United Kingdom general election records
Prior to 1945, electoral competition in the United Kingdom exhibited features which make meaningful comparisons with modern results difficult.
Among the most significant were:-
- Frequent interventions and withdrawals of parties in different seats.
- Frequent Coalitions between parties, splits within parties and floor-crossing by members.
- Uncontested elections and truces between parties, in particular during both World Wars.
- Generally more significant competition from independent candidates and minor parties.
- Multi-member seats and University seats.
- Higher frequency of general elections, although parliaments were extended during both World Wars.
- Generally higher turnouts.
- Generally higher variation in size of constituency electorates.
Since 1945, the evolution of a stable 3-party system has tended to negate each of the above features so that, broadly speaking, elections are more comparable.
In Northern Ireland, as ever, the pattern of party competition is completely different from that in Great Britain and comparisons remain problematic.
Hence, unless otherwise stated records are based on results since the 1945 General Election, and earlier exceptional results are listed separately.
- 1 Glossary
- 2 Numerical records
- 2.1 Largest swings
- 2.2 Largest fall in percentage share of vote
- 2.3 Largest increase in percentage share of vote
- 2.4 Largest winning share of the vote
- 2.5 Lowest winning share of the vote
- 2.6 Lowest share of the vote
- 2.7 Smallest majorities
- 2.8 Highest turnout
- 2.9 Lowest turnout
- 2.10 Most candidates
- 2.11 Fewest candidates
- 3 Candidate records
- 3.1 Durable general election candidates
- 3.2 MPs defeated at consecutive general elections
- 3.3 Former MPs unsuccessful at subsequent general elections
- 3.4 Future MPs unsuccessful at previous general elections
- 3.5 Former MPs making a comeback at a general election
- 3.6 Shortest-serving general election victors
- 3.7 Youngest general election victors
- 3.8 Youngest to leave the House
- 3.9 Oldest to lose their seats
- 3.10 Oldest general election victors
- 3.11 First women general election victors
- 3.12 First ethnic minority general election victors
- 3.13 First general election victors from specific religions
- 3.14 General elections losers awarded seats on disqualification of winner
- 3.15 Two or more sitting MPs contest general election
- 4 Frequency and duration records
- 5 Causes of general elections
- 6 Miscellaneous records
- 6.1 Incumbents fall directly from first place to fourth place
- 6.2 Incumbents fall directly from first place to third place
- 6.3 Outgoing Government gains seats
- 6.3.1 Conservative
- 22.214.171.124 1997
- 126.96.36.199 February 1974
- 188.8.131.52 1964
- 184.108.40.206 1945
- 220.127.116.11 1929
- 6.3.2 Labour
- 6.3.1 Conservative
- 6.4 Incoming Government loses seats
- 6.5 Seats gained from fourth place*
- 6.6 Seats gained from third place*
- 6.7 General election victors had not contested previous election
- 6.8 Incumbent party did not contest
- 6.9 Major party did not run
- 6.10 Victories by minor parties
- 6.11 Independent candidates winning 10% or more
- 6.12 Minor parties other strong performance
- 6.13 Miscellaneous notable results
- 7 General elections having historic significance
- 8 First general elections for a new political party
- 9 Last general elections for defunct political parties
- 10 General elections following electoral developments
- 11 See also
- 12 Notes
- 13 References
For comparison purposes the following definitions have been adopted.
- Gain - victory by a party which was not victorious at the immediate previous election.
- Loss - defeat of a party which was victorious at the immediate previous election.
- Hold - victory by a party which was victorious at the immediate previous election.
- Win - victory by a party. Ambiguous term that could mean either a gain or a hold.
- Incumbent - the party which held the seat at the immediate previous election, irrespective of any intervening change of candidate or candidate's change of party.
- Third Party - In England, since 1922, the "third party" has been the Liberal party through its Alliance with the SDP and their successors up to the present day Liberal Democrats. Additionally, in Scotland and Wales the Scottish National Party and Plaid Cymru are also considered to be Third Parties. Prior to 1922, the third party was the Labour party.
- Minor Party - parties smaller than the Third Party
- Uncontested - an election where only one candidate is put forward. No votes are actually cast and the candidate is by definition the victor.
- Notional - boundary changes occur about every 10–15 years. Invariably the political composition of many seats is changed as a result, sometimes decisively. Professors Colin Rallings and Michael Thrasher have compiled notional results for the last few sets of boundary changes, predicting what the result would have been at the previous election under the new boundaries. While accurate overall, the results in a few seats indicate that they may have been mistaken.
For more information about what is meant by the term "swing", see Swing (politics)
National two-party swings
- 1945 General Election - 11.8% swing from Conservative/National Liberal to Labour
- 1931 General Election - 14.4% swing from Labour to National Government
- 1997 General Election - 10.2% swing from Conservative to Labour
- 1906 General Election - 5.4% swing from Conservative to Liberal
National swings since 1945
- 1997 General Election - 10.2% swing from Conservative to Labour
- 1979 General Election - 5.3% swing from Labour to Conservative
- 2010 General Election - 5.1% swing from Labour to Conservative
From Conservative to Labour
- Brent North, 1997 - 18.8%
From Labour to Conservative
- Ochil and South Perthshire, 2017 - 14.6% (Conservative gain from SNP)
- Hemel Hempstead, 2010 - 14.4% (Conservative hold)
- Cannock Chase, 2010 - 14.0% (Conservative gain; swing based on estimated previous vote share)
From Labour to SNP
A party's share of the vote at a general election is not always matched at subsequent general elections, but given the five-year maximum term of a Parliament, reductions of 20% or more are unusual.
