United Airlines Flight 93
|Suicide hijacking summary|
|Date||Tuesday, September 11, 2001|
|Summary||Terrorist Suicide hijacking|
|Site||Field near the Diamond T. Mine, a coal strip mine in Stonycreek Township, Somerset County, Pennsylvania, U.S.|
|Passengers||37 (including 4 hijackers)|
|Fatalities||44 (including 4 hijackers)|
|Aircraft type||Boeing 757–222|
|Flight origin||Newark Int'l Airport (now Newark Liberty Int'l Airport)|
|Destination||San Francisco Int'l Airport|
United Airlines Flight 93 was a domestic scheduled passenger flight that was hijacked by al-Qaeda on September 11, 2001, as part of the September 11 attacks. It crashed into a field near the Diamond T. Mine in Stonycreek Township, Somerset County, Pennsylvania, near Indian Lake and Shanksville, during an attempt by some of the passengers to regain control, killing all 44 people aboard including the four hijackers. No one on the ground was injured. The aircraft involved, a Boeing 757–222, was flying United Airlines' daily scheduled morning domestic flight from Newark International Airport in New Jersey to San Francisco International Airport in California.
The hijackers breached the aircraft's cockpit and overpowered the flight crew approximately 46 minutes after takeoff. Ziad Jarrah, a trained pilot, took control of the aircraft and diverted it back toward the east coast of the United States in the direction of Washington, D.C. Although the specific target is not known, it is believed that the hijackers were intending to crash the plane into either the White House or the Capitol Building.
After the hijackers took control of the plane, several passengers and flight attendants were able to make phone calls and learn that attacks had already been made by other hijacked airliners on the World Trade Center in New York City and the Pentagon in Arlington County, Virginia. Some of the passengers then attacked the hijackers in an attempt to gain control of the aircraft. During the struggle the plane crashed into a reclaimed strip mine in Stonycreek Township, near Indian Lake and Shanksville in Somerset County, Pennsylvania, about 65 miles (105 km) southeast of Pittsburgh and 130 miles (210 km) northwest of Washington, D.C. A few witnessed the impact from the ground and news agencies began reporting the event within an hour.
Subsequent analysis of the flight recorders recovered from the crash site revealed how the actions taken by the passengers prevented the aircraft from reaching the hijackers' intended target. Of the four aircraft hijacked on September 11 – the others were American Airlines Flight 11, American Airlines Flight 77 and United Airlines Flight 175 – United Airlines Flight 93 was the only one that did not reach its hijackers' intended target.
A temporary memorial has stood on the site since the attacks; the first phase of construction of the permanent Flight 93 National Memorial at the crash site was dedicated on September 10, 2011.
The hijacking of Flight 93 was led by Ziad Jarrah, a member of al-Qaeda. Jarrah was born in Lebanon to a wealthy family and had a secular upbringing. He intended to become a pilot and moved to Germany in 1996, enrolling at the University of Greifswald to study German. A year later, he moved to Hamburg and began studying aeronautical engineering at Hamburg University of Applied Sciences. While living in Hamburg, Jarrah became a devout Muslim and associated with the radical Hamburg cell.
In November 1999, Jarrah left Hamburg for Afghanistan, where he spent three months. While there, he met with al-Qaeda leader Osama bin Laden in January 2000. Jarrah returned to Hamburg at the end of January and obtained a clean passport in February by reporting his passport as stolen.
In May, Jarrah received a visa from the U.S. Embassy in Berlin, and he arrived in Florida in June 2000. There, he began taking flying lessons as well as training in hand-to-hand combat. Jarrah maintained contact with his girlfriend in Germany and his family in the months preceding the attacks. This close contact upset Mohamed Atta, the tactical leader of the plot, and al-Qaeda planners may have considered another operative, Zacarias Moussaoui, to replace him if he backed out.
Four "muscle" hijackers were trained to storm the cockpit and overpower the crew, and three accompanied Jarrah on Flight 93. The first, Ahmed al-Nami, arrived in Miami, Florida, on May 28, 2001, on a six-month tourist visa with United Airlines Flight 175 hijackers Hamza al-Ghamdi and Mohand al-Shehri. The second Flight 93 hijacker, Ahmed al-Haznawi, arrived in Miami on June 8 with Flight 11 hijacker Wail al-Shehri. The third Flight 93 muscle hijacker, Saeed al-Ghamdi, arrived in Orlando, Florida, on June 27 with Flight 175 hijacker Fayez Banihammad.
On August 3, 2001, an intended fifth hijacker, Mohammed al-Qahtani, flew into Orlando from Dubai. He was questioned by officials, who were dubious that he could support himself with only $2,800 cash to his name, and suspicious that he intended to become an illegal immigrant as he was using a one-way ticket. He was sent back to Dubai, and subsequently returned to Saudi Arabia.
The aircraft involved in the hijacking was a Boeing 757–222, registration N591UA, delivered to the airline in 1996. The airplane had a capacity of 182 passengers; the September 11 flight carried 37 passengers and seven crew, a load factor of 20 percent, considerably below the 52 percent average Tuesday load factor for Flight 93. The seven crew members were Captain Jason Dahl, First Officer LeRoy Homer, Jr., and flight attendants Lorraine Bay, Sandra Bradshaw, Wanda Green, CeeCee Lyles and Deborah Welsh.
The four hijackers checked in for the flight between 07:03 and 07:39 Eastern Time. At 07:03, Ghamdi checked in without any luggage while Nami checked in two bags. At 07:24, Haznawi checked in one bag and at 07:39, Jarrah checked in without any luggage. Haznawi was the only hijacker selected for extra scrutiny by the Computer Assisted Passenger Prescreening System (CAPPS). His checked bag underwent extra screening for explosives, with no extra scrutiny required by CAPPS at the passenger-security checkpoint. None of the security checkpoint personnel reported anything unusual about the hijackers.
