United Empire Loyalist
United Empire Loyalists (or just Loyalists) is an honorific given in 1799 by Lord Dorchester, the governor of Quebec and Governor-general of British North America, to American Loyalists who resettled in British North America during or after the American Revolution. They settled in what was initially Quebec (including the Eastern Townships) and modern-day Ontario, where they received land grants of 200 acres (81 ha) per person, and in Nova Scotia (including present-day New Brunswick). Their arrival marked the beginning of a predominantly English-speaking population in the future Canada west and east of the modern Quebec border.
Following the end of the Revolution and the signing of the Treaty of Paris in 1783, both Loyalist soldiers and civilians were evacuated from New York City, most heading for Canada.
Land in Canada was sometimes allotted according to which Loyalist regiment a man had fought in. Nova Scotia (including modern-day New Brunswick) received about 33,000 Loyalist refugees; 2,000; and Quebec (including the Eastern Townships and modern-day Ontario) received some 10,000 refugees. An unknown but substantial number were unable to establish themselves in British North America and eventually returned to the United States. Many in Canada continued to maintain close ties with relatives in the United States, and conducted commerce across the border without much regard to British trade laws.
The arrival of the Loyalists after the Revolutionary War led to the division of Canada into the provinces of Upper Canada (what is now southern Ontario) and Lower Canada (today's southern Quebec). They arrived and settled in groups by ethnicity and religion.
Loyalists soon petitioned the government to be allowed to use the British legal system they were accustomed to in the American colonies, rather than the French system still in place after the fall of Quebec to Great Britain. The creation of Upper and Lower Canada allowed most Loyalists to live under British laws and institutions, while the French-speaking population of Lower Canada could maintain their familiar French civil law and the Catholic religion.
Realizing the importance of some type of recognition, on 9 November 1789, Lord Dorchester, the governor of Quebec and Governor General of British North America, declared "that it was his Wish to put the mark of Honour upon the Families who had adhered to the Unity of the Empire". As a result of Dorchester's statement, the printed militia rolls carried the notation:
"Those Loyalists who have adhered to the Unity of the Empire, and joined the Royal Standard before the Treaty of Separation in the year 1783, and all their Children and their Descendants by either sex, are to be distinguished by the following Capitals, affixed to their names: U.E. Alluding to their great principle The Unity of the Empire."
Thousands of Iroquois and other pro-British Native Americans were expelled from New York and other states and resettled in Canada. The descendants of one such group of Iroquois, led by Joseph Brant Thayendenegea, settled at Six Nations of the Grand River, the largest First Nations Reserve in Canada. Another smaller group of Iroquois led by Captain John Deserontyon Odeserundiye, settled on the shores of the Bay of Quinte in modern-day Southeastern Ontario.
The government settled numerous Black Loyalists in Nova Scotia, but they faced discrimination and inadequate support. Delays in Loyalists land grants aggravated racist tensions in Shelburne and led some mobs of white Loyalists to attack Black Loyalists in the Shelburne Riots in July 1784, Canada's first recorded race riot. The government was slow to survey the land of Black Loyalists (which meant they could not settle) and awarded them smaller grants of poorer and more remote land than those of white settlers. When Great Britain set up the colony of Sierra Leone in Africa, some Black Loyalists emigrated there to flee the poverty and racism they had encountered for the promise of self-government. The Black Loyalists established Freetown in Sierra Leone.
Numerous Loyalists were forced to abandon substantial amounts of property in the United States. Restoration or compensation for this lost property was a major issue during the negotiation of the Jay Treaty in 1795. Negotiations settled on the concept of the United States negotiators "advising" the U.S. Congress to provide restitution. For the British, this concept carried significant legal weight, far more than it did to the Americans; the U.S. Congress declined to accept the advice.
Slave-owning Loyalists from across the former Thirteen Colonies brought their slaves with them as the practice was also legal in Canada. About 2,000 slaves arrived in British North America: Some 500 in Upper Canada (Ontario), some 300 in Lower Canada (Quebec) and 1,200 in the Maritime colonies of New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island. The presence and condition of slaves in the Maritimes would become a particular issue, because of their larger number and the lack of plantation agriculture. In due course many would be freed, and returned to Africa together with existing freedmen to re-settle yet again in the designated freedmen colony of Sierra Leone. Meanwhile, an imperial law in 1790 assured prospective immigrants to Canada that their slaves would remain their property. From 1793, the trade in, but not possession of, slaves was abolished in the colony of Upper Canada. Trading was abolished across the British Empire in 1807 and possession abolished Empire-wide by 1834.