- 1945 General Election - Conservatives: -11.6%
- 1997 General Election - Conservatives: -11.2%
- 2017 General Election - UKIP: -10.8%
- 1983 General Election - Labour: -9.3%
- 1929 General Election - Conservatives: -8.7%
- February 1974 General Election - Conservatives: -8.5%
These records detail the change in the share of the vote by parties when compared to the same constituency in the previous General Election. In some cases, such as Brent East in 2005 for the Liberal Democrats, the figures should be framed by the context of a by-election in that constituency between the two Elections.
|29.6||UKIP||Heywood and Middleton||2015|
|24.2||Unity||Fermanagh and South Tyrone||1970|
|23.7||Republican Labour||Belfast West||1966|
- Largest share of the vote won by any candidate, since 1918:
- George Currie, Ulster Unionist, North Down, 1959: 98.0%
- George Currie, Ulster Unionist, North Down, 1955: 96.9%
- Knox Cunningham, Ulster Unionist, South Antrim, 1959: 95.1%
- Phelim O'Neill, Ulster Unionist, North Antrim, 1959: 94.9%
- Will Thorne, Labour, Plaistow, 1918: 94.9%
Largest number of votes
The most votes received by a single individual in a general election was Sir Cooper Rawson who polled 75,205 votes when being reelected as MP for Brighton in 1931. Brighton was a two-member constituency with a larger than average electorate. The most votes received by an individual in a single-seat constituency was 69,762 for Reginald Blair in Hendon in 1935.
The largest majority received by an individual is also Sir Cooper Rawson, reelected with a majority of 62,253 at Brighton in 1931. The largest majority received by a woman is 38,823 by the Countess of Iveagh elected MP for Southend in 1931.
All general election victors receiving less than 33.33% of the vote are listed. The list is complete from 1945 onwards. Seats with more than one member are omitted.
Major parties less than 1% of the vote
- Since 1918:
|0.1||Paul Shea||Conservative||Belfast West||2015|
|0.3||Lucille Nicholson||Conservative||Mid Ulster||2015|
|0.4||Claire-Louise Leyland||Conservative||Tyrone West||2015|
|0.4||Robert Rigby||Conservative||Newry and Armagh||2015|
|0.4||Amandeep Singh Bhogal||Conservative||Upper Bann||2015|
|0.6||Clare Salier||Conservative||Belfast South||2017|
|0.7||Felicity Buchan||Conservative||South Down||2015|
|0.7||Gary McLelland||Liberal Democrat||Glasgow East||2015|
|0.8||Eileen Baxendale||Liberal Democrat||Glasgow North East||2015|
|0.8||Karen Roberts||Liberal Democrat||Rhondda||2017|
|0.8||Liz St Clair-Legge||Conservative||East Londonderry||2017|
|0.9||Flo Clucas||Liberal Democrat||West Bromwich West||2017|
|0.9||Ben France||Liberal Democrat||Dudley North||2017|
|0.9||Carol Freeman||Conservative||Antrim North||2015|
|0.9||Brian Price||Conservative||Upper Bann||1997|
|0.9||Cameron Sullivan||Liberal Democrat||Blaenau Gwent||2017|
- The Conservatives' worst vote outside Northern Ireland was 1.1% for A. Seaton in Pontypridd in 1918.
- Labour's worst vote was 2.2% for S. P. Gordon in Glasgow Bridgeton in 1935 and in 2010 for Jonathan Todd in Westmorland and Lonsdale.
Candidates winning fewer than ten votes
Candidates in general elections since 1918 who won fewer than ten votes:
|1||Catherine Taylor-Dawson||Vote For Yourself Rainbow Dream Ticket||Cardiff North||2005|
|3||Bobby Smith||Give Me Back Elmo||Maidenhead||2017|
|5||Martin Kyslun||Independent||West Derbyshire||2005|
|7||Dorian Vanbraam||Renaissance Democrat||Putney||1997|
|7||Andres Mendoza||Communist League||Islington North||2017|
- 0 votes: John Edmund Wentworth Addison, Conservative, Ashton-under-Lyne, 1886 1
- 1 vote: Henry Duke, Conservative, Exeter, December 1910 2
- 2 votes: Abraham Flint, National Labour, Ilkeston, 1931
- 2 votes: Stephen Gethins, SNP, North East Fife, 2017
- 2 votes: Mark Oaten, Liberal Democrat, Winchester, 1997 3
- 3 votes: Gwynoro Jones, Labour, Carmarthen, February 1974
- 3 votes: Harmar Nicholls, Conservative, Peterborough, 1966
- 4 votes: Michelle Gildernew, Sinn Féin, Fermanagh and South Tyrone, 2010
- 4 votes: George Ward, Conservative, Worcester, 1945
- 6 votes: Eric Gandar Dower, Conservative, Caithness and Sutherland, 1945
- 7 votes: Derek Spencer, Conservative, Leicester South, 1983
- 7 votes: Dennis Hobden, Labour, Brighton Kemptown, 1964
- 9 votes: Paul Tyler, Liberal, Bodmin, February 1974
- 10 votes: Peter Emery, Conservative, Reading, 1964
- 10 votes: Lester Hutchinson, Labour, Manchester Rusholme, 1945
- 11 votes: Anthony Meyer, Conservative, Eton and Slough, 1964
- 12 votes: Adrian Sanders, Liberal Democrat, Torbay, 1997
- 12 votes: John Jackson, Conservative, South East Derbyshire, 1959
- 13 votes: Ernle Money, Conservative, Ipswich, 1970
- 14 votes: Julian Amery, Conservative, Preston North, 1964
- 15 votes: John Foster, Conservative, Northwich, 1945
- 16 votes: Edward Shackleton, Preston South, 1951
- 19 votes: Walter Sweeney, Conservative, Vale of Glamorgan, 1992
- 20 votes: Emma Dent Coad, Labour, Kensington, 2017
- 20 votes: John Hollingworth, Conservative, Birmingham All Saints, 1959
- 21 votes: Ken Hargreaves, Conservative, Hyndburn, 1983
- 21 votes: Pete Wishart, SNP, Perth and North Perthshire, 2017.