Haznawi and Ghamdi boarded the aircraft at 07:39 and sat in first class seats 6B and 3D respectively. Nami boarded one minute later and sat in first class seat 3C. Jarrah boarded at 07:48 and sat in seat 1B. The aircraft was scheduled to depart at 08:00 and pushed back from gate A17 at 08:01. It remained delayed on the ground and did not take off until 08:42 because of heavy airport congestion, just four minutes before American Airlines Flight 11 crashed into the North Tower. The three other hijacked flights all departed within fifteen minutes of their scheduled times. By the time Flight 93 became airborne, Flight 11 was four minutes away from hitting the North Tower and Flight 175 was being hijacked; Flight 77 was climbing normally and was nine minutes away from being hijacked. By 09:02, one minute before United Airlines Flight 175 hit the South Tower, the aircraft reached its cruising altitude of 35,000 feet (11,000 m). With the attacks unfolding, air traffic officials began issuing warnings through the Aircraft Communication Addressing and Reporting System (ACARS). Ed Ballinger, the United flight dispatcher, began sending text cockpit warnings to United Airlines flights at 09:19, 17 minutes after he became aware of the second World Trade Center impact by Flight 175. As Ballinger was responsible for multiple flights, he did not send the message to Flight 93 until 09:23, around 20 minutes after United 175's impact. Ballinger received a routine ACARS message from Flight 93 at 09:21. At 09:22, after learning of the events at the World Trade Center, LeRoy Homer's wife, Melody Homer, had an ACARS message sent to her husband in the cockpit asking if he was okay. At 09:24, Flight 93 received Ballinger's ACARS warning, "Beware any cockpit intrusion—two a/c [aircraft] hit World Trade Center". At 09:26, the pilot sent an ACARS message back, "Ed, confirm latest mssg plz —Jason". At 09:27:25, the flight crew responded to routine radio traffic from air traffic controllers. This was the last communication made by the flight crew before the hijacking.
First mayday call at 09:28:17.
Second mayday call at 09:28:50.
|Problems playing these files? See media help.|
The hijacking on Flight 93 began at 09:28. By this time, Flights 11 and 175 had already crashed into the World Trade Center and Flight 77 was within 9 minutes of striking the Pentagon. The hijackers on those flights had waited no more than 30 minutes to commandeer the aircraft, most likely striking after the seat-belt sign had been turned off and cabin service had begun. It is unknown why the hijackers on Flight 93 waited approximately 46 minutes to begin their assault. The flight suddenly dropped 685 feet (209 m) in half a minute. At 09:28:17, Captain Jason Dahl began shouting, "Mayday! Mayday! Mayday!" over the radio amidst sounds of violence. A Cleveland Air Traffic Controller replied, "Somebody call Cleveland?" but received no reply.
Thirty-five seconds after the first Mayday call, the crew made another transmission. Someone in the cockpit shouted, "Mayday! Get out of here! Get out of here!" The exact time at which Flight 93 came under the hijackers' control cannot be determined. Officials believe that at 09:28, the hijackers assaulted the cockpit and moved the passengers to the rear of the plane at the same time to minimize any chance of either the crew or the passengers interfering with the attack. While the other hijacked flights were taken by five-man teams, Flight 93 had only four hijackers, leading to speculation of a possible 20th hijacker. The 9/11 Commission believes that Mohammed al-Qahtani was the likely candidate for this role, but was unable to participate as he had been denied entry into the United States one month earlier. With many passengers saying in phone calls that they saw only three hijackers, the 9/11 Commission believes Jarrah remained seated until the crew were overpowered and then took over the flight controls out of sight of the passengers.
The flight recordings suggest that Dahl was still alive on the floor of the cockpit after the hijackers took over the plane, as sounds of moaning can be heard and the hijackers were rebuking someone in the cockpit. Dahl's wife believes that Dahl took actions to interfere with the hijackers, including putting the plane on autopilot just before the hijackers took over, and switching the output of the pilots' microphones from the cabin address speakers to the radio transmitter so that Jarrah's attempts to communicate with the passengers would instead be heard by air traffic controllers.
First announcement made by Ziad Jarrah.
Second announcement made by Ziad Jarrah.
The cockpit voice recorder began recording the final 30 minutes of Flight 93 at 09:31:57. At this moment, it recorded Jarrah announcing, "Ladies and gentlemen: here the captain. Please sit down, keep remaining seating. We have a bomb on board. So sit." The controller understood the transmission, but chose to respond, "Calling Cleveland center, you're unreadable. Say again, slowly." A woman, presumably first-class flight attendant Debbie Welsh, is heard struggling with the hijackers before being killed or otherwise silenced, followed by one of the hijackers saying in Arabic, "Everything is fine. I finished."
Jarrah instructed the autopilot to turn the plane and head east at 09:35:09. The aircraft ascended to 40,700 feet (12,400 m) and air traffic controllers immediately moved several aircraft out of Flight 93's flightpath.
At 09:39, two minutes after Flight 77 impacted the Pentagon, air traffic controllers overheard Jarrah say, "Here's the captain: I would like to tell you all to remain seated. We have a bomb aboard, and we are going back to the airport, and we have our demands. So please remain quiet." Air traffic controllers did not hear from the flight again. Passengers and crew began making phone calls to officials and family members starting at 09:30 using GTE airphones and mobile phones. Altogether, the passengers and crew made 35 airphone calls and two cell phone calls from the flight. Ten passengers and two crew members were able to successfully connect, providing information to family, friends, and others on the ground. Tom Burnett made several phone calls to his wife beginning at 09:30:32 from rows 24 and 25, though he was assigned a seat in row four. Burnett explained that the plane had been hijacked by men claiming to have a bomb. He also said that a passenger had been stabbed with a knife and that he believed the bomb threat was a ruse to control the passengers. During one of Tom Burnett's calls, his wife informed him of the attacks on the World Trade Center and he replied that the hijackers were "talking about crashing this plane. ... Oh my God. It's a suicide mission." He began pumping her for information about the attacks, interrupting her from time to time to tell the others nearby what she was saying. Then he hung up. He ended his last call by saying, "Don't worry, we're going to do something." An unknown flight attendant attempted to contact the United Airlines maintenance facility at 09:32:29. The call lasted 95 seconds, but was not received as it may have been in queue. Flight attendant Sandra Bradshaw called the maintenance facility at 09:35:40 from row 33. She reported the flight had been hijacked by men with knives who were in the cabin and flight deck and had stabbed another flight attendant, possibly Debbie Welsh.