Most Black Loyalists, however, were already free, having been given their freedom from slavery by fighting for the British or joining British lines during the Revolution. The government also helped them resettle in Canada, transporting nearly 3,500 free blacks to New Brunswick.
War of 1812
The War of 1812 today is considered a great victory in Canada, which is why (for instance) Sir Isaac Brock, who played an early but vital role in the defeat of the American invaders along the Niagara border, is so celebrated there. Brock successfully headed off a planned American invasion of Canada from Fort Detroit, instead capturing the Fort and town of Detroit, Michigan; he was later killed while leading a hasty counter-attack during the Battle of Queenston Heights, and Brock's Monument in Queenston, Ontario was built to his memory. As recently as 2006, Ontario Highway 405 (which connects Queen Elizabeth Way (QEW) near St. Catharines to New York's Interstate 190 (I-190)) was renamed the General Brock Parkway in his honor.
The British government transported to New Brunswick and settled about 400 of 3,000 former slaves from the United States whom they freed during and after the War of 1812. It made promises to them similar to those made to slaves during the Revolution: to grant them freedom if they left slaveholders and fought with the British. Enslaved African Americans risked considerable danger crossing to British lines to achieve freedom. They moved to a new nation and frontier to make it happen.
While the honorific "United Empire Loyalist" is not part of the official Canadian honours system, modern-day descendants of Loyalist refugees may employ it, sometimes using "U.E." as postnominal letters. The practice, however, is uncommon today, even in original Loyalist strongholds like southeastern Ontario. Historians and genealogists use it extensively as a shorthand for identifying the ancestry of particular families.
The influence of the Loyalists on the evolution of Canada remains evident. Their ties with Britain and antipathy to the United States provided the strength needed to keep Canada independent and distinct in North America. The Loyalists' basic distrust of republicanism and "mob rule" influenced Canada's gradual, "paper-strewn" path to independence. The new British North American provinces of Upper Canada (the forerunner of Ontario) and New Brunswick were created as places of refuge for the United Empire Loyalists. The mottoes of the two provinces reflect this history: Ontario's, also found on its Coat of Arms, is Ut incepit fidelis sic permanet ("Loyal she began, loyal she remains"); New Brunswick's, Spem Reduxit ("Hope restored").
The word "Loyalist" appears frequently in school, street, and business names in such Loyalist-settled communities as Belleville, Ontario. The nearby city of Kingston, established as a Loyalist stronghold, was named in honour of King George III. And on the outskirts of that city is a township named simply "Loyalist".
On 1 July 1934, Canada Post issued "United Empire Loyalists, 1776–1784" designed by Robert Bruce McCracken based on a sculpture "United Empire Loyalists" by Sydney March. The 10¢ stamps are perforated 11 and were printed by British American Bank Note Company.
In 1996, Canadian politicians Peter Milliken (a descendant of American Loyalists) and John Godfrey sponsored the Godfrey-Milliken Bill, which would have entitled Loyalist descendants to reclaim ancestral property in the United States which had been confiscated during the American Revolution. The bill, which did not pass the House of Commons, was intended primarily as a satirical response to the contemporaneous American Helms-Burton Act.
Memory and historiography
The Loyalists paid attention to their history, developing an image of themselves that they took great pride in. In 1898, Henry Coyne provided a glowing depiction:
- The Loyalists, to a considerable extent, were the very cream of the population of the Thirteen Colonies. They represented in very large measure the learning, the piety, the gentle birth, the wealth and good citizenship of the British race in America, as well its devotion to law and order, British institutions, and the unity of the Empire. This was the leaven they brought to Canada, which has leavened the entire Dominion of this day.
According to Margaret Conrad and Alvin Finkel, Coyne's memorial incorporates essential themes that have often been incorporated into patriotic celebrations. The Loyalist tradition, as explicated by Murray Barkley and Norman Knowles, includes:
- The elite origins of the refugees, their loyalty to the British Crown, their suffering and sacrifice in the face of hostile conditions, their consistent anti-Americanism, and their divinely inspired sense of mission.
Conrad and Finkel point up some exaggerations. A few Loyalists were part of the colonial elite, and most were loyal to all things British. In fact Loyalists were drawn from every stratum of colonial society. A few suffered violence and hardship. However about 20 percent returned to the United States, and other Loyalists supported the United States in the War of 1812. Conrad and Finkel conclude:
- in using their history to justify claims to superiority, descendants of the Loyalists abuse the truth and actually diminish their status in the eyes of their non-Loyalists neighbours ... The scholars who argue that the Loyalists planted the seeds of Canadian liberalism or conservatism in British North America usually fail to take into account not only the larger context of political discussion that prevailed throughout the North Atlantic world, but also the political values brought to British North America by other immigrants in the second half of the 18th century.