- 22 votes: Ian Austin, Labour, Dudley North, 2017
- 22 votes: Harmar Nicholls, Conservative, Peterborough, February 1974
- 22 votes: Margaret Bain, SNP, East Dunbartonshire, October 19744
- 25 votes: Jack Beattie, Irish Labour, Belfast West, 1951
- 27 votes: William Molloy, Labour, Ealing North, 1964
- 27 votes: Byron Davies, Conservative, Gower, 2015
- 28 votes: Walter Robert Dempster Perkins, Conservative, Stroud and Thornbury, 1950
- 29 votes: Robert Atkins, Conservative, Preston North, 1979
- 30 votes: Paul Farrelly, Labour, Newcastle-under-Lyme, 2017
- 30 votes: George Thompson, SNP, Galloway, October 1974
- 1 At the election, the sitting Conservative Member, John Wentworth Addison, tied with his Liberal opponent, A.B. Rowley, on 3,049 votes each. The returning officer, acting under the law at the time, gave a casting vote to Addison, giving him an effective majority of one.
- 2 At the election, the Liberal candidate, Harold St. Maur was declared elected by a majority of 4 votes, but on petition, after a lengthy hearing and several recounts at the High Court, the previous Conservative Member Henry Duke was declared elected by a single vote.
- 3 The 1997 general election result was declared void, and at the subsequent by-election the Liberal Democrat majority swelled to over 20,000 votes.
- 4 As well as being the smallest majority at this election only 429 votes separated the top three candidates.
- 7: Peterborough, 1966
- 7: Brighton Kemptown, 1964
- 6: Hyndburn, 1983
- 5: Hastings and Rye, June 2017
- 5: Carmarthen, February 1974
- 5: Ilkeston, 1931
- Highest turnouts in any general election since 1918:
- All turnouts below 35% from 1918 onwards:
|Bethnal Green North East||1918||31.2|
|Aberdeenshire and East Kincardineshire||1918||34.2|
- Until 2001, the lowest turnout after 1918 was 37.4% in Orkney and Shetland in 1922.
Any number of candidates can be nominated for election under current UK electoral law. The only restrictions are that a candidate must be a Commonwealth or Irish citizen, not legally disqualified, with the valid nomination of ten electors from the constituency. Candidates must pay a £500 deposit which is only refunded if the candidate wins 5% or more of the votes cast.
Fourteen constituencies have seen more than ten candidates stand in a general election:
|13||Uxbridge and South Ruislip||2015||None|
|12||Hackney South and Shoreditch||2010||Meg Hillier|
|11||Isle of Wight||2010||Andrew Turner|
|11||Bethnal Green and Bow||2010||None|
|11||Camberwell and Peckham||2010||Harriet Harman|
|11||Bethnal Green and Bow||2015||Rushanara Ali|
|11||Camberwell and Peckham||2015||Harriet Harman|
|11||Hackney South and Shoreditch||2015||Meg Hillier|
The two cases from before 2010 were both the constituency of the Prime Minister. Before 1983, the consecutive records were 6 candidates in Paddington North in 1918, 7 in Tottenham in February 1974 and 9 in Devon North in 1979.
The last four seats to be uncontested at a general election were Armagh, Londonderry, North Antrim and South Antrim, at the 1951 general election. The last mainland seats to be uncontested were Liverpool Scotland and Rhondda West, at the 1945 general election.
Buckingham was the only seat contested by only three candidates at the 2015 general election. Traditionally, the Speaker of the House of Commons is not opposed by major parties, so the only opposition to John Bercow was candidates from the Green Party and from UKIP. However, in the 2017 UK general election, there were 21 seats with only three candidates, all in England.
Durable general election candidates
A selection of politicians who have contested seats in at least thirteen general elections are listed:
|Winston Churchill||Liberal, Conservative||16||14||1900||1959||Stood in five by-elections, first in 1899|
|Charles Pelham Villiers||Liberal, Liberal Unionist||15||15||1835||1895|
|T. P. O'Connor||Nationalist||14||14||1885||1929|
|Peter Tapsell||Conservative||14||13||1959||2010||Also stood in 1957 by-election|
|Gerald Kaufman||Labour||14||12||1955||2015||Did not stand 1964 or 1966|
|Manny Shinwell||Labour||14||12||1918||1966||Also stood in 1928 by-election|
|Michael Foot||Labour||14||11||1935||1987||Also stood in 1960 by-election|
|David Winnick||Labour Party||14||10||1964||2017||Did not stand February 1974|
|David Lloyd George||Liberal||13||13||1892||1935||Also stood in 1890 by-election|
|Edward Turnour||Conservative||13||13||1906||1950||Also stood in 1904 by-election|
|Tony Benn||Labour||13||12||1951||1997||Stood in four by-elections, first in 1950|
|Dennis Skinner||Labour Party||13||13||1970||2017|
MPs defeated at consecutive general elections
On rare occasions an MP has been defeated at a general election, returned at a by-election, only to be defeated again at the subsequent general election. Shirley Williams is distinguished by achieving this while in two different parties.