|"Jack, pick up sweetie, can you hear me? Okay. I just want to tell you, there's a little problem with the plane. I'm fine. I'm totally fine. I just want to tell you how much I love you."|
|Message left by pregnant passenger Lauren Grandcolas at 09:39:21.|
Mark Bingham called his mother at 09:37:03 from row 25. He reported that the plane had been hijacked by three men who claimed to have a bomb. Jeremy Glick called his wife at 09:37:41 from row 27 and told her the flight was hijacked by three dark-skinned men that looked "Iranian", wearing red bandanas and wielding knives. Glick remained connected until the end of the flight. He reported that the passengers voted whether to "rush" the hijackers. The United air traffic control coordinator for West Coast flights, Alessandro "Sandy" Rogers, alerted the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Herndon Command Center in Herndon, Virginia, that Flight 93 was not responding and was off course. A minute later, the transponder was turned off, but the Cleveland controller continued to monitor the flight on primary radar. The Herndon Center relayed information on Flight 93 to FAA headquarters. Joseph DeLuca called his father at 09:43:03 from row 26 to inform him the flight had been hijacked. Todd Beamer attempted to call his wife from row 32 at 09:43:48, but was routed to GTE phone operator Lisa D. Jefferson. Beamer told the operator that the flight was hijacked and the pilots were on the floor dead or dying. He said one of the hijackers had a red belt with what looked to be a bomb strapped to his waist. A United employee in San Francisco, California, sent an ACARS message to the flight at 09:46, "Heard report of incident. Plz confirm all is normal." Linda Gronlund called her sister, Elsa Strong, at 09:46:05 and left her a message saying there were "men with a bomb."
Phone call made by CeeCee Lyles
Flight attendant CeeCee Lyles called her husband at 09:47:57 and left him a message saying the plane had been hijacked. Marion Britton called her friend, Fred Fiumano, at 09:49:12. Fiumano recalled, "she said, 'We're gonna. They're gonna kill us, you know, We're gonna die.' And I told her, 'Don't worry, they hijacked the plane, they're gonna take you for a ride, you go to their country, and you come back. You stay there for vacation.' You don't know what to say—what are you gonna say? I kept on saying the same things, 'Be calm.' And she was crying and—you know—more or less crying and screaming and yelling." Flight attendant Sandra Bradshaw called her husband at 09:50:04 and told him she was preparing scalding water to throw at the hijackers. Passenger Lauren Grandcolas called her husband twice, once before takeoff and once during the hijacking. He missed both of her calls. She then passed her phone to Honor Elizabeth Wainio. Wainio called her stepmother at 09:53:43 and concluded, four and a half minutes later, by saying, "I have to go. They're breaking into the cockpit. I love you." Jarrah dialed in the VHF omnidirectional range (VOR) frequency for the VOR navigational aid at Reagan National Airport at 09:55:11 to direct the plane toward Washington, D.C. Bradshaw, on the phone with her husband, said "Everyone is running up to first class. I've got to go. Bye."
During the hijacking, Flight 93 passed within 1,000 feet (300 m) (instead of the normal 2,000 feet (610 m)) of a NASA KC-135 returning from a microgravity flight over Lake Ontario. NASA pilot Dominic Del Rosso recalled how odd the silence on the radio was that morning.
|"Are you guys ready? Okay. Let's roll!"|
|Todd Beamer's last words heard by operator Lisa Jefferson.|
The passenger revolt on Flight 93 began at 09:57, after the passengers took a vote amongst themselves about whether to act. By this time, Flight 77 had struck the Pentagon and Flights 11 and 175 had struck the World Trade Center towers. As the revolt began and the hijackers started maneuvering the plane around violently, the plane went off of its Washington, D.C. course. The hijackers in the cockpit became aware of the revolt at 09:57:55, exclaiming, "Is there something? A fight?"
Edward Felt dialed 9-1-1 from his cell phone from the lavatory of the aircraft seeking information. His call was answered by dispatcher John Shaw, and Felt was able to tell him about the hijacking before the call was disconnected. Multiple news reports (originally based on a 911 supervisor's account after having overheard the call) asserted that Edward Felt reported hearing an explosion and seeing smoke from an undetermined location on the plane. These reports were not corroborated by Shaw or Felt's wife, Sandra, who listened to the recording afterwards.
CeeCee Lyles called her husband once more from a cell phone and told him the passengers were forcing their way into the cockpit. Jarrah began to roll the airplane left and right to knock the passengers off balance. He told another hijacker in the cockpit at 09:58:57, "They want to get in here. Hold, hold from the inside. Hold from the inside. Hold." Jarrah changed tactics at 09:59:52, exactly when the South Tower began to collapse, and pitched the nose of the airplane up and down to disrupt the assault.
The cockpit voice recorder captured the sounds of crashing, screaming, and the shattering of glass and plates. Jarrah stabilized the plane at 10:00:03. Five seconds later, he asked, "Is that it? Shall we finish it off?" Another hijacker responded, "No. Not yet. When they all come, we finish it off." Jarrah once again pitched the airplane up and down. A passenger in the background cried, "In the cockpit. If we don't, we'll die" at 10:00:25. Sixteen seconds later, another passenger yelled, "Roll it!", possibly referring to using the food cart. The voice recorder did record the sound of the passengers using the food cart as a battering ram against the cockpit door. Jarrah ceased the violent maneuvers at 10:01:00 and recited the takbir several times. He then asked another hijacker, "Is that it? I mean, shall we put it down?" The other hijacker responded, "Yes, put it in it, and pull it down." Nevertheless, the passengers continued their assault and at 10:02:17, a male passenger said, "Turn it up!" A second later, a hijacker said, "Pull it down! Pull it down!" At 10:02:33, another hijacker (or possibly the same) was heard to plead, "Hey! Hey! Give it to me. Give it to me. Give it to me. Give it to me. Give it to me. Give it to me. Give it to me. Give it to me." The airplane plummeted into a nosedive with the yoke turned hard to the right. The airplane rolled upside down, and one of the hijackers began shouting the takbir. Amidst the continued sounds of the passenger counterattack, the aircraft picked up speed, whooshing and shrieking picked up on the recorder, and then finally plowed into an empty field in Stonycreek, Pennsylvania, about 20 minutes' flying time from Washington, D.C. The last entry on the voice recorder was made at 10:03:09. The last piece of flight data was recorded at 10:03:10. The 9/11 Commission Report concluded that "the hijackers remained at the controls but must have judged that the passengers were only seconds from overcoming them." However, many of the passengers' family members, having heard the audio recordings, believe that the passengers breached the cockpit and killed at least one of the hijackers guarding the cockpit door; some interpreted the audio as suggesting that both the passengers and hijackers struggled for control of the yoke.
