United 93 (film)
|Directed by||Paul Greengrass|
|Screenplay by||Paul Greengrass|
|Based on||9/11 Commission Report|
by the 9/11 Commission
|Produced by||Paul Greengrass|
David Alan Basche
|Edited by||Clare Douglas|
|Music by||John Powell|
|Distributed by||Universal Pictures|
United International Pictures (United Kingdom)
Mars Distribution (France)
|Box office||$76.3 million|
United 93 is a 2006 docudrama thriller film written and directed by Paul Greengrass. The film chronicles the events aboard United Airlines Flight 93, one of the four hijacked flights during the September 11 attacks and the only not to hit its intended target due to the intervention of passengers and crew.
The film attempts to recount the hijacking and subsequent events in the flight with as much veracity as possible (there is a disclaimer that some imagination had to be used) and in real time (from the flight's takeoff). The film was made with the cooperation of many of the passengers' families, though not all agreed to participate.
United 93 premiered on April 26, 2006, at the Tribeca Film Festival in New York City, a festival founded to celebrate New York City as a major filmmaking center and to contribute towards the long-term recovery of Lower Manhattan. Several family members of the passengers aboard the flight attended the premiere to show their support.
The film opened in North America on April 28, 2006, to critical acclaim. Ten percent of the gross income from the three-day opening weekend was promised toward a donation to create a memorial for the flight's victims. The total gross intake of United 93 was $31.4 million in the United States, and $76.3 million worldwide. The film also received two Academy Award nominations, including Best Director for Greengrass.
On the morning of September 11, 2001, four al-Qaeda terrorists Ziad Jarrah, Saeed al-Ghamdi, Ahmed al-Nami and Ahmed al-Haznawi pray in a Newark, New Jersey hotel, and after Jarrah makes a final phone call to his girlfriend, board United Airlines Flight 93, piloted by Captain Jason Dahl and First Officer LeRoy Homer Jr., at Newark International Airport.
Air traffic controllers determine that American Airlines Flight 11 has been hijacked and is heading toward New York City. Flight 93 takes off after a slight delay. Flight 11 crashes into the North Tower of the World Trade Center, and United Airlines Flight 175 is also hijacked and heads toward New York City. Air traffic controllers learn that American Airlines Flight 77 has also been hijacked and watch as Flight 175 crashes into the South Tower.
As the passengers are served breakfast on Flight 93, Jarrah hesitates to give the sign to start the hijacking. Via an ACARS message, Dahl and Homer are notified of the WTC attacks and to beware cockpit intrusion. The hijackers violently take control of the plane, stabbing a passenger before killing the pilots and a flight attendant. Jarrah begins piloting the aircraft, and redirects it towards Washington, D.C., to crash it into the United States Capitol. The hijackers jubilantly react to the WTC attack. While flight attendants Sandra Bradshaw and CeeCee Lyles unsuccessfully attempt to revive the stabbed passenger, Bradshaw sees the hijackers moving the bodies of the pilots.
After Flight 77 crashes into The Pentagon, FAA National Operations Manager Ben Sliney shuts down all United States air space and grounds all flights. Passengers on Flight 93 learn of the other attacks from family members via airphone. Realizing their plane is going to be used as a weapon, a number of the passengers organize an assault against the hijackers to retake the plane, with assistance from flight staff, arming themselves with makeshift weapons. Learning that one of their number is a pilot, the passengers plan to have the pilot land the plane with assistance from the ground if they retake the plane. Seeing the group gather, the hijackers grow anxious. One passenger, attempting to counsel appeasement, is restrained by some of the passengers, while other passengers pray and make final calls to loved ones.
The passengers revolt, killing the two hijackers in the cabin. As Jarrah violently rocks the plane to throw the passengers off balance, they attempt to breach the cockpit, using a serving cart as a battering ram. The passengers breach the cockpit just as Jarrah puts the plane into a steep dive, and chaotically wrestle with the two remaining hijackers for control. The aircraft inverts and crashes into a Shanksville field, killing everyone aboard.
- Christian Clemenson as Tom Burnett
- Cheyenne Jackson as Mark Bingham
- David Alan Basche as Todd Beamer
- Peter Hermann as Jeremy Glick
- Corey Johnson as Louis J. Nacke, II
- Daniel Sauli as Richard Guadagno
- Trish Gates as Sandra Bradshaw
- Richard Bekins as William Joseph Cashman
- Michael J. Reynolds as Patrick Joseph Driscoll
- Khalid Abdalla as Ziad Jarrah
- Lewis Alsamari as Saeed al-Ghamdi
- Jamie Harding as Ahmed al-Nami
- Omar Berdouni as Ahmed al-Haznawi
- Opal Alladin as CeeCee Lyles
- Nancy McDoniel as Lorraine G. Bay
- Peter Marinker as Andrew Garcia
- David Rasche as Donald Freeman Greene
- J. J. Johnson as Captain Jason Dahl
- Gary Commock as First Officer LeRoy Homer Jr.
