribune (India). 24 November 2012. Retrieved 27 May 2015.
- "Supreme Court seeks government's response on PIL challenging AADHAAR implementation". The Economic Times. 30 November 2012. Retrieved 27 May 2015.
- "Why Parliamentary Panel rejected the UID Bill". IBNLive. 13 December 2011. Retrieved 29 May 2015.
- "Central government seeks statutory cover for UIDAI". The New Indian Express. 25 September 2013. Retrieved 27 May 2015.
- "Punch in recipient's Aadhaar number to transfer funds". The Economic Times. 10 October 2013. Retrieved 27 May 2015.
- "Nilekani resigns as UIDAI chairman". The Hindu. 13 March 2014. Retrieved 27 May 2015.
- "Two dozen officers indispensable for government due to functional requirements: DoPT". The Economic Times. 17 July 2014. Retrieved 27 May 2015.
- "Modi wave sinks Nandan Nilekani in Lok Sabha elections". Live Mint. 16 May 2014. Retrieved 27 May 2015.
- "Aadhaar a 'fraud', will review it if voted to power: BJP". The Times of India. 12 March 2014. Retrieved 30 May 2015.
- "Swamy: prosecute Nilekani for graft". The Hindu. 30 March 2014. Retrieved 30 May 2015.
- "Nilekani squandered national resources to US firm: Swamy". The Indian Express. 31 March 2014. Retrieved 30 May 2015.
- "Narendra Modi scraps 4 Cabinet Committees, including the one on Aadhar". India Today. 10 June 2014. Retrieved 29 May 2015.
- "Aadhaar future at stake, govt seeks meeting with states". The Indian Express. 17 June 2014. Retrieved 29 May 2015.
- "Nandan Nilekani impresses Narendra Modi & Arun Jaitley, gets Aadhaar a lifeline". The Economic Times. 24 July 2014. Retrieved 29 May 2015.
- "Aadhaar, DBT get a lifeline, Modi to retain, push UPA schemes". The Indian Express. 7 July 2014. Retrieved 29 May 2015.
- "Govt to continue Aadhaar, provides Rs. 2k cr in 2014-15". The Hindu. 10 July 2014. Retrieved 29 May 2015.
- "UIDAI set for an image makeover, to spend Rs 30 crore for its media campaign". The Economic Times. 12 July 2014. Retrieved 31 May 2015.
- "UID phase-V: Aadhaar enrolments in four states get Cabinet approval". The Indian Express. 11 September 2014. Retrieved 29 May 2015.
- "Union Cabinet clears Rs 1,200 crore for Aadhaar". The Times of India. 11 September 2014. Retrieved 31 May 2015.
- "Modi for expanding ambit of direct benefits, Aadhaar applications". The Hindu Business Line. 18 June 2015. Retrieved 7 July 2015.
- "Need reforms backed by growth to end poverty". Deccan Herald. 6 July 2015. Retrieved 6 July 2015.
- "Use DigiLocker to store your digital documents by linking to Aadhaar". Business Standard. 15 March 2015. Retrieved 6 March 2016.
- "Aadhaar legislation might be a Money Bill". Rediff. 2 March 2016. Retrieved 6 March 2016.
- "Opposition livid over money bill on Aadhaar". The Hindu. 6 March 2016. Retrieved 6 March 2016.
- "Opposition Alleges Aadhaar Data Could Be Used For Mass Surveillance". NDTV. 11 March 2016. Retrieved 11 March 2016.
- "Jaitley, Yechury spar in Rajya Sabha on Aadhaar as a Money Bill". India Today. 16 March 2016. Retrieved 16 March 2016.
- "Rajya Sabha returns Aadhaar bill to Lok Sabha with amendments". Hindustan Times. 16 March 2016. Retrieved 16 March 2016.
- "Aadhar bill passed in Lok Sabha after rejection of amendments introduced in Rajya Sabha". DNA India. 16 March 2016. Retrieved 16 March 2016.
- "Link your LPG connection to Aadhaar or bank a/c to keep getting subsidy". DNA India. 2 January 2015. Retrieved 31 May 2015.
- "In convergence push, NREGA card to carry Aadhar number". The Economic Times. 2 May 2012. Retrieved 31 May 2015.
- "UIDAI, Petroleum Ministry sign MoU on AADHAR". The Hindu. 30 June 2011. Retrieved 31 May 2015.
- "Review of the Direct Benefit Transfer for LPG Scheme" (PDF). Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas. Retrieved 18 July 2015.
- "DBTL helps govt save Rs10,000 crore as illegal LPG consumption falls". Live Mint. 3 July 2015. Retrieved 3 July 2015.
- "New LPG subsidy transfer linked with Aadhaar starts today". DNA India. 15 November 2015. Retrieved 31 May 2015.
- "NDA govt kicks off PDS reforms with direct cash transfers". Live Mint. 3 July 2015. Retrieved 3 July 2015.
- "PM Narendra Modi wants integration of all land records with Aadhaar", The Economic Times, 24 March 2016
- "Aadhar-enabled biometric attendance system introduced". The Hindu. 22 November 2014. Retrieved 31 May 2015.
- "Modi's biometric scheme ups employee attendance by 20 minutes a day". Daily Mail. 3 January 2015. Retrieved 31 May 2015.
- "Government website throws up shocking attendance figures". DNA India. 11 October 2014. Retrieved 31 May 2015.
- "Password veil over officials’ attendance". The Telegraph (India). 14 October 2014. Retrieved 31 May 2015.
- "Aadhaar-linked biometric attendance for Central staff". Deccan Herald. 23 August 2014. Retrieved 31 May 2015.
- "Aadhaar to be must for passports". The Times of India. 11 November 2014. Retrieved 31 May 2015.
- "Have Aadhaar? Get passport in 10 days". The Times of India. 16 February 2015. Retrieved 31 May 2015.
- "Soon, passport authorities to verify applicant identity with Aadhaar database". The Times of India. 1 May 2015. Retrieved 31 May 2015.
- "Aadhaar-SIM Card Linking Project Soon". The New Indian Express. 31 October 2014. Retrieved 31 May 2015.
- "Dot Tells Operators to Collect Aadhaar Numbers for Issuing New SIM Cards". NDTV. 3 November 2014. Retrieved 31 May 2015.
- "Aadhaar-based SIM sale begins today amid Intelligence Bureau objections". DNA India. 4 March 2015. Retrieved 31 May 2015.
- "Digital India – A programme to transform India into digital empowered society and knowledge economy". Press Information Bureau. 20 August 2014. Retrieved 31 May 2015.
- "Now get Aadhaar number through EPFO". The Hindu. 30 November 2015. Retrieved 31 May 2015.
- "Aadhaar details not mandatory for PF transactions: Government". The Times of India. 8 December 2014. Retrieved 31 May 2015.
- "PM asks Plan panel to enrol inmates under Aadhaar". The Indian Express. 6 August 2014. Retrieved 31 May 2015.
- "Government asks matrimonial websites to authenticate profiles using Aadhaar cards". The Economic Times. 16 December 2014. Retrieved 7 July 2015.
- "Govt to check fraud by linking Aadhaar to matrimonial accounts". Hindustan Times. 7 July 2015. Retrieved 7 July 2015.
- "EC launches NERPAP countrywide". Business Standard. 3 March 2014. Retrieved 4 March 2015.
- "Voters’ List Duplication to be Thing of Past with Aadhaar Linking". The New Indian Express. 4 March 2015. Retrieved 4 March 2015.
- "64,000 bogus cards deactivated after survey". The Hindu. 12 September 2014. Retrieved 31 May 2015.
- "Aadhaar helps weed out bogus ration cards". The Hindu. 21 January 2014. Retrieved 31 May 2015.
- "Aadhaar hurdle in drive against fake ration cards". The Hindu. 2 July 2014. Retrieved 31 May 2015.
- "15 lakh bogus ration cards found so far: Sunitha". The Hindu. 6 September 2014. Retrieved 31 May 2015.
- "2.10 lakh fake ration cards surrendered". The New Indian Express. 26 August 2012. Retrieved 31 May 2015.
- "Maharashtra to link school admission with Aadhaar". The Hindu. 23 April 2015. Retrieved 31 May 2015.
- "The Aadhaar system of biometric identification has inspired important debates. Let's look at these debates and try to provide some clarity.". www.sharone-microfinance.com. Retrieved 2017-06-21.
- "UIDAI cautions public against sharing of their Personal Information with unauthorized Agencies for Printing PVC (Plastic) Aadhaar Card". pib.nic.in. Government of India. Retrieved 28 May 2017.
- "R. Ramakumar, Dean". Tata Institute of Social Sciences. Retrieved 26 May 2015.
- "IIMA prof's study finds loopholes in UID project". The Indian Express. 18 March 2011. Retrieved 30 May 2015.
- "Unique Identification for Indians: A Divine Dream or a Miscalculated Heroism?" (PDF). IIM Ahmedabad. Retrieved 30 May 2015.
- "NIPFP study: 52.85 per cent returns expected from Aadhaar project". The Economic Times. 10 November 2012. Retrieved 27 May 2015.
- "A cost-benefit analysis of Aadhaar" (PDF). National Institute of Public Finance and Policy. 9 November 2012. Retrieved 27 May 2015.
- "Aadhaar-linked LPG: Govt says Rs 15,000 cr saved, survey says only Rs 14 cr in FY15". Business Standard. 18 March 2016. Retrieved 18 March 2016.
- "Supreme Court notice to govt on PIL over Aadhar". The Times of India. 1 December 2012. Retrieved 27 May 2015.
- K. S. Puttaswamy v. Union of India (Supreme Court of India 2013) (“In the meanwhile, no person should suffer for not getting the Adhaar card in spite of the fact that some authority had issued a circular making it mandatory and when any person applies to get the Adhaar Card voluntarily, it may be checked whether that person is entitled for it under the law and it should not be given to any illegal immigrant.”). Text
- "How Nandan Nilekani Took Aadhaar Past The Tipping Point". Forbes (India). 8 October 2013. Retrieved 27 May 2015.
- "Supreme Court seeks Modi government's view on Aadhaar scheme". India Today. 3 February 2015. Retrieved 8 August 2015.
- "Will continue with Aadhaar scheme: Centre to Supreme Court". The Economic Times. 13 February 2015. Retrieved 8 August 2015.
- "Centre wants SC to lift stay order on linking Aadhaar to benefits". Hindustan Times. 17 July 2015. Retrieved 8 August 2015.
- "Why Are States Still Insisting on Aadhar Card, Asks Supreme Court". NDTV. 22 July 2015. Retrieved 8 August 2015.
- "Aadhaar shall remain optional: Supreme Court". The Hindu. 11 August 2015. Retrieved 11 August 2015.
- "Stop Aadhaar data use to probe crime: UIDAI to SC". The Indian Express. 19 March 2014. Retrieved 27 May 2015.
- "UIDAI approaches SC over sharing data with CBI". Deccan Herald. 17 March 2014. Retrieved 27 May 2015.
- "UIDAI land allotment scam: DDA accepts IAC prayer to scrap the deal". Money Life. 17 September 2013. Retrieved 29 May 2015.
- "No. K-13011/26/2012-DD-I" (PDF). Gazette of India. Retrieved 7 July 2015.
- "Falling Between the Barcodes". Tehelka. 22 August 2009. Retrieved 7 July 2015.
- "Dogs, trees and chairs have Aadhaar cards". The Times of India. 31 May 2013. Retrieved 29 May 2015.
- "IB slams Uidai, says Aadhaar not credible as residence proof". Hindustan Times. 25 September 2013. Retrieved 29 May 2015.
- Gajanan Khergamker. "Fraught with risks, Aadhar lacks application of mind". Tehelka. Archived from the original on 28 June 2013. Retrieved 16 March 2016.
- "UIDAI's mandate expanded". The Hindu. 27 January 2012. Retrieved 31 May 2015.
- "NPR vs Aadhar card game gets tougher". The New Indian Express. 10 February 2013. Retrieved 31 May 2015.
- "NPR rolls on, regardless". The Hindu. 5 October 2013. Retrieved 31 May 2015.
- "Government favours Aadhaar-NPR synergy". The Hindu. 4 July 2014. Retrieved 31 May 2014.
- "No proposal to integrate Aadhar with National Population Register: Centre". IBNLive. 25 July 2014. Retrieved 31 May 2015.
- "AADHAR Card Documents Required". Aadhaar Card uidai.gov.in. Government of India. 8 April 2016. Retrieved 22 April 2017.
- "UIDAI cancelled 3.8 lakh fake Aadhaar Cards - Aadhaar Card Information Portal". aadhaarcarduid.org. Retrieved 22 April 2017.
- "'Aadhaar' is a number, not an ID card: Montek Singh Ahluwalia". NDTV.com. Retrieved 28 May 2017.
- "The Dangers Of Aadhaar-Based Payments That No One Is Talking About". Bloomberg Quint. Retrieved 28 May 2017.
- "Jobless engineer made over 100 fake Aadhaar cards - Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 28 May 2017.
- "India goes digital - Hacker News". news.ycombinator.com.
- "How to Validate e-Aadhaar Card Letter Signature Aadhaar Card Blog". How to Validate e-Aadhaar Card Letter Signature - Aadhaar Card Blog. Retrieved 28 May 2017.
- "Entrust Datacard - PARTNER PROFILE — (N)CODE SOLUTIONS" (PDF). www.entrust.com. Entrust. Retrieved 28 May 2017.
In order to set up a Certifying Authority for the Ministry of Information Technology in India, (n)Code Solutions needed a technology partner for digital signature certificates. (n)Code Solutions worked with Entrust Datacard to set up a certificate authority infrastructure comprised of Entrust Authority PKI that issues digital certificates and integrates with various applications and certificate profiles for individuals and corporations with various validity periods of one, two or three years based on individual customer needs.
- "AADHAAR – Enrolled Twice But Still Waiting For My Aadhaar Card". karvediat.blogspot.in.
- mAadhaar App
- "Aadhaar to be mandatory for driving licence - Times of India".
- "1.05 Billion Aadhar Cards Issued, Challenge To Enrol Remaining 20 Crore: UIDAI".
- "India: Aadhaar Unmasked - The UID Number and Threat of exclusion, and of surveillance - South Asia Citizens Web". www.sacw.net. Retrieved 28 May 2017.
- Gupta, Komal (24 March 2017). "Aadhaar to be mandatory for mobile phone verification".
- Reporter, Binsal Abdul Kader, Senior (29 March 2017). "Indian expats ‘not eligible for Aadhaar IDs’".
- "Aadhaar data of 130 millions leaked from govt websites: Report". Retrieved 2017-07-06.
- "Jio Customer Database of over 120 million users leaked, could be biggest data breach in India". www.fonearena.com. Retrieved 2017-07-13.
- "Reliance Jio Says It's Not Hacked, Aadhaar Data Not Leaked, But Online Users Insist Otherwise". indiatimes.com. Retrieved 2017-07-13.
- "Right to privacy can't be absolute, may be regulated: SC".
- quintdaily (6 August 2017). "Aadhaar is Future India – QuintDaily".
- "A cost-benefit analysis of Aadhaar" (PDF). National Institute of Public Finance and Policy. 9 November 2012.
- Nilekani, Nandan; Shah, Viral (2015). Rebooting India: Realizing a Billion Aspirations. India: Penguin Group. p. 340. ISBN 9780670087891.
- Aiyar, Shankkar (21 July 2017). Aadhaar: A Biometric History of India’s 12-Digit Revolution. Westland Publications.
- Rajanish Dass (March 2011). "Unique Identification for Indians: A Divine Dream or a Miscalculated Heroism?" (PDF). IIM Ahmedabad.
- Kieran Clarke; Shruti Sharma; Damon Vis-Dunbar (30 September 2015). "Ghost savings: Understanding the fiscal impacts of India's LPG subsidy". International Institute for Sustainable Development.
- Deciphering Aadhar bill, its benefits and privacy issues
- A rant on Aadhaar
- Elonnai Hickok (21 July 2015). "Aadhaar Number vs the Social Security Number". Centre for Internet and Society (India).
Media related to Unique Identification Authority of India at Wikimedia Commons