- George Galloway, 2010b and 2015
- William McCrea, 1997b and 2001a
- Shirley Williams, 1979 and 1983
- Christopher Addison, 1931 and 1935
- Arthur Henderson, 1918, 1922 and 1923b
- a returned to Parliament at a subsequent general election
- b returned to Parliament at a subsequent by-election
Former MPs unsuccessful at subsequent general elections
It is unusual for a defeated MP to pursue more than a couple of attempts at re-election.
- Robert McIntyre, 1950, 1951, 1955, 1959, 1964, 1966, 1970, Feb 1974 and Oct 1974a
- George Nicholls, Dec 1910, 1918, 1922, 1923, 1924 and 1929 (and by-elections in 1913 and 1925)a
- Fred Maddison, Dec 1910, 1918, 1922 and 1923a
- Dave Nellist, 1997, 2001, 2005, 2010 and 2015a
- Mike Carr, 1997, 2001 and 2005a
- Tom Mitchell, 1959, 1964 and 1966b
- Sydney Walter Robinson, 1929, 1931 and 1945 (and a by-election in 1926)a
- Maurice Alexander, 1923, 1924, 1931e
- Thomas Edward Wing, 1922, 1924 and 1929 (and a by-election in 1920)c
- Alexander Boulton, Dec 1910, 1923 and 1924d
- a in various seats
- b in the same seat
- c two previous seats and another
- d one previous seat and another
- e one previous seat and others
Attempts at a comeback usually occur almost immediately
- Joseph Jackson Cleary, 1955: 20 years after his defeat
- Paul Tyler, 1992: 18 years after his defeat
- Jonathan Evans, 2010: 13 years after his defeat
Future MPs unsuccessful at previous general elections
It is unusual for a candidate who has been unsuccessful on more than a couple of occasions to finally win a seat.
- Roger Mullin, elected for Kirkcaldy and Cowdenbeath in 2015, after standing in South Ayrshire in February 1974 and October 1974, Kirkcaldy in 1987, Paisley North in a byelection in 1990 and in 1992.
- David Ward, elected for Bradford East in 2010, after standing in Bradford North in 1992, 2001 and 2005 (and a by-election in 1990).
- Alasdair McDonnell, elected for Belfast South in 2005, after standing in 1979, 1983, 1987, 1992, 1997 and 2001 (and a by-election in 1982), and previously in North Antrim in 1970.
- Gregory Campbell, elected for East Londonderry in 2001, after standing in 1997, and previously in Foyle in 1983, 1987 and 1992.
- Martin McGuinness, elected for Mid Ulster in 1997, after standing in Foyle in 1983, 1987 and 1992.
- Michael Ward, elected for Peterborough in October 1974, after standing in February 1974, 1970 and 1966.
- Tommy Lewis, elected for Southampton in 1929, after standing in 1918, 1922, 1923 and 1924.
- Frank Smith, elected for Nuneaton in 1929, after standing in 1924, and in various other constituencies in 1923, 1922, 1918, 1910, 1895 and 1892 (and also two by-elections in 1909 and one in 1894).
- Edwin Scrymgeour, elected for Dundee in 1922, after standing in January 1910, December 1910 and 1918 (and also in the 1908 and 1917 by-elections).
- Daniel Zeichner, elected for Cambridge in 2015, after standing in 2010, and previously in Mid Norfolk in 2005, 2001 and 1997.
Former MPs making a comeback at a general election
- 2017: Vince Cable, Ed Davey, David Drew, Michelle Gildernew, Zac Goldsmith, John Grogan, Stephen Lloyd, Tony Lloyd, Esther McVey, Chris Ruane, Jo Swinson, Chris Williamson
- 2015: Boris Johnson, Joan Ryan, Dawn Butler, Rob Marris, Alex Salmond
- 2010: John Cryer, Geraint Davies, Jonathan Evans, Chris Leslie, Stephen Twigg
- 2005: David Evennett, Christopher Fraser, William McCrea, Malcolm Rifkind
- 2001: Henry Bellingham, Alistair Burt, Derek Conway, Charles Hendry, Greg Knight, Andrew Mitchell, Bob Spink
- 1997: Gerry Adams, Christopher Chope, Alan Clark, Frank Doran, Huw Edwards, Michael Fallon, Ronnie Fearn, Mike Hancock, Sylvia Heal, Gerald Howarth, Ashok Kumar, Richard Livsey, Humfrey Malins, John Maples, Francis Maude, Jonathan Sayeed, John Smith
- 1992: Michael Ancram, Bryan Davies, Warren Hawksley, John Horam, Gerry Malone, Piers Merchant, Richard Ottaway, Nick Raynsford, John Spellar, Derek Spencer, Iain Sproat, Mark Robinson, Paul Tyler