From the 1870s their descendants returned to the United States in the hundreds of thousands to settle all over the US. In the New England States alone 10% of the population can trace its roots to the Maritime Provinces not to mention that fact one of 7 is French Canadian.
List of Loyalist settlements in Canada
18th-century names are listed first, alongside their present-day equivalents.
- Antigonish, Nova Scotia
- Beamsville, Ontario
- Bocabec, New Brunswick
- Myer's Creek → Belleville, Ontario
- Buell's Bay → Brockville, Ontario
- Butlersbury → Newark → Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario
- Cataraqui → Kingston, Ontario
- Clifton → Niagara Falls, Ontario
- Country Harbour, Nova Scotia
- Cobourg, Ontario
- Colchester → village now within Essex, Ontario
- Cornwall, Ontario
- Digby, Nova Scotia
- Doaktown, New Brunswick
- Eastern Townships, Quebec
- Effingham, Ontario
- Grimsby, Ontario
- Douglas Township → Kennetcook, Nova Scotia
- Lincoln, Ontario
- Ernestown Township → Loyalist, Ontario
- Machiche → Yamachiche, Quebec
- Merrittsville → Welland, Ontario
- Milliken Corners Milliken, Ontario
- Gravelly Bay → Port Colborne, Ontario
- Port Roseway → Shelburne, Nova Scotia
- Prescott, Ontario
- Prince Edward County, Ontario
- Rawdon, Nova Scotia
- Saint John, New Brunswick
- Sheet Harbour, Nova Scotia
- Shelburne, Nova Scotia
- Six Nations and Brantford, Ontario
- Smithville, Ontario
- St. Andrews by-the-Sea → St. Andrews, New Brunswick
- St. Anne's Point → Fredericton, New Brunswick
- Summerville, Nova Scotia
- The Twelve → Shipman's Corners → St. Catharines, Ontario
- Turkey Point → Norfolk, Ontario
- Sandwich → Windsor, Ontario
- Wainfleet, Ontario
- Remsheg → Wallace, Nova Scotia
- York → Toronto, Ontario
- Loyalist (American Revolution)
- Canadian honorifics
- Daughters of the American Revolution
- Expulsion of the Loyalists
- Society of the Cincinnati
- Sons of the American Revolution
- Sons of the Revolution
- Censuses of Canada 1665 to 1871: Upper Canada & Loyalists (1785 to 1797). Statcan.gc.ca (22 October 2008). Retrieved on 2013-07-24.
- Rees, Ronald. Land of the Loyalists: Their struggle to shape the Maritimes, Nimbus, 146 p., 2000, ISBN 1-55109-274-3.
- "A Short History of the United Empire Loyalists", by Ann Mackenzie, M.A., United Empire Loyalists Association of Canada, accessed 8 February 2010
- E.A. Heaman (2015). A Short History of the State in Canada. U of Toronto Press. p. 74.
- James W. St. G. Walker, The Black Loyalists, University of Toronto Press (1992) p. 49
- "Black Loyalists in New Brunswick, 1783-1853", Atlantic Canada Portal, University of New Brunswick, accessed 8 February 2010
- Ruth Holmes Whitehead, Black Loyalists: Southern Settlers of Nova Scotia's First Free Black Communities, Halifax: Nimbus Publishing (2013) p. 166
- Jack C. Whytock. The Huntingdonian Missionaries to Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, c. 1785-1792
- Jack C. Whytock. Historical Papers 2003: Canadian Society of Church History. Edited by Bruce L. Guenther, p.154.
- Patrick Bode, "Upper Canada, 1793: Simcoe and the Slaves." Beaver 1993 73(3): 17-19
- "Black Loyalists in New Brunswick, 1789-1853", Atlantic Canada Portal, University of New Brunswick, accessed 8 February 2010
- "Canadian Postal Archives Database". data4.collectionscanada.gc.ca. Government of Canada.
- The Godfrey-Milliken Bill - A Canadian response to the Helms-Burton Law, Sam Boskey, 29 October 1996
- Henry Coyne (1904). Memorial to the United Empire Loyalists. Publications of the Niagara Historical Society. p. 30.