- Polly Adams as Deborah Welsh
- Chip Zien as Mark Rothenberg
- Erich Redman as Christian Adams
- Kate Jennings Grant as Lauren Grandcolas
- Starla Benford as Wanda Anita Green
- Simon Poland as Alan Anthony Beaven
- Trieste Kelly Dunn as Deora Frances Bodley
- Jodie Lynne McClintock as Marion R. Britton
- Marceline Hugot as Georgine Rose Corrigan
- Rebecca Schull as Patricia Cushing
- Ray Charleson as Joseph DeLuca
- Tom O'Rourke as Donald Peterson
- Becky London as Jean Headley Peterson
- John Rothman as Edward P. Felt
- Libby Morris as Hilda Marcin
- Denny Dillon as Colleen Fraser
- Susan Blommaert as Jane Folger
- Tara Hugo as Kristin White Gould
- Lorna Dallas as Linda Gronlund
- Masato Kamo as Toshiya Kuge (久下 季哉)
- Liza Colón-Zayas as Waleska Martinez
- Olivia Thirlby as Nicole Carol Miller
- Leigh Zimmerman as Christine Snyder
- Joe Jamrog as John Talignani
- Chloe Sirene as Honor Elizabeth Wainio
- Patrick St. Esprit as Major Kevin Nasypan
Throughout the film, Ben Sliney portrays himself.
The film was the first Hollywood feature to draw its narrative directly from the September 11 attacks of 2001. Passengers were portrayed in the film mostly by professional but relatively unknown actors. (Tom Burnett, for instance, is played by Christian Clemenson, who has since appeared on Boston Legal and CSI: Miami). Additionally, several people portray themselves in the film, including Thomas Roberts, Ben Sliney, Tobin Miller, Rich Sullivan, Tony Smith, James Fox, Shawna Fox, Jeremy Powell, Curt Applegate, Greg Callahan, and Rick Tepper. Some participants in the real-life events played themselves, notably FAA operations manager Ben Sliney. The roles of one of the flight attendants, the two pilots, and many other airline personnel were filled by actual airline employees.
During production, the actors playing the crew and the passengers of the flight were put in separate hotels from the actors portraying the hijackers and ate their meals separately, ostensibly to create an air of antagonism in the film between the two groups. The set itself was built so that it moved the way the actual flight did. During the filming, many of the actors actually got hurt, and the blood visible on their faces during the revolt scene is authentic.
The dialogue, which was mostly improvised during rehearsals Greengrass held with the cast, was based on face-to-face interviews between actors and the relatives of those they portrayed. Almost none of the passengers in the film are referred to by their names. Their identities remain anonymous, emphasizing the co-operation between the passengers rather than any individual heroics (as well as recognizing the fact that strangers on an airplane would not know each other's names).
Filming took place from October until December 2005, on a 20-year-old reclaimed Boeing 757 formerly operated by MyTravel Airways, at Pinewood Studios near London. The cockpit was built by Flightdeck Solutions. The location was chosen both for its financial incentives and to shield actors from unwanted public scrutiny they might have received in the United States. Action was filmed with handheld cameras, chosen for their versatility on the close-quarters sets and to create a sense of immediacy. Exterior airport sequences were shot on location at Newark Liberty International Airport, while interiors were shot back in England at London Stansted Airport. A few scenes were also shot in Washington, D.C. and Boston. Additionally, an opening sequence set in Afghanistan was shot in Morocco, but it was cut from the film before release.
During the scene where Nami is killed by the passengers in the revolt, he is shown crying. Finishing the very first take, Jamie Harding (who played Nami) was overwhelmed that he was sobbing. In this scene, the sobbing Nami makes as Glick holds him around the head and throat and twists, breaking his neck, is authentic and not acted.
The film was given an R rating by the Motion Picture Association of America for "language, and some intense sequences of terror and violence". The film was released in the United States on April 28, 2006, and opened second in the weekend box office behind RV, but it netted a slightly higher per-screen average.
Initial screenings ended with the closing credits line "America's War on Terror had begun". This was replaced in the release version with "Dedicated to the memory of all those who lost their lives on September 11, 2001".
There were calls for Universal to pull the film's trailers from circulation in cinemas, due to some audience members feeling startled or upset by the film's subject matter. The studio did not heed that call, although one theatre in Manhattan voluntarily pulled the trailer after audience complaints.
The Iraqi-born, London-based actor Lewis Alsamari, who plays Ghamdi, was reportedly denied a visa by United States immigration authorities when he applied to visit New York City to attend the premiere, despite having already been granted asylum in the United Kingdom since the 1990s. The reason reported to have been given was that he had once been a conscripted member of the Iraqi Army — although this was also the grounds for his refugee status after his desertion in 1993. Other sources say that he applied late for his visa and that it was not denied.
The timing of the events is changed for dramatic effect, with Jarrah making his phone call to his girlfriend from the airport, whereas he made it from his hotel room, and Flight 11’s transmission being determined before it crashed into the WTC; in reality, it happened after.
It is unknown why the hijackers waited 46 minutes after takeoff to start the hijacking; Jarrah is portrayed as hesitant in the film to the dismay of his fellow hijackers, and he was the one terrorist who had any doubts regarding the attacks. The hijackers' target isn't certain either, but it's most commonly assumed to be either the United States Capitol (as depicted in the film) or the White House in Washington, D.C.
The cockpit voice recorder tape from United Flight 93 has never been made public; however, a transcript was made public after the film was completed, shedding more light on what actually happened in the final 30 minutes before the plane crashed. Some parts contradict the filmmakers' choices in terms of some dialogue and specific aspects of the event. For example, the pilots, Jason Dahl and LeRoy Homer Jr., are shown in the film being killed by the terrorists immediately during the hijacking. Though Dahl is shown sending out the mayday call, Melody Homer identified her husband as the man who was shouting. Due to the then forthcoming Zacarias Moussaoui trial, Jason Dahl's wife Sandy Dahl was unable to tell the film's director, Paul Greengrass, what really happened regarding her husband. Some statements made by the terrorists in the cockpit voice recorder transcript, as well as moans heard in the background inside the cockpit, raised doubts that both pilots were dead before the plane crashed; however, other documentary evidence from the 9/11 Commission Report indicates that at least one passenger reported in a cell phone call seeing two bodies, possibly the pilots, lying dead on the floor outside the cockpit after the hijacking. Melody Homer criticized the film for not focusing on the flight crew’s actions.
There is some controversy between some of the family members of the passengers and the investigative officials as to whether the passengers managed to breach the cockpit before the plane crashed. The 9/11 Commission Report concluded that "the hijackers remained at the controls but must have judged that the passengers were only seconds from overcoming them". However, many of the passengers' family members, having heard the audio recordings, believe that the passengers did breach the cockpit and struggled with the hijackers for control of the yoke.
Portrayal of Christian Adams
The film has been criticized for its portrayal of German passenger Christian Adams, who is portrayed as counseling appeasement, despite the absence of any evidence that he did so. It was also reported that Adams's widow did not cooperate with the filmmakers due to the emotional pain. Sunday Times critic Cosmo Landesman mused, "Surely one of the passengers didn't phone home to point out that there was a cowardly German on board who wanted to give in?" Critic John Harris suggested in a Guardian blog, "there will surely be all kinds of cries about old European surrender monkeys, the United States' contrasting backbone etc." Erich Redman, who portrayed Adams in the film, has stated he did not intend to portray Adams as cowardly but as a man who "never made rash decisions and everything he did was always well-considered".
United 93 was one of the most critically acclaimed films of 2006. James Berardinelli, Roger Ebert, Michael Medved, and Peter Travers all awarded it full marks on their rating scales, with Ebert calling the film "masterful and heartbreaking" and saying that it "does honor to the memory of the victims". Travers termed it "one of the most moving films of the year", in Rolling Stone. The film holds a 90% "Fresh" rating on Rotten Tomatoes based on 212 reviews, and an average rating of 8.23/10, with the consensus: "Potent and sobering, United 93 treats the subject matter with respect, never resorting to Hollywood aggrandizement."Calling it "gut-wrenching and surprisingly probative," A.V. Club includes it on a list of "Great Films Too Painful To Watch Twice."
The film has a score of 90 on Metacritic, where it appears on 39 critics' top 10 lists, more than any other 2006 film on the site, (although the 2006 film with the highest average score on the site is the re-released 1969 film Army of Shadows). The film was ranked #1 on 47 lists (the most of any 2006 film).
Top 10 lists
United 93 received numerous awards and nominations from film critics and guilds. Ultimately, the film received two Academy Award nominations, including Best Director, at the 79th Academy Awards, and six BAFTA Award nominations, including Best British Film, at the 60th British Academy Film Awards, winning two for Best Director and Best Film Editing.
|List of awards and nominations|
United 93 was released to DVD on September 5, 2006, in both widescreen and full screen. Also released was a 2-disc Special Limited Edition in widescreen. A Blu-ray Disc version was released on September 6, 2011. A second Blu-ray release from Universal Studios for the film was released on June 5, 2012, as a part of Universal's Universal 100th Anniversary releases. This version included the same Blu-ray Disc (same transfer and same bonus features) found in the first 2011 release in addition to a DVD and digital copy included in the pack with a brand-new sleeve that was not available with the previous release. Both Blu-ray Disc sets for the film are region free.
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|Wikiquote has quotations related to: United 93 (film)|
- Official website
- United 93 at IMDb
- United 93 at Rotten Tomatoes
- United 93 at Metacritic
- United 93 at Box Office Mojo
- United 93 at ReelFaces
- "United 93". Archived from the original on January 10, 2006. Retrieved January 6, 2006.
- Investigating United 93: Researching and Honoring a Catastrophe: Part I by Uri Lessing
- Investigating United 93: Researching and Honoring a Catastrophe: Part II by Uri Lessing
- Interview with Andrew Bernstein
- German 9/11 Victim Defamed in United 93 Archived September 11, 2008, at the Wayback Machine – review focusing on the stereotyping and politics
- Hijacking the Hijacking, the problem with the United 93 films by Ron Rosenbaum, on Slate.com