- 1987: Bob Cryer, Margaret Ewing, John Garrett, Bruce Grocott, Joan Lestor, Jim Marshall, Ann Taylor, Andrew Welsh, Audrey Wise
- 1983: Margaret Beckett, Robin Corbett, Bryan Gould, Edward Loyden, Andrew MacKay, Max Madden, Brian Sedgemore
- 1979: Michael Ancram, Sydney Chapman, David Clark, Eric Cockeram, Ednyfed Hudson Davies, Terry Davis, Dick Douglas, Peggy Fenner, Peter Griffiths, John Gummer, Barry Henderson, James Hill, John Wilkinson, David Winnick
- October 1974: Donald Anderson, Jeremy Bray, Gwynfor Evans, Robert Hicks, Evan Luard, John Mackintosh, Fergus Montgomery, Enoch Powell, Nicholas Scott, Keith Speed
- February 1974 Ronald Atkins, Gwyneth Dunwoody, John Ellis, David Ennals, Ioan Evans, Winifred Ewing, Gerald Fowler, Frank Hooley, Sydney Irving, Colin Jackson, John Lee, Eric Moonman, Stanley Newens, Christopher Price, Gwilym Roberts, Arnold Shaw, Frederick Silvester, Richard Wainwright, Alan Lee Williams, Michael Winstanley
- 1970: William Clark, Albert Cooper, Julian Critchley, Charles Curran, Patrick Duffy, Anthony Fell, Edward Gardner, Alan Glyn, Alan Green, Patricia Hornsby-Smith, Geoffrey Howe, James Kilfedder, Martin McLaren, Anthony Meyer, Peter Thomas, Richard Thompson, David Walder, Montague Woodhouse
- 1966: Richard Body, Peter Tapsell
Shortest-serving general election victors
For a comprehensive list of MPs with total service of less than 365 days see List of United Kingdom MPs with the shortest service
|John Whittaker||Labour||Heywood and Radcliffe||1945||1371|
|Philip Clarke||Sinn Féin||Fermanagh and South Tyrone||1955||1523x|
|Thomas Mitchell||Sinn Féin||Mid-Ulster||1955||1523x|
|Harry West||UUP||Fermanagh and South Tyrone||February 1974||2242|
|James Godfrey MacManaway||UUP||Belfast West||1950||2383|
|Peter Law||Independent||Blaenau Gwent||2005||3551|
- 1 died
- 2 defeated at next general election
- 3 disqualified
- 4 resigned
- 5 succeeded to the Peerage
- a returned to Parliament at a subsequent election
- b had served previously as an MP
- x Since Clarke and Mitchell were elected on abstentionist tickets, and were serving jail sentences at the time, their calculated length of service is somewhat theoretical.
Youngest general election victors
Babies of the House elected at general elections
Youngest to leave the House
- Thomas Leslie Teevan 1951, aged 24 1
- Edward Stanley 1918, aged 24 2 (re-elected 1922)
- Patrick Joseph Whitty 1918, aged 24 2
- Henry Harrison 1892, aged 24 1
- Joseph Sweeney 1922, aged 25 2x
- Arthur Evans 1923, aged 25 1 (re-elected 1924)
- Denis Shipwright 1923, aged 25 1
- John Esmonde 1918, aged 25 3
- Stuart Donaldson 2017, aged 25 1
- Frank Owen 1931, aged 26 1
- John Wodehouse Jan 1910, aged 26 3
- Hugh Lucas-Tooth 1929, aged 26 1 (re-elected 1945)
- Bryan Ricco Cooper Dec 1910, aged 26 1
- Bernadette Devlin McAliskey February 1974, aged 26 1
- Jennie Lee 1931, aged 26 1 (re-elected 1945)
- Liam Mellows 1922, aged 27 2x
- Christopher Ward 1970, aged 27 1
- Hugh Lucas-Tooth 1929, aged 28 1 (re-elected 1945)
- David Reed February 1974, aged 28 2
- Michael Ancram October 1974, aged 29 1 (re-elected 1979)
- Charles Rhys 1929, aged 29 1 (re-elected 1931)
- Andrew Mackay 1979, aged 29 1 (re-elected 1983)
- Margo MacDonald February 1974, aged 29 1
- Pamela Nash 2015, aged 30 1
- Helene Hayman 1979, aged 30 1
- John Ryan 1970, aged 30 1
- Graham Tope February 1974, aged 30 1
- Owen Carron 1983, aged 30 1x
- Arthur Evans 1929, aged 30 3 (re-elected 1931)
- W.E.D. Allen 1931, aged 30 3
- Stanley Henig 1970, aged 30 1
- Esmond Harmsworth 1929, aged 30 3
- 1 Defeated
- 2 Constituency abolished
- 3 Retired
- x did not take his seat
Oldest to lose their seats
- 1Based on Hardie's earliest estimated birth year of "ca.1860", although some biographers cite a date as late as 27 January 1871, making him only 60 years old at time of that election.