- Margaret Conrad and Alvin Finkel, History of the Canadian Peoples: Beginnings to 1867 (vol 1, 2006) p 202.
- Conrad and Finkel, History of the Canadian Peoples: Beginnings to 1867 (vol 1, 2006) p 203.
- John E Ruch, UE, Hon.FHSC (1990). The Canadian Heraldic Authority and the Loyalists (PDF) (Report). The United Empire Loyalists’ Association of Canada.
- "The Coat of Arms of Wainfleet Township". wainfleet.info. Bowhunter Websites. Retrieved 24 July 2013.
- Acheson, T.W. "A Study in the Historical Demography of a Loyalist County", Social History, 1 (April 1968), pp. 53–65.
- Compeau, Timothy J. "Dishonoured Americans: Loyalist Manhood and Political Death in Revolutionary America." (PhD Diss. The University of Western Ontario, 2015); online.
- Jasanoff, Maya. Liberty's Exiles: American Loyalists in the Revolutionary World. (Knopf, 2011) Ranlet (2014) [below] argues her estimate of the number of Loyalists is too high.
- Jodon, Michael. Shadow Soldiers of the American Revolution; 2009, ISBN 978-1-59629-726-5. The History Press, Charleston SC.
- MacKinnon, Neil. "Nova Scotia Loyalists, 1783-1785", Social History 4 (November 1969), pp. 17–48
- Moore, Christopher. The Loyalists: Revolution, Exile, Settlement; 1984, ISBN 0-7710-6093-9.
- Norton, Mary Beth. "The fate of some black loyalists of the American revolution." Journal of Negro History 58#4 (1973): 402-426. in JSTOR
- Richard, Chantal, et al. "Markers of Collective Identity in Loyalist and Acadian Speeches of the 1880s: A Comparative Analysis." Journal of New Brunswick Studies/Revue d’études sur le Nouveau-Brunswick 4 (2013). online
- Walker, James W. St G. The Black Loyalists: The Search for a Promised Land in Nova Scotia and Sierra Leone, 1783-1870 (U of Toronto Press, 1992).
- Wallace, W. Stewart. The United Empire Loyalists: A Chronicle of the Great Migration; Volume 13 of the "Chronicles of Canada (32 volumes) Toronto, 1914.
- Whitehead, Ruth Holmes. Black Loyalists: Southern Settlers of Nova Scotia's First Free Black Communities (Halifax: Nimbus Publishing, 2013).
- Wright, Esther Clark. The Loyalists of New Brunswick (Fredericton: 1955).
- Barkley, Murray. "The Loyalist Tradition in New Brunswick: the Growth and Evolution of an Historical Myth, 1825-1914." Acadiensis 4#2 (1975): 3-45. online
- Bell, David VJ. "The Loyalist Tradition in Canada." Journal of Canadian Studies/Revue d'Études Canadiennes 5#2 (1970): 22+
- Knowles, Norman James. Inventing the Loyalists: The Ontario Loyalist Tradition and the Creation of Usable Pasts (University of Toronto Press, 1997).
- Ranlet, Philip. "How Many American Loyalists Left the United States?." Historian 76.2 (2014): 278-307.
- Upton, L.F.S. ed. The United Empire Loyalists: Men and Myths (The Copp Publishing Company, 1967), Excerpts from historians and from primary sources
- Talman, James ed. Loyalist Narratives from Upper Canada. Toronto: Champlain Society, 1946.
- "Letter, Benjamin Franklin to Baron Francis Maseres, June 26, 1785"
- Gray, Rev. J. W. D. A Sermon, Preached at Trinity Church, in the parish of St. John, N. B., on 8 December 1857, by the Rev. J. W. D. Gray, D.D., and Designed to Recommend the Principles of the Loyalists of 1783. St. John, New Brunswick: J. & A. McMillan, Printers, 1857. 15 pp. Internet Archive pdf; title incorrectly gives the year as 1847.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to United Empire Loyalists.|
- "A Short History of the United Empire Loyalists", by Ann Mackenzie, M.A.; Une Courte Histoire des Loyalistes de l'Empire Uni, French translation
- Haldimand Collection
- Black Loyalists in New Brunswick, 1783-1854, Atlantic Canadian Portal, University of New Brunswick
- Loyalist Women in New Brunswick, 1783-1827, Atlantic Canadian Portal, University of New Brunswick
- The Myth of the Loyalist Iroquois
- The United Empire Loyalists' Association of Canada: Home Page
- Photographs of the United Empire Loyalist monument at Country Harbour, Nova Scotia