United Freedom Forces
|United Freedom Forces|
|Birleşik Özgürlük Güçleri|
|Dates of operation||December 2014—present|
|Part of||International Freedom Battalion|
|Allies|| Kurdistan Workers' Party|
People's Protection Units
|Opponents|| Islamic State|
|Battles and wars||Syrian Civil War|
The United Freedom Forces (Turkish: Birleşik Özgürlük Güçleri, or BÖG) is a joint expatriate militia of several revolutionary socialist organizations from Turkey, most notably the Revolutionary Communard Party (DKP), active in the Rojava conflict of the Syrian Civil War.
The predominant Hoxhaist Marxist–Leninist Communist Party and the Maoist TİKKO did not join the United Freedom Forces, but together with other communist groups from Turkey, Spain and Greece, in June 2015, they altogether formed the International Freedom Battalion.
Revolutionary Communard Party
The Revolutionary Communard Party (Turkish: Devrimci Komünarlar Partisi, abbreviated as DKP) is a revolutionary socialist group from Turkey. It was founded in February 2016 as a merger of the Proletarian Revolutionary Liberation Organisation (Turkish: Proleter Devrimci Kurtuluş Örgütü, abbreviated as PDKÖ) and the Revolution Party of Turkey (Turkish: Türkiye Devrim Partisi, abbreviated as TDP). Devrimci Karargâh joined in 2017. The party is the most notable group behind BÖG and also part of the Peoples' United Revolutionary Movement alliance in Turkey with the PKK and nine other groups.
The Marxist–Leninist Armed Propaganda Corps-Revolutionary Front (Turkish: Marksist Leninist Silahlı Propaganda Birliği-Devrim Cephesi, abbreviated as MLSPB-DC) is a communist armed group from Turkey. A battalion was created by Devrimci Karargâh and MLSPB-DC named after Alper Çakas, an MLSPB-DC fighter killed while fighting in Rojava. It is also part of the Peoples' United Revolutionary Movement.
Social Insurrection (Turkish: Sosyal İsyan, abbreviated as Sİ) is a green anarchist and platformist group from Turkey. Sİ was founded in 2013, in the Tuzluçayır district of Ankara. Members of the group cite the influence of Alfredo M. Bonanno, Nestor Makhno, and Pierre-Joseph Proudhon.
- Women's Freedom Forces (Kadın Özgürlük Gücü)
- Devrimci Cephe
- Aziz Güler Özgürlük Gücü Milis Örgütü
- Kader Ortakaya Timi
- Kızılbaş Timi
- Mahir Arpaçay Devrimci Savaş Okulu
- Necdet Adalı Müfrezesi
- Spartaküs Timi
- Şehit Bedreddin Taburu
- Kader Ortakaya Timi
- Emek ve Özgürlük Cephesi
Controversy with Turkey
On 21 September 2015, BÖG commander Aziz Güler (nom de guerre: Rasih Kurtuluş) was killed by a landmine explosion whilst fighting against ISIL. His body was taken to a hospital in Serê Kaniyê (Ras al-Ayn) to be brought back to Turkey. Turkish authorities refused to allow his body into the country, sparking controversy. His family had appealed to the Suruç district governorate, which rejected their application due to an invisible order by the Council of Ministers, and the Constitutional Court of Turkey, which also rejected their requests, before turning to the European Court of Human Rights. There were protests against the Turkish authorities and a Change.org petition gathered 23,738 signatures. After 59 days, Güler's body was able to enter Turkey and was buried in Istanbul on 22 November 2015.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to United Freedom Forces.|
- Sinan Deniz (10 May 2017). "BÖG Chief Commander martyred in Raqqa operation". ANF News. Retrieved 10 May 2017.
- "BÖG Sözcüsü Bayram Ali Kurtuluş BBC muhabirleri ile röportaj yapıyor". 28 January 2015. Retrieved 17 November 2015.
- "Kadın Özgürlük Gücü kuruldu". Hawar Haber Ajansı. 14 August 2015. Retrieved 15 October 2015.
- "Alper Çakas Enternasyonalist Özgürlük Taburu kuruldu". Hawar Haber Ajansı. 29 October 2015. Archived from the original on 14 June 2016. Retrieved 25 May 2016.
- "Tuzluçayır'dan Kobane'ye Uzanan Bir Anarşist Savaşçı". Jiyan. 28 June 2015. Retrieved 1 October 2015.
- "War against ISIS/Daesh: 'From Tuzluçayır to Kobane' – Interview With An Anarchist Warrior (Kurdistan)". 325. 6 July 2015. Retrieved 1 October 2015.
- The Carter Center (2017), p. 2.
- "EÖC - Emek ve Özgürlük Cephesi / Avrupa İnisiyatifi". EÖC - EMEK VE ÖZGÜRLÜK CEPHESİ/AVRUPA İNİSİYATİFİ (in Turkish). Retrieved 28 July 2017.
- "Emek ve Özgürlük Cephesi/Avrupa İnisiyatifi". Official Facebook page of EÖC. Retrieved 28 July 2017.
- "Governor once again rejects application of Rojava martyr Güler's family". Firat News Agency. 29 September 2015. Retrieved 20 November 2015.
- "Body of man killed in Syria while fighting ISIL allowed into Turkey after 59 days". Today's Zaman. 19 November 2015. Retrieved 20 November 2015.
- "Turks demand anti-Daesh fighter body return home from Syria". Press TV. 10 October 2015. Retrieved 20 November 2015.
- "Body of BÖG Commander Güler finally handed over to family". Firat News Agency. 19 November 2015. Retrieved 20 November 2015.
- "Kurdish commander killed in IS clashes buried in Istanbul". Yahoo! News. 22 November 2015. Retrieved 24 November 2015.
- The Carter Center (27 February 2017). "Foreign Volunteers for the Syrian Kurdish Forces" (PDF). Atlanta: Carter Center. Cite magazine requires