Oldest general election victors
At first election
Possibly the oldest known first-time seat winner was Bernard Kelly (born 1808) who was aged 77 when he became the first MP for the then new seat of South Donegal in Ireland at the 1885 general election. He died aged reportedly 78 on 1 January 1887. Others:
- Caleb Wright, 1885: 75
- Sir George Harrison, 1885: 741
- Frank Smith, 1929: 74
- William Beadel, 1885: 73
- Ashton Lister, 1918: 73
- Robert Williams, 1807: 71
- Sir John Elley, 1835: 71
- John Fleming, 1818: 70-712
- James Caulfield, 1852: 70
- Samuel Young, 1892: 70
- Robert Cameron, 1895: 703
- George Walker, 1945: 704
- Piara Khabra, 1992: 705
- William Cobbett, 1832: 69
- Robert Brooks, 1859: 69
- Robert Stickney Blaine, 1885: 69
- Sir Robert Hobart, 1906: 69
- Sir William Peter Griggs, 1918: 69
- Sir George Andreas Berry, 1922: 69
- Alfred Smith, 1929: 69
- William Nicol, 1859: 68
- William Raeburn, 1918: 68
- Sir Alfred Waldron Smithers, 1918: 68
- Ethel Bentham, 1929: 68
- Marie Rimmer, 2015: 68
- George Williams, 1832: 67
- William Henry Sykes, 1857: 67
- William John Lysley, 1859: 67
- Spencer Charrington, 1885: 67
- Henry Howe Bemrose, 1895: 67
- Sir Maurice Dockrell, 1918: 67
- Edward Perkins, 1922: 67
- Andrew Gilzean, 1945: 67
- Albert Stubbs, 1945: 67
- John McQuade, 1979: 67
- Ernest Roberts, 1979: 67
- Roger Mullin, 2015, 67
- John Forster FitzGerald, 1852: 66-67
- William Beckett, 1841: 66
- Sir Benjamin Guinness, 1865: 66
- Dadabhai Naoroji, 1892: 66
- William Beale, 1906: 66
- George Henry Faber, 1906: 66
- David Sanders Davies, 1918: 66
- Marshall Stevens, 1918: 66
- Albert Edward Jacob, 1924: 66
- William Allen Reid, 1931: 66
- Richard Taylor, 2001: 66
- Gordon Birtwistle, 2010: 66
- Glyn Davies, 2010: 66
- Marion Fellows, 2015: 66
- William Moffat, 1802: 65
- James Simmons, 1806: 65
- Peter Rainier, 1807: 65
- Thomas Bernard, 1874: 65
- Hugh Law, 1874: 65
- Alfred Lafone, 1886: 65
- Robert Pearce, 1906: 65
- Alexander Sprot, 1918: 65
- Joseph Leckie, 1931: 65
- Caroline Ganley, 1945: 65
- Mervyn Wheatley, 1945: 65
- George Kerevan, 2015, 65
- 1 Exact birth date not known but Harrison was reportedly this age when he died 5 days after the general election closed and before he took his seat.
- 2 Exact birth date not known but Fleming, who was brought up as an adopted orphan, is usually stated to have been born in 1747.
- 3 Exact birthdate not known but Cameron is normally stated to have been born in 1825 and was reportedly this age at election.
- 4 Exact birthdate not known but Walker is normally stated to have born in 1874 and was reportedly this age at election.
- 5 Khabra's exact age has been the subject of some disagreement. He claimed a birth year of 1924, which would have made him 67 years old at first election, but his marriage certificate gives a birth year of 1921, and it is this figure which has been used above.
At last election
- Charles Pelham Villiers, Wolverhampton South, 1895: 93
- Samuel Young, East Cavan, 1910(D): 88
- David Logan, Liverpool Scotland, 1959: 87
- Sir Charles Burrell, New Shoreham, 1859: 85
- Isaac Holden, Keighley, 1892: 85
- Robert Cameron, Houghton-le-Spring, 1910(D): 85
- Dennis Skinner, Bolsover, 2017: 85
- Walter Wilkins, Radnorshire, 1826: 84
- Winston Churchill, Woodford, 1959: 84
- Gerald Kaufman, Manchester Gorton, 2015: 84
- William Plumer, Higham Ferrers, 1820: 83
- Christopher Rice Mansel Talbot, Mid Glamorganshire, 1886, 83
- S. O. Davies, Merthyr Tydfil, 1970: 83 1
- Piara Khabra, Ealing Southall, 2005: 83
- The Earl of Carhampton, Ludgershall, 1820: 82
- William Ewart Gladstone, Midlothian, 1892: 82
- Paul Flynn, Newport West, 2017: 82
- Sir Thomas Miller, Portsmouth, 1812: 81
- Manny Shinwell, Easington, 1966: 81
- John Rankin, Glasgow Govan, 1970, 81
- David Winnick, Walsall North, 2015: 81
- Whitshed Keene, Montgomery Boroughs, 1812: c.80-812
- Sir John Aubrey, Horsham, 1820: 80
- William Gore-Langton, Somerset East, 1841: 80
- Lord Palmerston, Tiverton, 1865: 80
- Joseph Warner Henley, Oxfordshire, 1874: 80
- Michael Thomas Bass, Derby, 1880: 80
- James Patrick Mahon, Clare, 1880: 80
- Sir Gilbert Greenall, Warrington, 1886: 80
- John Mowbray, Oxford University, 1895: 80
- John Rankin, Glasgow Govan, 1970: 80
- Edward Heath, Old Bexley and Sidcup, 1997: 80
- Peter Tapsell, Louth and Horncastle, 2010: 80
- Ann Clwyd, Cynon Valley, 2017: 80
- Murdoch Macdonald, Inverness, 1945: 79
- Ian Paisley, Antrim North, 2005: 79
- Alice Cullen, Glasgow Gorbals, 1966: 75
- Irene Ward, Tynemouth, 1970: 75
- Gwyneth Dunwoody, Crewe and Nantwich, 2005: 74
- Eleanor Rathbone, Combined English Universities, 1945: 73
- Glenda Jackson, Hampstead and Kilburn, 2010: 73
- Caroline Ganley, Battersea South, 1950: 70
- Marie Rimmer, St Helens South and Whiston, 2017: 70
- 1 Davies was suspected of being considerably older than he claimed. There is evidence to suggest he was born in 1879, not 1886; if true, this would indicate he was 90 at his last election.
- 2 Keene's birthdate is given as "c.1731" in reference works though he was reportedly 90 years old on his death in February 1822. On this the figure is based. Unopposed return, his last contested election was in 1802 when aged 70-71.
- Note: All men aged 79 or over since 1945 and over 85 since 1900 are listed, as are all women aged 70 or over.
Returning to the house after a gap
A contender for the longest gap prior to returning at a general election was possibly Henry Drummond (1786-1860), who returned to the House of Commons in the 1847 general election as member for West Surrey, after a near 35-year absence, though aged only 60. He was previously MP for Plympton Erle from 1810-12.
