United Golf Association
The United Golf Association (UGA) was a group of African-American professional golfers who operated a separate series of professional golf tournaments for Blacks during the era of racial segregation in the United States. It was said to have started in 1925 when George Adams became a founding member and in 1926 by Robert Hawkins, a golfer from Massachusetts. It was known affectionately as the Chitlin Circuit and included many talented golfers such as Ted Rhodes, Bill Spiller, Pete Brown (golfer), Lee Elder, Willie Brown Jr, Zeke Hartsfield, Howard Wheeler and Charlie Sifford.
Women were allowed to participate from the group's inception, but only in 1939 did the first women's golfing organization seek affiliation when the Chicago Women's Golf Club, organized by Anna Robinson, applied to join. Also, the Wake-Robin Golf Club, whose first president was Helen Webb Harris, joined the UGA under her leadership.
The Professional Golfers Association of America (PGA) had an article in its bylaws stating that it was "for members of the Caucasian race." Once this bylaw was repealed in the early 1960s and Black golfers were allowed to enter the PGA, the United Golf Association ceased to exist.
Contemporary golf associations for African Americans include the African American Golf Association (AAGA), United States Black Golf Association, Western States Golf Association, Bogey Boyz, Black Jewels Ladies Golf Association and the African American Golf Foundation, Inc.
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- [Remembering the old UGA tour - all-Black United Golf Assn] Black Enterprise Golf and Tennis Challenge: 4th Annual Tournament Journal Black Enterprise, Sept, 1997
- "African American Golfer's Digest - News, Information & Activities in the 'Soulful' World of Golf". Africanamericangolfersdigest.com. Retrieved 2015-03-20.
- Marvin P. Dawkins; Graham Charles Kinloch (1 January 2000). African American Golfers During the Jim Crow Era. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 32–. ISBN 978-0-275-95940-1.
- Rodney Page Rogers Park was golf haven for African-Americans February 23, 2011 Tampa Bay Times
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