UnitedHealth Group

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
UnitedHealth Group Incorporated
Public company
Traded as
ISINUS91324P1021 Edit this on Wikidata
IndustryManaged health care
Founded1977; 43 years ago (1977)
FounderRichard T. Burke
HeadquartersMinnetonka, Minnesota, United States
Key people
Stephen J. Hemsley
(Executive Chairman)
Larry C. Renfro
(Vice Chairman)
Dave Wichmann
(CEO)
ProductsUniprise, Health Care Services, Specialized Care Services, and Ingenix
RevenueIncrease $242.155 billion (2019)
Increase $17.981 billion (2019)
Increase $14.239 billion (2019)
Total assetsIncrease $173.889 billion (2019)
Total equityIncrease $60.436 billion (2019)
Number of employees
320,000 (2020)
Websiteunitedhealthgroup.com
Footnotes / references
[1]

UnitedHealth Group Incorporated is an American for-profit managed health care company based in Minnetonka, Minnesota. It offers health care products and insurance services. It is the largest healthcare company in the world by revenue, with 2019 revenue of $242.2 billion. UnitedHealthcare revenues comprise 80% of Group's overall revenue.[2]

The company is ranked 7th on the 2020 Fortune 500.[3]

Organizational structure[edit]

Optum[edit]

The Optum brand was created in 2011 as the company's health services business.[4] Optum is UnitedHealth's technology-focused arm.[5]

UnitedHealthcare[edit]

UnitedHealthcare includes four divisions:

  • UnitedHealthcare Employer and Individual - provides health benefit plans and services for large national employers
  • UnitedHealthcare Medicare and Retirement - provides health and well-being services to individuals age 65 and older.[1]
  • UnitedHealthcare Community and State - serves state programs that care for the economically disadvantaged, the medically underserved and people without the benefit of employer-funded health care coverage, in exchange for a monthly premium per member from the state program.[1]
  • UnitedHealthcare Global - serves 6.2 million people with medical benefits, residing principally in Brazil, Chile, Colombia and Peru but also in more than 130 other countries.[1]

Health insurance plans[edit]

UnitedHealthcare offers commercial group insurance plans across the United States under several product names with different offerings.[6]

Provider networks[edit]

UnitedHealthcare negotiates with providers in periodic contract negotiations; contracts may be discontinued from time to time.[6] High-profile contract disputes can span provider networks across the nation, as in the case of a 2018 dispute with a major emergency room doctor group, Envision Healthcare.[8]

Provider directory[edit]

Maintaining up-to-date provider directories is necessary since the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services can fine insurers with outdated directories.[9] As a condition of participation, UnitedHealthcare requires that providers notify them of changes, but also has a Professional Verification Outreach program to proactively request information from providers.[6] However, providers are burdened by having to maintain their information with multiple networks (e.g., competitors to UnitedHealthcare). The total cost of maintaining these directories is estimated at $2.1b annually, and a blockchain initiative began in 2018 to share the directory.[9]

History[edit]

In 1974, Richard Taylor Burke founded Charter Med Incorporated, a Minnetonka, Minnesota-based privately held company. In 1977, the United HealthCare Corporation was created to reorganize the company and became the parent company of Charter Med.[10] United HealthCare’s charter was to manage the newly created Physicians Health Plan of Minnesota, an early health management organization.[citation needed]

In 1988, United HealthCare started its first pharmacy benefit management, through its Diversified Pharmaceutical Services subsidiary. It managed pharmacy benefits delivered both through retail pharmacies and mail.[10] The subsidiary was sold to SmithKline Beecham in 1994 for $2.3 billion.[11]

In 1994, United HealthCare acquired Ramsey-HMO, a Florida insurer.[12] In 1995, the company acquired The MetraHealth Companies Inc. for $1.65 billion. MetraHealth was a privately held company formed by combining the group health care operations of The Travelers Companies and MetLife.[10] In 1996, United HealthCare acquired HealthWise of America, which operated HMOs in Arkansas, Maryland, Kentucky and Tennessee.[13]

In 1998, the company was reorganized as the holding of independent companies UnitedHealthcare, Ovations, Uniprise, Specialized Care Services and Ingenix, and rebranded as "UnitedHealth Group".[10] Also in 1998, United Health Group acquired HealthPartners of Arizona, operator of Arizona's largest AHCCCS provider.[14]

In 2001, EverCare, a UnitedHealth Group subsidiary merged with LifeMark Health Plans[15] In 2002, UnitedHealth Group acquired GeoAccess and Medicaid insurance company AmeriChoice.[16] In 2003, UnitedHealth Group acquired Mid Atlantic Medical Services, an insurer serving Maryland, Washington D.C., Virginia, Delaware and West Virginia.[17] Also in 2003, UnitedHealth Group acquired Golden Rule Financial, a provider of health savings accounts.[18] On July 21, 2003, Exante Bank started operating in Salt Lake City, Utah, as a Utah state-chartered industrial loan corporation. It changed its name to OptumHealth Bank in 2008[19] and to Optum Bank in 2012.

In April 2004, UnitedHealth Group acquired Touchpoint Health Plan, a Wisconsin health plan.[20] In July 2004, the company acquired Oxford Health Plans.[21]

In December 2005, the company acquired PacifiCare Health Systems.[22] It agreed to divest parts of PacifiCare's commercial health insurance business in Tucson, Arizona and Boulder, Colorado to satisfy antitrust regulator concerns, and also agreed to end its network access agreement with Blue Shield of California. The Tucson business was sold to Cigna.[23] The company acquired Prescription Solutions, another pharmacy benefit manager, as part of its acquisition of PacifiCare Health Systems.[24] This business was later rebranded OptumRx.

In February 2006, the company acquired John Deere Health Care.[25][26][27]

In February 2008, the company acquired Sierra Health Services for $2.6 billion.[28] As part of the transaction, to obtain regulatory approval, 25,000 customers were sold to Humana.[29] In July 2009, UnitedHealth Group agreed to acquire Health Net's Northeast licensed subsidiaries for up to $570 million in payments spread out over two years.[30] Through 2010 and into 2011, senior executives of the company met monthly with executives of other health insurers to limit the effect of the health care reform law.[31]

In July 2010, Ingenix acquired Picis, a health information provider for the high-acuity areas of hospitals.[32][33]

In 2011, Logistics Health, Inc. of La Crosse, Wisconsin, was acquired by OptumHealth.[34] In September 2014, the office buildings where LHI is based were sold to UnitedHealth Group for $45 million.[35][36]

In February 2012, the company acquired XLHealth, a sponsor of Medicare Advantage health plans with a primary focus on medicare recipients with special needs such as those with chronic illness and those eligible for Medicaid ("dual eligibles").[37] In October 2012, UnitedHealth Group and Amil Participações, one of the biggest Brazilian health insurance companies, completed the first phase of their merger.[38][39][40]

In February 2014, Optum secured a majority stake in the Washington, D.C.-based startup Audax Health.[5] Audax's CEO, Grant Verstandig, continued running the firm alongside COO David Ko.[5] In October 2014, Optum Health acquired the health services unit of Alere for $600 million cash.[41]

In March 2015, it was announced that CatamaranRx will be acquired by OptumRx.[42]

In April 2016, the company announced it was pulling out of all but a "handful" of state healthcare exchanges provided under Affordable Care Act and will continue to sell only in three states in 2017.[43][44]

In 2017, UnitedHealth's Optum unit acquired Rally Health,[45] a company started by Audax Health's executives.[46] Prior to acquisition, in 2015, UnitedHealth supported Rally Health as a majority investor,[47] and through enrolling 5 million UnitedHealth policy holders in Rally Health's flagship product, RallySM.[46][48][nt 1] The close relations between UnitedHealth, Audax Health and Rally Health follows a close personal relationship between Grant Vrestandig (Audax and Rally) and UnitedHealth's President and CFO at the time, David Wichmann.[49]

In June 2019, UnitedHealth's Optum division acquired Davita Medical Group from DaVita Inc. for $4.3 billion.[50][51][52] That year, the company also agreed to acquire Equian for $3.2 billion.[53][54][55][56] On June 19, 2019, UnitedHealth acquired the online patient community platform PatientsLikeMe for an undisclosed amount and it will be incorporated into UnitedHealth Group's research division.[57]

In November 2019, Andrew Witty was named president of UnitedHealth, in addition to his role as chief executive of the company's Optum division.[58]

Finance[edit]

For the fiscal year 2018, UnitedHealth Group reported earnings of US$11.98 billion, with an annual revenue of US$226.2 billion.[59]

Year Revenue
in mil. USD$
Net income
in mil. USD$
Total Assets
in mil. USD$
Price per Share
in USD$
Employees
2005[60] 46,425 3,083 41,288 45.24
2006[61] 71,542 4,159 48,320 44.83
2007[62] 75,431 4,654 50,899 45.91
2008[63] 81,186 2,977 55,815 28.40
2009[64] 87,138 3,822 59,045 23.10
2010[65] 94,155 4,634 63,063 29.20 87,000
2011[66] 101,862 5,142 67,889 41.68 99,000
2012[67] 110,618 5,526 80,885 50.04 133,000
2013[68] 122,489 5,625 81,882 60.29 156,000
2014[69] 130,474 5,619 86,382 78.28 170,000
2015[70] 157,107 5,813 111,254 111.06 200,000
2016[71] 184,840 7,017 122,810 131.31 230,000
2017[72] 201,159 10,558 139,058 183.48 260,000
2018[1] 226,247 11,986 152,221 245.88 300,000

Lobbying[edit]

In 2010, UnitedHealth Group spent more than $1.8 million on lobbying activities to work to achieve favorable legislation, and hired seven different lobbying firms to work on its behalf.[73] In addition, its corporate political action committee or PAC, called United for Health, spent an additional $1 million on lobbying activities in 2010.[74]

QSSI, a subsidiary of UnitedHealth Group, is one of the 55 contractors hired by United States Department of Health and Human Services to work on the HealthCare.gov web site.[75]

Legal issues[edit]

In 2006, the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) began investigating the conduct of UnitedHealth Group's management and directors, for backdating of stock options. Investigations were also begun by the Internal Revenue Service and prosecutors in the U.S. attorney's office for the Southern District of New York, who subpoenaed documents from the company. The investigations came to light after a series of probing stories in the Wall Street Journal in May 2006, discussing apparent backdating of hundreds of millions of dollars' worth of stock options by UHC management. The backdating apparently occurred with the knowledge and approval of the directors, according to the Journal. Major shareholders have filed lawsuits accusing former New Jersey governor Thomas Kean and UHC's other directors of failing in their fiduciary duty.[76] On October 15, 2006, CEO William W. McGuire was forced to resign, and relinquish hundreds of millions of dollars in stock options. On December 6, 2007, the SEC announced a settlement under which McGuire will repay $468 million, as a partial settlement of the backdating prosecution.[77][78][79]

In June 2006, the American Chiropractic Association filed a national class action lawsuit against the American Chiropractic Network (ACN), which is owned by UnitedHealth Group and administers chiropractic benefits, and against UnitedHealth Group itself, for alleged practices in violation of the federal Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act (RICO).[80]

OptumInsight, fka Ingenix[edit]

In February 2008, New York State Attorney General Andrew Cuomo announced an industry-wide investigation into a scheme by health insurers to defraud consumers by manipulating reasonable and customary rates. The announcement included a statement that Cuomo intended "to file suit against Ingenix, Inc., its parent UnitedHealth Group, and three additional subsidiaries." Cuomo asserted that his investigation found that rates found in a database of health care charges maintained by Ingenix were lower than what he determined was the actual cost of certain medical expenses. Cuomo said this inappropriately allowed health insurance companies to deny a portion of provider claims, thereby pushing costs down to members.[81]

On January 13, 2009, Ingenix announced an agreement with the New York State attorney settling the probe into the independence of the health pricing database. Under the settlement, UnitedHealth Group and Ingenix would pay $50 million to finance a new, non-profit entity that would develop a new health care pricing database. Ingenix would discontinue its medical pricing databases when the new entity makes its product available. The company acknowledged the appearance of a conflict of interest, but admitted no wrongdoing.[82]

On January 15, 2009, UnitedHealth Group announced a $350 million settlement of three class action lawsuits filed in Federal court by the American Medical Association, UnitedHealth Group members, healthcare providers, and state medical societies for not paying out-of-network benefits. This settlement came two days after a similar settlement with Cuomo.[83]

On October 27, 2009, Cuomo announced the creation of FAIR Health, the independent, non-profit organization that will develop a nationwide database for consumer reimbursement, as well as a website where consumers will be able to compare prices before they choose doctors. To fund FAIR Health, the Attorney General's office secured nearly $100 million from insurers such as Aetna, UnitedHealth Group, and Anthem Inc.[84]

Options backdating investigations and lawsuits[edit]

In 2006, the SEC began investigating the conduct of UnitedHealth Group's management and directors, including Dr. McGuire, as did the Internal Revenue Service and prosecutors in the U.S. attorney's office for the Southern District of New York, who have subpoenaed documents from the company.

The investigations came to light after a series of probing stories in The Wall Street Journal in March 2006, discussing the apparent backdating of hundreds of millions of dollars' worth of stock options—in a process called options backdating—by UnitedHealth Group management.[85] The backdating apparently occurred with the knowledge and approval of the directors, according to the Journal. Major shareholders have filed lawsuits accusing former New Jersey governor Thomas Kean and UnitedHealth Group's other directors of failing in their fiduciary duty.[86]

Resignation of McGuire[edit]

On October 15, 2006, it was announced that William W. McGuire would step down immediately as chairman and director of UnitedHealth Group, and step down as CEO on December 1, 2006, due to his involvement in the employee stock options scandal.[87] Simultaneously, it was announced that he would be replaced as CEO by Stephen Hemsley, who has served as President and COO and is a member of the board of directors. McGuire's exit compensation from UnitedHealth, expected to be around $1.1 billion, would be the largest golden parachute in the history of corporate America.[88]

McGuire's compensation became controversial again on May 21, 2009, when Elizabeth Edwards, speaking on The Daily Show, used it to support her argument for a public alternative to commercial insurance.[89] Edwards stressed the importance of restoring competition in health insurance markets noting that at one point, "the President of UnitedHealth made so much money, that one of every $700 that was spent in this country on health care went to pay him." Since estimates of McGuire's 2005 compensation range from $59,625,444[90] to $124.8 million,[91] and the revenue of UnitedHealth Group was then $71 billion, it is therefore possible that Mrs. Edwards may have meant that one of every $700 that was spent on UnitedHealth Group premiums went to pay McGuire.

McGuire's settlement with SEC[edit]

On December 6, 2007, the SEC announced a settlement under which McGuire was to repay $468 million, including a $7 million civil penalty, as a partial settlement of the backdating prosecution. He was also barred from serving as an officer or director of a public company for ten years.[92][93][94] This was the first time in which the little-used "clawback" provision under the Sarbanes-Oxley Act was used against an individual by the SEC. The SEC continued its investigations even after it in 2008 settled legal actions against both UnitedHealth Group itself and its former general counsel.[95]

Medicare overbilling lawsuit[edit]

A whistleblower lawsuit, filed in 2011, charges UnitedHealth Group's data analytics division with assisting in defrauding Medicare by boosting risk adjustment scores from Medicare Advantage companies. The suit alleges that UnitedHealth Group subsidiary Ingenix (now OptumInsight) "defrauded the United States of hundreds of millions — and likely billions — of dollars." Former UnitedHealth executive Benjamin Poehling brought the suit under the False Claims Act. The government said it would proceed on claims against two health care companies, UnitedHealth and its Texas subsidiary WellMed Medical Management. In February 2017, a federal judge unsealed the suit after the Department of Justice announced it would join the case.[96][97]

Richard Cole, and others v. United Healthcare[edit]

On April 29, 2019, Judge Robert N. Scola Jr. of the United States District Court for the Southern District of Florida, a cancer survivor, recused himself from a case against United Healthcare, stating that the company's denial of treatment was "immoral and barbaric", and that his opinions regarding the company would prevent him from "deciding this case fairly and impartially."[98][99]

PacifiCare fine in California[edit]

In 2008, the California Department of Insurance took action against UnitedHealthcare's subsidiary PacifiCare Health Systems, acquired in 2005, ultimately fining UnitedHealthcare around $173 million for an estimated over 900,000 violations of the Unfair Insurance Practices Act; by 2019, the case was still being disputed in court, with the possibility of affirming $91 million in penalties.[100]

CMS fine over Medicare Part D[edit]

In 2017, CMS fined UnitedHealthcare after discovering issues in Medicare Part D leading to delays or denials in a 2016 audit.[101]

New Jersey fine in 2018[edit]

The New Jersey Department of Banking and Insurance fined UnitedHealthcare $2.5 million due to various compliance issues; this was the largest fine against a licensee in nine years.[102]

Failure of UnitedHealth Group subsidiaries to pay mental health care claims and substance abuse claims[edit]

United Health Care and United Behavioral Health are under investigation in two states for failing to pay millions of dollars of claims for mental health care and for substance abuse treatment.

Pennsylvania[edit]

UnitedHealthcare assessed $1 million penalty for claims payment violations.[103]

Northern California[edit]

United Behavioral Health sued over $5 million in denied claims.[104]

Policy Research Org. ownership[edit]

The Lewin Group is a policy research and consulting firm that provides economic analysis of health care and human services issues and policies.[105] The organization has existed for about 40 years and has maintained a nonpartisan reputation through its many ownership changes that have occurred over that time.[105] The Lewin Group was purchased in 2007 by Ingenix, a subsidiary of UnitedHealth Group, but alleges editorial and analytical "independence" from UnitedHealth Group, its parent company.[105] The Lewin Group discloses its ownership in its reports and on its web site. While the Lewin Group does not advocate for or against any legislation, both Democratic and Republican politicians frequently cite the firm's studies to argue for and against various U.S. healthcare reform proposals.[106] For example, Democratic Senator Ron Wyden uses Lewin Group estimates to cite the feasibility of his Healthy Americans Act.[107] Former U.S. Representative Eric Cantor, the former House Republican Whip, has referred to the organization as "the nonpartisan Lewin Group" in arguing against government-funded health insurance proposals.

Several Lewin studies have been used to argue both for and against the inclusion of a public option in national health reform. Lewin clients who often cite its findings include The Commonwealth Fund which recently held up a Lewin study it commissioned to advocate for a public plan. The report showed that legislative proposals would achieve nearly universal coverage and "estimated that a public plan could offer small businesses insurance that is at least 9 percent cheaper than current small-business policies."[108]

However, The Lewin Group has acknowledged that clients sometimes choose not to publicize the results of studies they have commissioned. Indeed, Lewin Group Vice President John Sheils told The Washington Post that "sometimes studies come out that don't show exactly what the client wants to see. And in those instances, they have [the] option to bury the study."[109]

Foundations[edit]

UnitedHealth Group has two foundations, the United Health Foundation and UnitedHealthcare Children’s Foundation which were formed in 1999. Since established by UnitedHealth Group in 1999 as a not for profit private foundation, the United Health Foundation has committed more than $170 million to improve health and health care.[110]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Also referred to as RallySM. (Staff (February 3, 2015). "Rally Health Launches Digital Wellness Platform With Over 5M People". HIT Consultant. Archived from the original on January 21, 2019. Retrieved January 21, 2019.)