Others, who returned at older ages than Drummond's:
- Sir Gilbert Greenall was 79 when he returned to the house in 1885, after a 5 year absence, as the member for Warrington after previously sitting for the same seat from 1874-1880.
- Robert Carden was 78 when he returned to the house in 1880, after a 21-year absence, as the member for Barnstaple. He had sat for Gloucester from 1857-59.
- Sir Harry Verney was 78 when he returned to the house in 1880, after a 6 year absence, as the member for Buckingham after previously sitting for the same seat in 1857-74.
- Sir John Chetwode was 77 when he returned to the house in 1841, after a 22 year absence, as member for Buckingham. He was previously MP for Newcastle under Lyme in 1815-18.
- Sir John Baker was 77 when he returned to the house in 1906, after a 5 year absence, as member for Portsmouth. He had previously sat for that seat in 1892-1900.
- Sir Richard Green-Price was 76 when he returned to the house in 1880, after an 11 year absence, as member for Radnorshire. He had previously sat for Radnor Boroughs 1863-69.
- Sir Mark MacTaggart-Stewart was 75 when he returned to the house in January 1910 after 4 year's absence, as member for Kirkcudbrightshire. He had previously sat for the same seat 1885-1906.
- John Courtenay was 74 when he returned to the house in 1812, after a 5 year absence, as member for Appleby, which he had previously sat for until 1807.
- Alfred Lafone was 74 when he returned to the house in 1895, after a three year absence, as member for Bermondsey. He had previously sat for that seat in 1886-92.
- John Potts was 74 when he returned to the house in 1935, after a four-year absence. He had sat for Barnsley from 1922-31.
- Vince Cable was 74 when he returned to the house in 2017, after a 2 year absence, as member for Twickenham. He sat for the same constituency 1997-2015.
- George Edwards was 73 when he returned to the house in 1923, after a year's absence, as member for South Norfolk. He had sat for the same constituency 1920-22.
- William Kirk was 72 or 73 when he returned to the house in 1868, after a 9 year absence, as member for Newry. He previously sat for the seat in 1852-59.
- James Barr was 72 or 73 when he returned to the house in 1935 as MP for Coatbridge, after four years' absence. He was previously MP for Motherwell 1924-31.
- Sir Nathaniel Dance-Holland was 72 when he returned to the house in 1807 as MP for East Grinstead, after five months' absence. He was previously MP for Great Bedwyn 1802-06, and East Grinstead before then.
- Cahir Healy was 72 when he returned to the house in 1950, after a 15-year voluntary absence, as member for Fermanagh and South Tyrone. He had sat for the predecessor constituency between 1922–24 and 1931-35.
- John Arthur Roebuck was 71 when he returned to the house in 1874, after a 6 year absence, as member for Sheffield. He had previously sat for the seat in 1847-68.
- Mathew Wilson was 71 when he returned to the house in 1874, after a 20 year absence, as member for Northern West Riding of Yorkshire. He had previously sat in two periods for Clitheroe between 1841-53.
- Sir Alexander Sprot was 71 when he returned to the house in 1924 after nearly two years' absence, as member for North Lanarkshire. He had previously sat for East Fife in 1918-22.
- Tommy Lewis was 71 when he returned to the house after a 14-year absence in 1945, as member for Southampton. He had sat previously for the seat between 1929-31.
- William Gore-Langton was 70 when he returned to the house after a five year absence in 1831, as member for Somerset which he previously represented until 1826.
- Edward Greene was 70 when he returned to the house after seven months' absence in United Kingdom general election, 1886, as member for Stowmarket. He had been MP for Bury St Edmunds until 1885.
- William Joseph Corbet was 70 when he returned to the house after a three year absence in 1895, as member for East Wicklow. He previously sat for the same seat in 1885-92.
- Charles James Monk was 70 when he returned to the house after nearly 10-year absence in 1895, as member for Gloucester. He previously sat for the borough constituency of that name in two periods between 1859 and 1885.
- Edward Reed was 70 when he returned to the house after a 5 year absence in 1900, as member for Cardiff. He previously sat for the same seat in 1880-95.
- Robert Pearce was 70 when he returned to the house after nearly a year's absence in December 1910, as member for Leek. He previously sat for the same seat between 1906 and January 1910.
- John Ashley Warre was 69 when he returned to the house after a 23-year absence in 1857, as member for Ripon. He previously sat for Hastings in 1831-34.
- Henry Eaton was 69 when he returned to the house after a 5 year absence in 1885, as member for Coventry. He previously sat for the same seat in 1865-80.
- Samuel Storey was 69 when he returned to the house after a 14 year absence in January 1910, as member for Sunderland. He previously sat for the same seat in 1881-95.
- Harry Foster was 69 when he returned to the house after 13 years absence in 1924, as member for Portsmouth Central. He was previously MP for Lowestoft in two periods between 1892 and 1910.
- Alan Clark was 69 when he returned to the house after a 5-year absence in 1997, as member for Kensington and Chelsea. He previously sat for Plymouth Sutton between 1974-92.
- William Mitford was 68 when he returned to the house after a 6 year absence in 1812, as member for New Romney. He previously sat for Bere Alston until 1806.
- John Charles Herries was 68 when he returned to the house after a 6 year absence in 1847, as member for Stamford. He previously sat for Harwich between 1823-41.
- Philip Pleydell-Bouverie was 68 when he returned to the house after a 24-year absence in 1857 as member for Berkshire. He was previously MP for Downton 1831-32.
- George Clive was 68 when he returned to the house after a 5-year absence in 1874, as member for Hereford. He had sat previously for the same seat in 1857-68.
- John Hubbard was 68 when he returned to the house after a 5-year absence in 1874, as member for the City of London. He was previously MP for Buckingham in 1859-68.
- J. T. Hibbert was 68 when he returned to the house after a 6-year absence in 1892, as member for Oldham. He previously sat for the same seat in 1877-86.
- George Renwick was 68 when he returned to the house after a 8-year absence in 1918, as member for Newcastle upon Tyne Central. He had previously sat for the undivided Newcastle upon Tyne seat in two periods between 1900 and 1910.
- Sir Alfred Law was 68 when he returned to the house after a 7-year absence in 1929, as member for High Peak. He was previously M.P. for Rochdale in 1918-22.
- Sir Harry Burrard-Neale was 67 when he returned to the house after an absence of 9 years, in 1832, as member for Lymington. He was previously its MP on several occasions, the last ending in 1823.
- Sir Frederick Smith was 67 when he returned to the house after an absence of 4 years, in 1857, as member for Chatham. He was previously its MP in 1852-53.
- Sir Henry Bulwer was 67 when he returned to the house after a voluntary absence of 21 years, in 1868 as member for Tamworth. He was previously MP for Marylebone in 1835-37.
- Somerville Hastings was 67 when he returned after a 14-year absence in 1945, as member for Barking. He had previously been MP for Reading in 1923-24 and 1929-31.
- John Kinley was 67 when he returned after a 14-year absence in 1945, as member for Bootle. He had sat previously for the seat between 1929-31.
- Tony Lloyd was 67 when he returned after a 5-year absence in 2017 as member for Rochdale. He had previously sat as MP for Manchester Central in 1997-2012.
- Sir George Philips was 66 when he returned after a two years absence in 1832 as member for South Warwickshire. He was previously MP for Wootton Bassett 1820-30.
- Alfred Billson was 66 when he returned after a 5-year absence in 1906 as member for North West Staffordshire. He had previously sat as MP for Halifax in 1897-1900.
- Sir Thomas Bramsdon was 66 when he returned after a year's absence in 1923, as member for Portsmouth Central. He had previously sat for the same seat between 1918-22.
- Robert Aglionby Slaney was 65 when he returned after near 5 year's absence in 1857, as member for Shrewsbury. He had previously sat for the same seat in three periods between 1826 and 1852.
- Arthur Hayter was 65 when he returned after 5 years absence in 1900, as member for Walsall. He had previously sat for the same seat in 1893-95.
- John Barker was 65 when he returned after nearly 5 years absence in 1906 as member for Penryn and Falmouth. He was previously MP for Maidstone in 1900-01.
- David Marshall Mason was 65 when he returned after 13 years absence in 1931 as member for Edinburgh East. He was previously MP for Coventry 1910-18.
- David Drew was 65 when he returned after 7 years absence in 2017, as member for Stroud. He had previously sat for the same seat between 1997-2010.
First women general election victors
- Notes: x did not take her seat
First ethnic minority general election victors
- Dadabhai Naoroji, Finsbury Central, 1892
- Mancherjee Bhownagree, Bethnal Green, 1895 and 1900
- Shapurji Saklatvala, Battersea North, 1922 and 1924
First general election victors from specific religions
When the UK Parliament was established in 1801, non-Anglicans were prevented from taking their seats as MPs under the Test Act 1672. However, Methodists took communion at Anglican churches until 1795, and some continued to do so, and many Presbyterians were prepared to accept Anglican communion, thus ensuring that members of these creeds were represented in the Parliament. Some Unitarians were also elected.
The first declared atheist to win a general election was Charles Bradlaugh at the 1880 general election. He was not permitted to take his seat in that parliament, but was elected again at the 1885 general election and allowed to take the oath.
General elections losers awarded seats on disqualification of winner
Two or more sitting MPs contest general election
It is of course common for former (defeated) MPs to seek re-election, often in their old constituencies, especially if they are marginal or bellwether seats. What is quite unusual is for two MPs both sitting in the same parliament to seek re-election in the same seat. This usually occurs by reason of boundary changes or party splits.
- Poplar and Limehouse, 2010: Jim Fitzpatrick* and George Galloway
- Brent Central, 2010: Dawn Butler and Sarah Teather*
- Dumfries and Galloway, 2005: Russell Brown* and Peter Duncan
- Bethnal Green and Bow, 2005: Oona King and George Galloway*
- Brentwood and Ongar, 2001: Eric Pickles* and Martin Bell
- Glasgow Garscadden, 1992: Donald Dewar* and Dick Douglas
- South Hams, 1987: Anthony Steen* and Willie Hamilton1
- Meriden, 1983: Iain Mills* and John Sever
- Islington North, 1983: John Grant and Michael O'Halloran
- Southwark and Bermondsey, 1983: Simon Hughes* and John Tilley
- Crosby, 1983: Shirley Williams and Malcolm Thornton*
- Glasgow Hillhead, 1983: Roy Jenkins* and Neil Carmichael
- Bradford West, February 1974: John Wilkinson and Edward Lyons*
- Blyth, February 1974: Eddie Milne* and Ivor Richard
- Plymouth Devonport, February 1974: Joan Vickers and David Owen*
- Brentford and Isleworth, February 1974: Michael Barnes and Barney Hayhoe*
- Paddington, February 1974: Arthur Latham* and Nicholas Scott
- Grantham, 1955: Joseph Godber* and Woodrow Wyatt
- Reading, 1955: Ian Mikardo* and Frederic Bennett
- