United Democratic Front (Kerala)
|Headquarters||Indira Bhavan, Vellayambalam, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala|
|Political position||Centre to centre-left|
|Seats in Lok Sabha|
18 / 20
|Seats in Rajya Sabha|
3 / 9
|Seats in Kerala Legislative Assembly|
41 / 140
The United Democratic Front (UDF) is an alliance of Centre to centre-left political parties in the Indian state of Kerala. It is one of the two major political alliances in Kerala, the other being CPI(M)-led LDF, each of which has been in power alternately for the last four decades. UDF has won elections to the State Legislature of Kerala in the years 1982, 1991, 2001, and 2011. The alliance currently acts as the main opposition in the state legislature of Kerala post-May 2016 election. The alliance consists of Indian National Congress, Indian Union Muslim League, Kerala Congress, Revolutionary Socialist Party, Forward Bloc and a variety of other smaller parties. The front follows the principle of Social democracy. It is a part of United Progressive Alliance at national level.
The front was created by the Indian National Congress (then known as Congress-Indira) party leader K. Karunakaran in 1978, as a successor to the erstwhile United Front. In the last elections conducted to the state legislature in 2016, UDF managed to win 47 out of 140 seats to the assembly, and Ramesh Chennithala was elected as the leader of opposition. In 2019 Indian general election, UDF won 19 out of 20 seats in the state.In 2021 Kerala Legislative Assembly election, UDF won 41 out of 140 seats.
The coalition politics of Kerala began with second election held to the state legislative assembly in 1960. In 1970's, the major political parties in the state were unified under two major coalitions, one of them led by Indian National Congress, and the other by CPI(M). The front led by Indian National Congress was initially called United Front, which had ruled the state from 1970 to 1979. The United Democratic Front (UDF) was formed as successor to the United Front just before 1980 state election. UDF first came into power in Kerala in 1982 under K. Karunakaran. It led the Government of Kerala in 1982–87 (K. Karunakaran), 1991–96 (K. Karunakaran and A. K. Antony), 2001–06 (A. K. Antony and Oommen Chandy), and 2011–16 (Oommen Chandy). The alliance currently serves as the opposition in the Kerala Assembly.
The parties in the alliance and their representation in Kerala Legislative Assembly are currently as follows:
|1||Indian National Congress||21|
|2||Indian Union Muslim League||17|
|4||Kerala Congress (Jacob)||1|
|5||Nationalist Congress Kerala||1|
|6||Revolutionary Socialist Party||0|
|7||Communist Marxist Party (John)||0|
|8||All India Forward Bloc||0|
|9||Bharatiya National Janata Dal||0|
Out of the 20 Lok Sabha (House of the People) constituencies in Kerala, 19 were won by the United Democratic Front in 2019 Lok Sabha election. Later when the Kerala Congress (M) left UDF to join LDF in 2020, the number of seats of UDF fell into 18. The following is the list of United Democratic Front Parliament (Lok Sabha) members from the state of Kerala:
|No.||Parliamentary Constituency||Member (MP)||Party Affiliation|
|5||Kozhikode||M. K. Raghavan||INC|
|6||Malappuram||M.P. Abdussamad Samadani||IUML|
|7||Ponnani||E. T. Muhammed Basheer||IUML|
|8||Palakkad||V. K. Sreekandan||INC|
|10||Thrissur||T. N. Prathapan||INC|
|15||Pathanamthitta||Anto Antony Punnathaniyil||INC|
|16||Kollam||N. K. Premachandran||RSP|
- United Front (1970-79)
- Kerala Pradesh Congress Committee
- Indian National Congress
- United Progressive Alliance
- Left Democratic Front
- Heller, Patrick (18 April 2020). "A virus, social democracy, and dividends for Kerala". The Hindu. Retrieved 2 February 2021.
- "India's election results were more than a 'Modi wave'". Washington Post. Retrieved 31 May 2019.
The BJP's primary rival, the centrist Indian National Congress (Congress), won only 52 seats.
- Saez, Lawrence; Sinha, Aseema (2010). "Political cycles, political institutions and public expenditure in India, 1980–2000". British Journal of Political Science. 40 (1): 91–113. doi:10.1017/s0007123409990226. S2CID 154767259.
- "Election history of Kerala". CEO Kerala. Chief Election Officer, Kerala.
- 9 October; June 15, 2013 ISSUE DATE; August 8, 1982UPDATED; Ist, 2014 17:49. "Congress(I) leader Karunakaran sworn in as Kerala CM". India Today. Retrieved 19 May 2019.CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
- Isaac, T. M. Thomas; Kumar, S. Mohana (1991). "Kerala Elections, 1991: Lessons and Non-Lessons". Economic and Political Weekly. 26 (47): 2691–2704. ISSN 0012-9976. JSTOR 4398338.
- Menon, Girish (14 May 2001). "LDF swept out in Kerala". Retrieved 2 February 2021.
- Anantha Krishnan (13 May 2011). "This story is from May 13, 2011 Kerala assembly elections 2011: UDF wins by narrow margin". Times of India. Retrieved 2 February 2021.
- PTI (23 December 2010). "Who was K Karunakaran?". NDTV. Retrieved 11 February 2021.
- "As it happened: TMC, AIADMK retain power; BJP takes Assam, Left Kerala". Hindustan Times. 19 May 2016. Retrieved 11 August 2019.
- PTI (30 May 2016). "Congress Elects Ramesh Chennithala As Leader Of Opposition In Kerala Assembly". NDTV. Retrieved 11 February 2021.
- "India". Australia: Refugee Review Tribunal. 19 March 2007. Archived from the original on 16 April 2013. Retrieved 11 August 2019 – via archive.is.
- Luke Koshi, Saritha S. Balan (19 June 2017). "Kerala chronicles: When a coalition of 7 political parties came together only to fall apart". The News Minute. Retrieved 1 January 2018.
- "Kerala: Tenuous existence". India Today. 30 September 1979. Retrieved 1 January 2018.