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e "UnitedHealth Group Incorporated 2018 Form 10-K Annual Report". U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission.
  2. ^ McFarlane, Greg. "How UnitedHealth Group Makes its Money: Premiums, Fees and Health Service Sales". Investopedia. Retrieved April 14, 2020.
  3. ^ "Fortune 500: UnitedHealth Group". Fortune. Archived from the original on May 24, 2019. Retrieved June 23, 2019.
  4. ^ "UnitedHealth Group Announces "Optum" Master Brand for its Health Services Businesses" (Press release). UnitedHealth Group. April 11, 2011. Archived from the original on December 10, 2018. Retrieved December 10, 2018.
  5. ^ a b c Farr, Christina (February 19, 2014). "Audax Health's 24-year-old CEO sells majority stake to UnitedHealth". VentureBeat. Archived from the original on January 21, 2019. Retrieved January 21, 2019.
  6. ^ a b c d "UnitedHealthcare Care Provider Administrative Guide" (PDF). United Healthcare. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 25, 2018. Retrieved November 25, 2018.
  7. ^ a b c d "UnitedHealthcare Terms and Acronyms" (PDF). United Healthcare. Archived (PDF) from the original on July 30, 2018.
  8. ^ "Envision and ER Costs". UnitedHealth Group. Archived from the original on November 25, 2018. Retrieved November 25, 2018.
  9. ^ a b "UnitedHealthcare, Optum, Humana, MultiPlan and Quest Diagnostics launch blockchain provider director pilot". Healthcare Finance News. Archived from the original on November 25, 2018. Retrieved November 25, 2018.
  10. ^ a b c d "Our History". UnitedHealth Group. Archived from the original on June 20, 2019. Retrieved June 23, 2019. 1974: Charter Med Incorporated is founded by a group of physicians and other health care professionals who want to expand health coverage options for consumers. 1977: United HealthCare Corporation is created to reorganize the company and becomes the parent company of Charter Med Incorporated. United HealthCare introduces such health care innovations as pharmacy/drug formularies, hospital admission pre-certification processes, physician office software to manage and control costs, mental health/chemical dependency intermediaries (behavioral health) and an insurance wrap as one feature on top of traditional HMO products.
  11. ^ "Smithkline Is Buying A Benefits Company It's Acquiring Diversified Pharmaceutical Services. The Cost: $2.3 Billion". philly-archives. Archived from the original on March 29, 2016.
  12. ^ Freudenheim, Milt (February 16, 1994). "COMPANY NEWS; Healthcare Acquisition Is Planned". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on June 19, 2015.
  13. ^ "United HealthCare Expands Presence in Southeast Region". managedcaremag.com. March 1, 1996. Archived from the original on October 11, 2016.
  14. ^ "HealthPartners sold; layoffs possible - Tucson Citizen Morgue, Part 2 (1993-2009)". Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved June 1, 2015.
  15. ^ "UNITEDHEALTH GROUP INC, Form 10-K, Annual Report, Filing Date Apr 1, 2002". secdatabase.com. Archived from the original on May 16, 2018. Retrieved May 16, 2018.
  16. ^ "UNITEDHEALTH AGREES TO ACQUIRE AMERICHOICE". Associated Press. June 19, 2002. Archived from the original on March 7, 2017 – via The New York Times.
  17. ^ "UnitedHealth Agrees to Buy Rival Mid Atlantic Medical". The Wall Street Journal. October 27, 2003. ISSN 0099-9660. Archived from the original on July 3, 2015.
  18. ^ Thomas, Trevor (September 23, 2003). "Rating Agencies: UnitedHealth To Acquire Golden Rule". LifeHealthPro. Archived from the original on July 3, 2015. Retrieved July 2, 2015.
  19. ^ "Exante Financial Services Becomes OptumHealth Financial Services" (Press release). Business Wire. March 3, 2008. Archived from the original on June 23, 2019. Retrieved June 23, 2019.
  20. ^ "UnitedHealthcare to acquire Touchpoint Health Plan - Milwaukee". American City Business Journals. Archived from the original on July 3, 2015.
  21. ^ "Oxford Health Plans Announces Agreement to Merge With UnitedHealthcare". www.oxhp.com. Archived from the original on October 15, 2006. Retrieved September 27, 2019.
  22. ^ "UnitedHealth Group Completes Merger with PacifiCare Health Systems, Inc" (Press release). Business Wire. December 21, 2005. Archived from the original on June 23, 2019. Retrieved June 23, 2019.
  23. ^ BETHELY, JONATHAN G. (July 10, 2006). "United spins off members to Cigna". American Medical News. Archived from the original on June 23, 2019. Retrieved June 23, 2019.
  24. ^ "UnitedHealth Group 2005 Form 10-K" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on April 21, 2017. Retrieved November 18, 2018.
  25. ^ Luna, Kay (February 25, 2006). "Deere completes sale of health care operations". Quad-City Times. Archived from the original on June 23, 2019. Retrieved June 23, 2019.
  26. ^ "UnitedHealth Group to Purchase John Deere Health Care; Builds on John Deere Health Care 20-Year Service History to Important Local Customers; Advances Efforts to Make Health Care Services More Affordable, More Available and Easier to Use" (Press release). Business Wire. December 6, 2005. Archived from the original on June 23, 2019. Retrieved June 23, 2019.
  27. ^ DeWitt, Jennifer (December 6, 2005). "UnitedHealthcare to buy John Deere Health Care; jobs to remain in Q-C". Quad-City Times. Archived from the original on June 23, 2019. Retrieved June 23, 2019.
  28. ^ "UnitedHealth Group Completes Acquisition of Sierra Health Services" (Press release). Business Wire. February 25, 2008. Archived from the original on June 23, 2019. Retrieved June 23, 2019.
  29. ^ "Crowell & Moring's Antitrust Group Represents Sierra Health Services in UnitedHealth Group's $2.6 Billion Acquisition". Archived from the original on March 15, 2016.
  30. ^ Hall, Jessica (July 20, 2009). "UPDATE 2-UnitedHealth to buy some Health Net operations". Reuters. Archived from the original on June 23, 2019. Retrieved June 23, 2019.
  31. ^ Armstrong, Drew (January 31, 2011). "UnitedHealth Joins WellPoint to Hone Health Law Lobby". Bloomberg News. Archived from the original on August 21, 2014.
  32. ^ "Ingenix to Acquire Picis" (Press release). Business Wire. July 22, 2010. Archived from the original on June 23, 2019. Retrieved June 23, 2019.
  33. ^ CONN, JOSEPH (July 22, 2010). "Ingenix to acquire Picis". Modern Healthcare. Archived from the original on June 23, 2019. Retrieved June 23, 2019.
  34. ^ "Don Weber speaks out on LHI sale". La Crosse Tribune. April 18, 2011. Archived from the original on July 5, 2016.
  35. ^ "Don Weber sells 3 Riverside Center buildings in La Crosse". WKBT-DT. Archived from the original on May 8, 2016. Retrieved September 7, 2015.
  36. ^ Tribune staff (September 23, 2014). "Riverside Center buildings sold for $45 million". La Crosse Tribune. Archived from the original on September 3, 2017.
  37. ^ Barr, Paul (February 9, 2012). "UnitedHealthcare completes XLHealth deal". Modern Healthcare. Archived from the original on June 23, 2019. Retrieved June 23, 2019.
  38. ^ "UnitedHealth Group, Amil Complete First Phase of Combination" (Press release). UnitedHealth Group. October 29, 2012. Archived from the original on June 23, 2019. Retrieved June 23, 2019. UnitedHealth Group (NYSE: UNH) and Amil Participações S.A. (BM&FBOVESPA: AMIL3) announced today that the companies have completed the first phase of their combination. The combination is expected to create a new growth platform for UnitedHealth Group's benefits and services companies and will enable Amil to bring advanced technology, a tradition of consumer-focused innovation, modern service and clinical programs to further advance health care in Brazil.
  39. ^ Humer, Caroline (October 8, 2012). "UnitedHealth to buy most of Brazil's Amil for $4.9 billion". Reuters. Archived from the original on June 23, 2019. Retrieved June 23, 2019.
  40. ^ Mathews, Anna Wilde; Kamp, Jon (October 8, 2012). "UnitedHealth to Buy 90% of Brazil's Amil for $4.3 Billion". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on June 23, 2019. Retrieved June 23, 2019.
  41. ^ "Optum, Alere Health to Combine to Help Health Plans, Employers and States Improve Population Health, Reduce Health Care Costs". October 28, 2014. Archived from the original on December 14, 2018. Retrieved December 10, 2018.
  42. ^ "UnitedHealth to Buy Catamaran for $12.8 Billion in Cash". The Wall Street Journal. March 30, 2015. Archived from the original on April 30, 2017.
  43. ^ "UnitedHealth Group to exit Obamacare exchanges in all but a 'handful' of states". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on September 19, 2016.
  44. ^ "Encumbered exchange". The Economist. ISSN 0013-0613. Archived from the original on September 16, 2016.
  45. ^ Court, Emma. "The CMO of a health-tech firm inside America's largest health insurer told us why pop-ups and celebs like Katie Couric are key to her 3-part marketing strategy". Business Insider. Retrieved March 4, 2020.
  46. ^ a b Rauber, Chris (February 3, 2015). "San Francisco's Rally Health startup launches online wellness platform". American City Business Journals. Archived from the original on February 24, 2015. Retrieved January 21, 2019.
  47. ^ Fried, Ina (February 2, 2015). "Former Zynga Executive David Ko Thinks He Can Turn Health Care Into a Game — And Win". Re/code. Archived from the original on April 14, 2016. Retrieved January 21, 2019.
  48. ^ Kaul, Greta (February 3, 2015). "Startup Rally Health wants to play games with your health". San Francisco Chronicle. Archived from the original on January 21, 2019. Retrieved January 21, 2019.