At 10:03:11, near Indian Lake and Shanksville, Pennsylvania, the plane crashed into a field near a reclaimed coal strip mine known as the Diamond T. Mine owned by PBS Coals in Stonycreek Township in Somerset County. The National Transportation Safety Board reported that the flight impacted at 563 mph (906 km/h, 252 m/s, or 489 knots) at a 40-degree nose-down, inverted attitude. The impact left a crater eight to ten feet deep (c. 3 m), and 30 to 50 feet wide (c. 12 m). All 44 people on board died. Many media reports and eyewitness accounts said the time of the crash was 10:06 or 10:10; an initial analysis of seismographic data in the area concluded that the crash occurred at 10:06, but the 9/11 Commission report states that this analysis was not definitive and was retracted. Other media outlets and the 9/11 Commission reported the time of impact as 10:03, based on when the flight recorders stopped, analysis of radar data, infrared satellite data, and air traffic control transmissions.
Kelly Leverknight, a local resident, was watching news of the attacks when she heard the plane. "I heard the plane going over and I went out the front door and I saw the plane going down. It was headed toward the school, which panicked me, because all three of my kids were there. Then you heard the explosion and felt the blast and saw the fire and smoke." Another witness, Eric Peterson, looked up when he heard the plane, "It was low enough, I thought you could probably count the rivets. You could see more of the roof of the plane than you could the belly. It was on its side. There was a great explosion and you could see the flames. It was a massive, massive explosion. Flames and then smoke and then a massive, massive mushroom cloud." Val McClatchey had been watching footage of the attacks when she heard the plane. She saw it briefly, then heard the impact. The crash knocked out the electricity and phones. McClatchey grabbed her camera and took the only known picture of the smoke cloud from the explosion. Ten years after 9/11, a video of the rising smoke cloud filmed by Dave Berkebile (deceased by 2011) from his yard located eight miles away from the crash site was published on YouTube.
The first responders arrived at the crash site after 10:06. Cleveland Center controllers, unaware the flight had crashed, notified the Northeast Air Defense Sector (NEADS) at 10:07 that Flight 93 had a bomb on board and passed the last known position. This call was the first time the military was notified about the flight. Ballinger sent one final ACARS message to Flight 93 at 10:10, "Don't divert to DC. Not an option." He repeated the message one minute later. The Herndon Command Center alerted FAA headquarters that Flight 93 had crashed at 10:13. NEADS called the Washington Air Route Traffic Control Center for an update on Flight 93 and received notification that the flight had crashed.
At 10:37, CNN correspondent Aaron Brown, covering the collapse of the World Trade Center, announced, "We are getting reports and we are getting lots of reports and we want to be careful to tell you when we have confirmed them and not, but we have a report that a 747 is down in Pennsylvania, and that remains unconfirmed at this point." He followed that up at 10:49 by reporting that, "We have a report now that a large plane crashed this morning, north of the Somerset County Airport, which is in western Pennsylvania, not too terribly far from Pittsburgh, about 80 miles or so, a Boeing 767 jet. Don't know whose airline it was, whose airplane it was, and we don't have any details beyond that which I have just given you." In the confusion, he also erroneously reported a second hijacked plane heading for the Pentagon after the crash of the first.
Flight 93 fragmented violently upon impact. Most of the aircraft wreckage was found near the impact crater. Investigators found some very light debris including paper and nylon scattered up to eight miles (13 km) from the impact point in New Baltimore, Pennsylvania. Other tiny aircraft fragments were found 1.5 miles (2.4 km) away at Indian Lake, Pennsylvania. All human remains were found within a 70-acre (28 ha) area surrounding the impact point. Somerset County Coroner Wally Miller was involved in the investigation and identification of the remains. In examining the wreckage, the only human body part he could see was part of a backbone. Miller later found and identified 1,500 pieces of human remains totaling about 600 pounds (272 kg), or eight percent of the total. The rest of the remains were consumed by the impact. Investigators identified four victims by September 22 and eleven by September 24. They identified another by September 29. Thirty-four passengers were identified by October 27. All the people on board the flight were identified by December 21. Human remains were so fragmented that investigators could not determine whether any victims were dead before the plane crashed. Death certificates for the 40 victims listed the cause of death as homicide and listed the cause of death for the four hijackers as suicide. The remains and personal effects of the victims were returned to the families. The remains of the hijackers, identified by the process of elimination, were turned over to the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) as evidence.
Investigators also found a knife concealed in a cigarette lighter. They located the flight data recorder on September 13 and the cockpit voice recorder the following day. The voice recorder was found buried 25 feet (8 m) below the crater. The FBI initially refused to release the voice recording, rejecting requests by Congresswoman Ellen Tauscher and family members of those on board. The FBI subsequently allowed the relatives of the Flight 93 victims to listen to the recording in a closed session on April 18, 2002. Jurors for the Zacarias Moussaoui trial heard the tape as part of the proceedings and the transcript was publicly released on April 12, 2006.
Since it never reached a target, the exact place intended to be hit by Flight 93 has never been decisively confirmed. Before the attacks, Khalid Sheikh Mohammed, Osama bin Laden, and Mohammed Atef developed a list of potential targets. Bin Laden wanted to destroy the White House and the Pentagon. Sheikh Mohammed wanted to strike the World Trade Center and all three wanted to hit the Capitol. No one else was involved in the initial selection of targets. Bin Laden told 9/11 planner Ramzi bin al-Shibh to advise Mohamed Atta that he preferred the White House over the Capitol as a target. Atta cautioned bin al-Shibh that this would be difficult, but agreed to include the White House as a possible target and suggested they keep the Capitol as an alternative in case the White House proved too difficult. Eventually, Atta told bin al-Shibh that Jarrah planned to hit the Capitol. Atta briefly mentioned the possibility of striking a nuclear facility, but balked after the other attack pilots voiced their opposition. Based on an exchange between Atta and bin al-Shibh two days before the attacks, the White House would be the primary target for the fourth plane and the Capitol the secondary target.
Immediately after the attacks, there was speculation that Camp David was the intended target. According to testimony by captured al-Qaeda member Abu Zubaydah, U.S. officials believed the White House was the intended target. A post-9/11 interview with Sheikh Mohammed and bin al-Shibh by Al Jazeera reporter Yosri Fouda revealed that Flight 93 was headed for the Capitol. The 9/11 Commission Report cited the actions of the crew and passengers in preventing the destruction of either the White House or the Capitol. According to further testimony by Sheikh Mohammed, bin Laden preferred the Capitol over the White House as a target and Sheikh Mohammed revealed that the interview to Fouda was a lie to make the 9/11 attacks seem larger than they were. Salim Hamdan, bin Laden's driver, told interrogators that he knew the flight was headed for the Capitol.
All passengers and crew on board Flight 93 were nominated for the Congressional Gold Medal on September 19, 2001. Congressman Bill Shuster introduced a bill to this effect in 2006, and they were granted on September 11, 2014.
Beamer's final words, "let's roll", became a national catchphrase. The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey changed the name of Newark's airport from Newark International Airport to Newark Liberty International Airport and a flag now flies over Terminal A's Gate A17. Flight 93 has been the subject of various films and documentaries including The Flight That Fought Back, Flight 93, and the feature film United 93.
In keeping with standard airline practice after disasters, the flight number "93" was discontinued by United Airlines after the hijacking. United has many nonstops from Newark to San Francisco. As of 2013, there is still an 8:00 A.M. flight from Newark to San Francisco, but is now Flight 497 using an Airbus A320. It was reported in May 2011 that United was reactivating flight numbers 93 and 175 as a codeshare operated by Continental, sparking an outcry from some in the media and the labor union representing United pilots. United said the reactivation was a mistake and said the numbers were "inadvertently reinstated", and would not be reactivated.
Fighter jet response
A fighter pilot based at Andrews Air Force base, Billy Hutchinson, claims that while in the air he spotted Flight 93 on his scope and planned to first fire his training rounds into the engine and cockpit, and then ram the airplane with his own jet. His account was published in Lynn Spencer's book Touching History. John Farmer, Senior Counsel to the 9/11 commission, pointed out that this account would have been impossible, as Hutchinson's Air Andrews Squadron wasn't in the air until 10:38, almost 30 minutes after Flight 93 had crashed. When the 9/11 commission asked Hutchinson why he gave this false claim he stormed out of the room and refused to give an answer.
Two F-16 fighter jets from the 121st Fighter Squadron of the D.C. Air National Guard were scrambled and ordered to intercept Flight 93; the pilots intended to ram it since they did not have time to arm the jets. They never reached Flight 93 and did not learn of its crash until hours afterwards.
The North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD) insisted to the 9/11 Commission that fighters would have intercepted Flight 93 before it reached its target in Washington, D.C., but the commission disagreed, stating that "NORAD did not even know the plane was hijacked until after it had crashed" and concluding that had it not crashed it probably would have arrived in Washington by 10:23. The 9/11 Commission Report stated that NEADS fighters pursued Delta Air Lines Flight 1989, a flight thought to be hijacked. The commission found that NORAD and the FAA gave inaccurate testimony.
A temporary memorial formed from spontaneous tributes left by visitors in the days after the attacks at the crash site. Foundations across the country began to raise money to fund a memorial to the victims within a month of the crash.
Two years after the attacks, federal officials formed the Flight 93 National Memorial Advisory Commission responsible for making design recommendations for a permanent memorial. A national design competition was held to create a public memorial in the Pennsylvania field where Flight 93 crashed. The winning design, "Crescent of Embrace," was selected out of a pool of 1,011 submissions on September 7, 2005. The site plan features a large crescent pathway with red maples and sugar maples planted along the outer arc. This design ran into opposition over funding, size, and appearance. Republican Congressman Charles H. Taylor blocked $10 million in federal funds toward the project as he saw it as "unrealistic." Republican Congressional leaders later persuaded him to acquiesce to political pressure and began approving some federal funds. The proposed design has also attracted critics who see Islamic symbolism in the crescent design. An important milestone was announced August 31, 2009, marking an agreement between the landowners and the National Park Service to allow the purchase of land for around 9.5 million dollars. The memorial was dedicated on September 10, 2011, the day before the 10th anniversary of the crash of Flight 93.
CeeCee Lyles was one of the flight attendants on board. In 2003, a statue of Lyles was unveiled in her hometown of Fort Pierce, Florida, which has since gained national recognition as one of the many monuments to the attacks.
At the National September 11 Memorial, the names of the 40 victims of Flight 93 are inscribed on Panels S-67 and S-68 at the South Pool. Years after the incident US singer Patti Austin revelaed that she had been scheduled to be on onboard United Flight 93 on September 11, 2001, but because her mother suffered a stroke days before her flight she cancelled it for an earlier one.
Nationalities of people on the plane
Note: This list does not include the nationalities of the four hijackers.
- "'We Have Some Planes'". 9/11 Commission Report. National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States. 2004. Retrieved October 1, 2013.
- Kennedy, Helen (September 10, 2002). "Hijack Plot Bared On Al Qaeda Video". Daily News. Archived from the original on October 25, 2012. Retrieved December 12, 2011.
- Yardley, Jonathan (May 1, 2005). "The 9/11 Hijackers". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 24, 2008.
- "The Story of Ziad Jarrah". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. January 19, 2005. Archived from the original on 2008-09-25. Retrieved August 24, 2008.
- "Hamburg cell reveals details". CNN. September 18, 2001. Archived from the original on January 23, 2009. Retrieved June 22, 2008.
- Freedberg, Sydney P (October 14, 2001). "He seemed like such a nice boy". St. Petersburg Times. Retrieved August 24, 2008.
- Fouda, Yosri and Nick Fielding (2003). Masterminds of Terror: The Truth Behind the Most Devastating Terrorist Attack. Arcane Publishing. p. 128.
- Popkin, Jim (October 1, 2006). "Video showing Atta, bin Laden is unearthed". MSNBC. Retrieved August 24, 2008.
- "Al Qaeda Aims at the American Homeland". 9/11 Commission Report. National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States. 2004. Retrieved July 2, 2008.
- Fouda, Yosri and Nick Fielding (2003). Masterminds of Terror: The Truth Behind the Most Devastating Terrorist Attack. Arcane Publishing. p. 130.
- "George Tenet's al-Qaida testimony". The Guardian (UK). October 18, 2002. Retrieved August 24, 2008.
- "Chronology". Monograph on 9/11 and Terrorist Travel (PDF). National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States. p. 40. Retrieved June 22, 2008.
- Candiotti, Susann (September 19, 2001). "FBI returns to suspected hijacker's gym". CNN. Archived from the original on January 23, 2009. Retrieved July 19, 2008.
- Locy, Toni (April 22, 2005). "Al-Qaeda's Moussaoui pleads guilty in plot to strike U.S. buildings with planes". USA Today. Retrieved August 24, 2008.
- Savage, Charlie (June 17, 2004). "9/11 Panel Says Plot Eyed 10 Planes; No Iraq Tie Seen". The Boston Globe.
- Meek, James Gordon (January 29, 2004). "'I'll be back,' foiled hijacker told agent". Daily News. Archived from the original on January 29, 2004.