  49. ^ Moukheiber, Zina (February 3, 2015). "UnitedHealth Group Launches Wellness Program Tied To Premiums". Forbes. Archived from the original on January 21, 2019. Retrieved January 21, 2019.
  50. ^ "Optum completes acquisition of DaVita Medical Group from DaVita" (Press release). Optum. June 19, 2019. Archived from the original on June 22, 2019. Retrieved June 23, 2019.
  51. ^ "Optum completes acquisition of DaVita Medical Group from DaVita" (Press release). Business Wire. June 19, 2019. Archived from the original on June 23, 2019. Retrieved June 23, 2019.
  52. ^ Wittenberg, Alex (June 19, 2019). "UnitedHealth completes $4.3 billion acquisition of DaVita physician group". American City Business Journals.
  53. ^ Lombardo, Cara (June 20, 2019). "UnitedHealth Agrees to Buy Payments Firm Equian for $3.2 Billion". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on June 23, 2019. Retrieved June 23, 2019.
  54. ^ Acharya, Bhargav (June 20, 2019). "UnitedHealth to buy healthcare payments firm Equian for $3.2 billion: WSJ". Reuters. Archived from the original on June 23, 2019. Retrieved June 23, 2019.
  55. ^ Reilly, Mark (June 21, 2019). "UnitedHealth to buy health-payments business Equian for $3.2B, report says". American City Business Journals.
  56. ^ "UnitedHealth to buy health-care payments firm Equian for $3.2 billion: WSJ". CNBC. Reuters. June 21, 2019. Archived from the original on June 23, 2019. Retrieved June 23, 2019.
  57. ^ Lovett, Laura; Muoio, Dave (June 24, 2019). "UnitedHealth Group acquires PatientsLikeMe". MobiHealthNews. HIMSS Media. Archived from the original on July 12, 2019. Retrieved June 26, 2019.
  58. ^ "UnitedHealth Group names Optum CEO as president". Star Tribune. Retrieved June 8, 2020.
  59. ^ "Document". www.sec.gov. Retrieved December 31, 2018.
  60. ^ "2005 Annual Report" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on April 21, 2017.
  61. ^ "2006 Annual Report" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on April 21, 2017.
  62. ^ "2007 Annual Report" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on April 21, 2017.
  63. ^ "2008 Annual Report" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on April 21, 2017.
  64. ^ "2009 Annual Report" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on October 24, 2018.
  65. ^ "2010 Annual Report" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on April 21, 2017.
  66. ^ "2011 Annual Report" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on April 21, 2017.
  67. ^ "2012 Annual Report" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on April 21, 2017.
  68. ^ "2013 Annual Report" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on April 21, 2017.
  69. ^ "2014 Annual Report" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on April 21, 2017.
  70. ^ "2015 Annual Report" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on November 18, 2018.
  71. ^ "2016 Annual Report" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on November 18, 2018.
  72. ^ "Document". Sec.gov. Archived from the original on November 18, 2018. Retrieved June 2, 2019.
  73. ^ "UnitedHealth Group". Center for Responsive Politics.
  74. ^ "UnitedHealth Group". Center for Responsive Politics. Archived from the original on December 26, 2011. Retrieved February 4, 2011.
  75. ^ Pear, Robert (October 23, 2013). "Contractors Assign Blame, but Admit No Faults of Their Own, in Health Site". The New York Times. Archived from the original on November 4, 2017.
  76. ^ Conason, Joe (September 15, 2006). "Jersey hustler". Salon. Archived from the original on June 23, 2019. Retrieved June 23, 2019.
  77. ^ "Ex-UnitedHealth CEO To Pay $800M In Settlements". Law360. December 6, 2007. Archived from the original on June 23, 2019. Retrieved June 23, 2019.
  78. ^ "FORMER UNITED HEALTH GROUP CEO/CHAIRMAN SETTLES STOCK OPTIONS BACKDATING CASE FOR $468 MILLION" (Press release). U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. December 6, 2007. Archived from the original on July 11, 2017. Retrieved September 17, 2017.
  79. ^ FREED, JOSHUA (December 7, 2007). "UnitedHealth's ex-CEO to forfeit millions to settle suit". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Associated Press. Archived from the original on June 23, 2019. Retrieved June 23, 2019.
  80. ^ "American Chiropractic Association Files Lawsuit Against ACN in Federal Court" Archived October 22, 2007, at the Wayback Machine, press release, American Chiropractic Association, June 13, 2006
  81. ^ "Cuomo Announces Industry-Wide Investigation into Health Insurer's Fraudulent Reimbursement Scheme" Archived March 30, 2008, at the Wayback Machine, press release, Office of the Attorney General, New York State, February 13, 2008
  82. ^ "UPDATE 2-UnitedHealth settles New York reimbursement probe". Reuters. January 13, 2009. Archived from the original on June 23, 2019. Retrieved June 23, 2019.
  83. ^ Krauskopf, Lewis (January 15, 2009). "UPDATE 2-UnitedHealth settles payment suits for $350 million". Reuters. Archived from the original on February 20, 2009.
  84. ^ Stempel, Jonathan (October 27, 2009). "Cuomo sets healthcare reimbursement reform". Reuters. Archived from the original on October 31, 2009.
  85. ^ Charles Forelle & James Bandler, "The Perfect Payday" Archived August 9, 2017, at the Wayback Machine, The Wall Street Journal newspaper, March 18, 2006
  86. ^ Steffy, Loren (November 7, 2006). "How William McGuire earned that fat paycheck". Houston Chronicle. Archived from the original on March 29, 2008. Retrieved January 16, 2009.,
  87. ^ "Chief executive at U.S. health insurer forced out". The New York Times. October 16, 2006.
  88. ^ "Steffy: How William McGuire earned that fat paycheck". Houston Chronicle. Archived from the original on March 29, 2008.
  89. ^ WonkRoom Archived May 24, 2009, at the Wayback Machine page including embedded clip from The Daily Show
  90. ^ UnitedHealth Group Case Study, 2005 Archived March 19, 2009, at the Wayback Machine AFL-CIO estimate of McGuire compensation
  91. ^ United Health CEO earned $124.8 million in 2005 Archived March 27, 2009, at the Wayback Machine Health Care Economist, February 14, 2006
  92. ^ Securities and Exchange Commission v. William W. McGuire, M.D., Civil Action No. 07-CV-4779-JMR/FLN (D. Minn. 2007) Archived July 11, 2017, at the Wayback Machine U.S. SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Litigation Release No. 20387 / December 6, 2007
  93. ^ Former UnitedHealth Group CEO/Chairman Settles Stock Options Backdating Case for $468 Million Archived August 20, 2014, at the Wayback Machine SEC Press release 2007-255
  94. ^ Dr. William McGuire Settles with the SEC and the UnitedHealth Group Special Litigation Committee on Stock Options Matter Archived May 18, 2009, at the Wayback Machine Latham and Watkins, LLP, Press release, December 6, 2007
  95. ^ "Press Release: SEC Files Settled Enforcement Actions Against UnitedHealth Group and Former General Counsel in Stock Options Backdating Case (Dec. 22, 2008)". Archived from the original on July 11, 2017.
  96. ^ Williams Walsh, Mary (February 17, 2017). "UnitedHealth Group accused of overbilling Medicare". The New York Times. Tampa Bay Times. Archived from the original on February 17, 2017.
  97. ^ Snowbeck, Christopher (February 17, 2017). "UnitedHealth Group targeted by whistleblower lawsuit". Star Tribune. Archived from the original on February 17, 2017.
  98. ^ Flynn, Megan (May 1, 2019). "'Immoral and barbaric': Cancer-surviving judge blasts insurer for denying treatment"". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on May 3, 2019. Retrieved May 4, 2019.
  99. ^ "Order of Recusal.pdf". Google Docs. Archived from the original on May 4, 2019. Retrieved June 2, 2019.
  100. ^ "California high court won't review $91M fine against UnitedHealthcare". Star Tribune. January 14, 2019. Archived from the original on April 4, 2019. Retrieved June 13, 2019.
  101. ^ "CMS fines UnitedHealthcare $2.5M over improper Medicare denials, delays". www.beckershospitalreview.com. Archived from the original on December 15, 2017. Retrieved June 14, 2019.
  102. ^ "UnitedHealthcare is fined $2.5 million by New Jersey regulators". Star Tribune. July 31, 2018. Archived from the original on August 2, 2018. Retrieved June 14, 2019.
  103. ^ "UnitedHealthcare assessed $1 million penalty for claims payment violations". Star Tribune. Retrieved June 8, 2020.
  104. ^ "United Behavioral Health Sued For $5 Million In Denied Mental Health Claims". OPEN MINDS. Retrieved June 8, 2020.
  105. ^ a b c Becker, Cinda. (June 18, 2007), "Ingenix Acquires Lewin Group", Modern Healthcare
  106. ^ Hilzenrah, David S. (July 23, 2009). "Insurer-Owned Consulting Firm Often Cited in Health Debate". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on October 20, 2017.
  107. ^ "Independent Health Reform Analysis: Middle Class Wins Under Healthy Americans Act" (Press release). Ron Wyden. September 17, 2008. Archived from the original on June 23, 2019. Retrieved June 23, 2019.
  108. ^ Hoover, Kent (July 22, 2009). "Small-biz divided on health-care reform". American City Business Journals. Archived from the original on October 11, 2016.
  109. ^ Hilzenrath, David S. (July 22, 2009). "Research Firm Cited by GOP Is Owned by Health Insurer". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on November 19, 2016.
  110. ^ UnitedHealth Group. "UnitedHealth Group - Our Foundations". Archived from the original on June 18, 2013. Retrieved July 1, 2013.

External links[edit]