- "Seventh Public Hearing – Monday, January 26, 2004". National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States. January 26, 2004. Retrieved August 24, 2008.
- Sadler, Brent (September 17, 2001). "Uncle calls hijack suspect 'innocent passenger'". CNN. Archived from the original on March 30, 2009. Retrieved June 22, 2008.
- "FAA Registry". Federal Aviation Administration.
- "National Transportation Safety Board: Flight Path Study – United Airlines Flight 93" (PDF). Homeland Security Digital Library. February 19, 2002. Retrieved 2011-09-12.
- "Hijacking description". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved April 24, 2011.
- "Staff Report – "We Have Some Planes": The Four Flights – a Chronology" (PDF). National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 12, 2011. Retrieved September 6, 2011.
- "People killed in plane attacks". USA Today. September 25, 2001. Retrieved August 24, 2008.
- "'We Have Some Planes'". 9/11 Commission Report. National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States. 2004. Retrieved May 30, 2008.
- "The Aviation Security System and the 9/11 Attacks – Staff Statement No. 3" (PDF). National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States. Retrieved June 22, 2008.
- Bennett, Ronan (August 22, 2004). "Inside the mind of a terrorist". The Guardian (London). Retrieved June 22, 2008.
- Pauley, Jane (September 11, 2006). "No greater love". MSNBC. Retrieved August 24, 2008.
- "Flight 93 Pilot's Wife Recalls Terror of Recording". ABC News. April 13, 2006. Retrieved August 24, 2008.
- Wald, Matthew L; Kevin Sack (October 16, 2001). "A Nation Challenged: The Tapes; 'We Have Some Planes,' Hijacker Said on Sept. 11". The New York Times. Retrieved August 24, 2008.
- "Notes". 9/11 Commission Report. National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States. 2004. Retrieved May 30, 2008.
- "Flight 93 hijacker: 'Shall we finish it off?'". CNN. July 23, 2004. Retrieved June 23, 2008.
- "Air Traffic Control Recording" (PDF). National Transportation Safety Board. December 21, 2001. Retrieved August 24, 2008.
- Stout, David (April 12, 2006). "Recording From Flight 93 Played at Trial". The New York Times. Retrieved August 24, 2008.
- "Summary of Flight 93". United States District Court for the Eastern District of Virginia. Retrieved June 23, 2008.
- "Flight 93 Pilot's Wife Recalls Terror of Recording". ABC News. April 13, 2006.
- "United Airlines Flight No.93 Cockpit Voice Recorder Transcript" (PDF). CNN. April 12, 2006. Retrieved July 4, 2009.
- Hirschkorn, Phil (April 12, 2006). "On tape, passengers heard trying to retake cockpit". CNN. Retrieved June 23, 2008.
- "Timeline for United Airlines Flight 93". National Public Radio. June 17, 2004. Retrieved August 24, 2008.
- Lewis, Neil A (April 13, 2006). "Final Struggles on 9/11 Plane Fill Courtroom". The New York Times. Retrieved August 24, 2008.
- "A Nation Challenged: The Tapes; Voices From the Sky". The New York Times. October 16, 2001. Retrieved August 24, 2008.
- "Transcript: Paula Zahn Now". CNN. April 12, 2006. Retrieved April 5, 2010.
- "Transcript of Jury Trial Before the Honorable Leonie M. Brinkema – United States District Judge Volume XVII-A" (PDF). United States District Court for the Eastern District of Virginia. April 11, 2006: 3477. Retrieved August 24, 2008.
- "Stipulation Regarding Flights Hijacked on September 11, 2001" (PDF). United States District Court for the Eastern District of Virginia. March 1, 2006: 9. Retrieved August 24, 2008.
- Sward, Susan (April 21, 2002). "The voice of the survivors". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved August 24, 2008.
- Transcript of Tom's last calls to Deena
- "Transcripts – Mornings with Paula Zahn – Remembering The Victims: Lauren Grandcolas". CNN. December 28, 2001. Retrieved June 23, 2008.
- "Relatives wait for news as rescuers dig". CNN. September 13, 2001. Archived from the original on May 22, 2008. Retrieved June 23, 2008.
- Lane, Charles; Phillips, Don; Snyder, David (September 17, 2001). "A Sky Filled With Chaos, Uncertainty and True Heroism". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 24, 2008.
- Serrano, Richard A (April 12, 2006). "9/11 phone drama replayed at Moussaoui sentencing trial". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved August 24, 2008.
- "'Let's roll': A catchphrase that became a battlecry". The Age. Australia. September 9, 2002. Retrieved August 24, 2008.
- Alderson, Andrew; Susan Bisset (October 20, 2001). "The extraordinary last calls of Flight UA93". The Daily Telegraph (UK). Retrieved August 24, 2008.
- Davis, Melissa (September 2001). "Crossing paths with danger". Johnson Space Center Roundup.
- Perl, Peter (May 12, 2002). "Hallowed Ground". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 24, 2008.[dead link]
- Hoffman, Ernie (December 7, 2001). "Dispatcher honored for Flight 93 efforts". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved August 24, 2008.
- Spangler, Todd (September 12, 2001). "'Passenger makes frantic call before jetliner crashes in Pa.'". Bergen County Record. Archived from the original on April 26, 2005. Retrieved March 23, 2014.
- Levin, Steve (April 21, 2002). "'It hurt to listen'". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved August 24, 2008.
- Longman, Jere (2002). "23". Among the Heroes: United Flight 93 and the Passengers and Crew Who Fought Back (1 ed.). New York: HarperCollins. p. 264. ISBN 0-06-009908-9.
A male passenger, Edward Felt, did call from the bathroom of the plane, but never mentioned an explosion or puff of smoke, said John Shaw, the dispatcher who took the call. 'Didn't happen,' he said. Felt's wife, Sandra, who heard the tape of the call, corroborated Shaw's story.
- "Transcripts – CNN Wolf Blitzer Reports: Senate Debates Attack on Iraq; Did Russian Mob Attempt to Fix Olympics?". CNN. July 31, 2001. Retrieved June 28, 2008.
- Flight 93: The Story, the Aftermath, and the Legacy of American Courage on 9/11, pp 104–105
- "United Airlines Flight 93 – Flight Data Recorder" (PDF). National Transportation Safety Board. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-10-23. Retrieved June 29, 2008.
- "Families of Passengers Question Theory That Hijackers Crashed Flight 93". Foxnews.com. Associated Press. August 8, 2003. Retrieved August 24, 2008.
- Emanuel, Mike; Liza Porteus; The Associated Press (April 13, 2006). "Flight 93 Hijacker: 'We Have a Bomb on Board'". Fox News. Retrieved 10 September 2011.
- "Wives of Passengers on Flight 93". ABC News. September 18, 2001. Retrieved 10 September 2011.
- Slevin, Peter (July 24, 2004). "Outside the Cockpit Door, a Fight to Save the Plane". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 24, 2008.[dead link]
- "'None of us will ever forget'". Seattle Post-Intelligencer. September 12, 2001. Retrieved August 24, 2008.
- Sara, Rimer (September 18, 2001). "A Nation Challenged: The Pennsylvania Crash; 44 Victims Are Remembered, and Lauded". The New York Times. Retrieved August 24, 2008.
- Silver, Jonathan D (September 13, 2001). "What was the danger to city? Doomed United Flight 93 passed just south of Pittsburgh". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved August 24, 2008.
- "A Bell Tolls In Shanksville". CBS News. September 11, 2002. Retrieved August 24, 2008.
- "September 11: Chronology of terror". CNN. September 12, 2001.
- Kim, Won-Young; Baum, Gerald R. (2002). "Seismic Observations during September 11, 2001, Terrorist Attack" (PDF). Maryland Geological Survey, Maryland Department of Natural Resources. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 20, 2003.
... we positively identified seismic signals associated with United Airlines Flight 93 that crashed near Shanksville, Somerset County, Pennsylvania. The time of the plane crash was 10:06:05±5 (EDT).
- in footnote 168 to chapter 1 of the Report, Kean, Thomas H.; National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States. "The 9/11 Commission Report". National Archives and Records Administration. Retrieved September 27, 2008.
... one of the study's principal authors now concedes that 'seismic data is not definitive for the impact of UA 93.', it states that the author of the seismographic study published a second study on July 5, 2004 retracting his earlier report, and confirmed it in an email to the Commission two days later.
- Longman, Jere (September 11, 2002). "Flight 93; Refusing To Give In Without A Fight". The New York Times. Archived from the original on April 8, 2008. Retrieved August 24, 2008.
- Lowry, Patricia (July 12, 2005). "Memorial in the making: Five Flight 93 designs evolve in subtle ways". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved August 24, 2008.
- Zapinski, Ken (September 12, 2001). "A blur in the sky, then a firestorm". St. Petersburg Times. Retrieved August 24, 2008.
- Sweeney, James F; Diane Solov; Rich Exner (September 12, 2001). "Pennsylvania crash carries horror into small towns". The Plain Dealer. Retrieved August 24, 2008.
- Hamill, Sean D (September 10, 2007). "Picture Made on 9/11 Takes a Toll on Photographer". The New York Times. Retrieved August 24, 2008.
- Frederick, Robb (September 11, 2002). "The day that changed America". Pittsburgh Tribune-Review. Retrieved August 24, 2008.
- Johns, Arlene (September 3, 2011). "Flight 93 Crash Site Video Surfaces". Archived from the original on 2011-09-06. Retrieved September 6, 2011.
- Memmott, Mark (September 6, 2011). "Newly Revealed Video Shows Smoke Rising From Flight 93". Retrieved September 6, 2011.
- Producers: Colette Beaudry and Michael Cascio (2005-09-23). "Zero Hour". Inside 9/11. National Geographic Channel.
- "Transcripts – America Under Attack". CNN. September 11, 2001. Retrieved June 29, 2008.
- "Transcripts – America Under Attack". CNN. September 11, 2001. Retrieved June 29, 2008.
- "Transcripts – America Under Attack: FBI and State Police Cordon Off Debris Area Six to Eight Miles from Crater Where Plane Went Down". CNN. September 13, 2001. Retrieved July 22, 2008.
- "'Black box' from Pennsylvania crash found". CNN. September 13, 2001. Archived from the original on 2008-07-05. Retrieved June 29, 2008.
- "Debunking the 9/11 Myths: Special Report". Popular Mechanics. March 2005. Archived from the original on 2008-06-13. Retrieved June 29, 2008.
- "On Hallowed Ground". The Age. September 9, 2002. Retrieved August 24, 2008.
- Perl, Peter (May 12, 2002). "Hallowed Ground; Nobody asked for this, but as September 11 recedes, a small Pennsylvania town finds itself guardian of an American legend;". The Washington Post.
- Pressley, Sue A (September 11, 2002). "Site of Crash Is 'Hallowed Ground'; In a Pa. Field, Thousands Pay Homage to Where America First Fought Back;". The Washington Post.
- Gibb, Tom (September 22, 2001). "Four Flight 93 victims identified". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved August 24, 2008.
- Lyman, Brian (September 24, 2001). "Coroner identifies seven more victims of Flight 93 crash". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved August 24, 2008.
- "Searchers to return to Flight 93 crash site". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Associated Press. September 29, 2001. Retrieved August 24, 2008.
- Hopey, Don (October 27, 2001). "Another 14 victims of Flight 93 identified". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved August 24, 2008.
- Gibb, Tom (December 20, 2001). "Flight 93 remains yield no evidence". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved August 24, 2008.
- "Flight 93 Remains Returned". CBS News. Associated Press. February 26, 2002. Retrieved August 24, 2008.
- Burger, Timothy J (August 17, 2002). "Hijackers' remains FBI gets fragments of Pentagon, Pa. 9/11 thugs". Daily News. Retrieved August 24, 2008.
- "Revised 9/11 Report Reveals New Details". Fox News. Associated Press. September 14, 2005. Retrieved August 24, 2008.
- Silver, Jonathan D (September 14, 2001). "Will black box reveal Flight 93's last moments?". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved August 24, 2008.
- Smith, Matthew P (September 15, 2001). "Flight 93 voice recorder found in Somerset County crash site". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved August 24, 2008.
- Candiotti, Susan (December 21, 2001). "FBI won't release Flight 93 tape". CNN. Retrieved July 1, 2008.
- Hirschkorn, Phil; David Mattingly (April 19, 2002). "Families say Flight 93 tapes prove heroism". CNN. Retrieved July 1, 2008.
- "Moussaoui timeline". USA Today. Associated Press. May 3, 2006. Retrieved August 24, 2008.
- Shuster, David (September 12, 2006). "9/11 mystery: What was Flight 93's target?". Hardball with Chris Matthews (MSNBC). Retrieved August 24, 2008.
- "The Attack Looms". 9/11 Commission Report. National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States. 2004. Retrieved July 2, 2008.
- "Feds Would Have Shot Down Pa. Jet". CBS News. September 16, 2001. Retrieved August 24, 2008.
- "White House target of Flight 93, officials say". CNN. May 23, 2002. Archived from the original on 2008-05-21. Retrieved July 2, 2008.
- Rubin, Daniel (September 9, 2002). "Capitol was Flight 93 Target, Arab TV Reports". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette.
- McIntyre, Jamie; Laurie Ure (July 22, 2008). "Prosecution: Bin Laden's driver knew hijackers aiming for Capitol". CNN. Retrieved July 22, 2008.
- "Senate considers medals for Flight 93 victims". CNN. September 19, 2001. Retrieved June 26, 2008.
- "Bill Would Award Medals to Those Killed on Flight 93". Fox News. Associated Press. April 18, 2006. Retrieved August 24, 2008.
- Dorell, Oren (April 9, 2008). "Medals mulled for 9/11's Flight 93 victims". USA Today. Retrieved July 3, 2008.
- "Airport Renamed To Honor 9/11 Heroes". CBS News. Associated Press. August 30, 2002. Retrieved August 24, 2008.
- "'Grey's,' '24' among top Emmy nominees". CNN. July 6, 2006. Retrieved July 10, 2008.
- Timmons, Heather (January 1, 2006). "Four Years On, a Cabin's-Eye View of 9/11". The New York Times. Retrieved August 24, 2008.
- Romero, Frances (May 18, 2011). "Flight Number Flub: United/Continental Accidentally Reinstates Flights 93 and 175". TIME. Retrieved February 14, 2015.
- McCartney, Scott (May 18, 2011). "Bad Mistake: United Revives Sept. 11 Flight Numbers". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved February 14, 2015.
- Mutzabaugh, Ben (May 18, 2011). "Unions slam United for mistakenly reinstating 9/11 flight numbers". USA Today (USA Today). Archived from the original on January 4, 2014. Retrieved February 14, 2015.
- pg 232 - Farmer, John (2009). The Ground Truth: The Untold Story of America Under Attack on 9/11. Penguin Group. ISBN 978-1-101-15233-1. - Total pages: 432
- Farmer, John; Azzarello, John; Kara, Miles (September 13, 2008). "Real Heroes, Fake Stories". New York Times. Retrieved February 13, 2015.
- NBC News (September 9, 2011). "Kamikaze: F-16 pilots planned to ram Flight 93". NBC News. Retrieved February 13, 2015.
- Hendrix, Steve (September 9, 2011). "F-16 pilot was ready to give her life on Sept. 11". The Washington Post. Retrieved February 13, 2015.
- "We Have Some Planes". 9/11 Commission Report. National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States. 2004. Retrieved September 16, 2011.
- "Although US military forces had been alerted about the hijackings, and two Air Force F-16 jet fighters were airborne in the area, no official authorization to shoot down Flight 93 was given until the aircraft had crashed. (The question as to whether the 757 would have reached its target had those aboard not taken action on their own remained disturbingly unanswered in the report issued by a federal commission established to investigate the terrorist attack.)" p. 328 - Gero, David Gero (2006). Aviation Disasters: The World's Major Civil Airliner Crashes Since 1950. Sutton. ISBN 978-0-7509-3146-5. - Total pages: 368
- Starr, Barbara; Benson, Pam (August 2, 2006). "9/11 panel distrusted Pentagon testimony". CNN News. Retrieved February 14, 2015.
- Todd M. Beamer. Memorial Guide: National 9/11 Memorial. Retrieved October 28, 2011.
- Pickels, Mary (July 2, 2008). "Flight 93 memorial work set after 4th". Pittsburgh Tribune-Review. Retrieved July 10, 2008.
- "Miami foundation backs memorial to Flight 93 victims". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. October 11, 2001. Retrieved August 24, 2008.
- "Secretary Norton Installs New Federal Advisory Commission for Flight 93 National Memorial" (Press release). National Park Service. September 11, 2003. Retrieved August 24, 2008.
- "Flight 93 memorial design selected". MSNBC. Associated Press. September 7, 2005. Retrieved August 24, 2008.
- Ward, Paula (September 8, 2005). "Flight 93 marker design picked". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved August 24, 2008.
- Tapper, Jake; Michael Callahan (April 26, 2006). "Memorial for Flight 93 Faces Opposition". ABC News. Retrieved August 24, 2008.
- Frankel, Glenn (September 10, 2006). "The Architecture of Loss". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 24, 2008.
- Hamill, Sean D (May 5, 2008). "Critics See Symbols of Islam in Flight 93 Memorial Design". The New York Times. Retrieved July 10, 2008.
- Cee Cee Lyles: 9/11 flight attendant remembered at Ft. Pierce ceremony - wptv.com
- "To Honor 9/11 Heroes, Governor Rendell Signs Bill Designating Somerset County Road, 'Flight 93 Memorial Highway'". WTHR. June 12, 2007.
- About: The Memorial Names Layout. Memorial Guide: National 9/11 Memorial. Retrieved December 11, 2011.
- "Singer Patti Austin Talks About 9/11 Experience". NBC Southern California. Retrieved 6 January 2016.
- Tonya Buell. The Crash of United Flight 93 on September 11, 2001. Rosen Publishing Group, 2003. [for children]
- Melodie Homer. From Where I Stand: Flight #93 Pilot's Widow Sets the Record Straight. Langdon Street Press, 2012.
- Lisa D. Jefferson and Felicia Middlebrooks. Called: Hello, This Is Mrs. Jefferson. I Understand Your Plane Is Being Hijacked. 9:45 am, Flight 93, September 11, 2001. Northfield Publishers, 2006.
- Glenn J. Kashurba. Courage After the Crash: Flight 93 Aftermath: An Oral and Pictorial Chronicle. Saj Publishing, 2002.
- Jere Longman. Among the Heroes: The Story of Flight 93 and the Passengers Who Fought Back. Simon and Schuster, 2002.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to United Airlines Flight 93.|
|Wikisource has original text related to this article:|
- Flight 93 National Memorial Campaign (official website)
- Somerset's Flight 93 Tribute Website
- Flight 93 National Memorial (National Park Service)
- Photo Essay: Flight 93 Memorial near Somerset,PA
- "September 11, 2001 archive of United Airlines site with condolences for deceased". Archived from the original on September 11, 2001. (Archive at Archive.is)
- Photo of Aircraft Pre 9/11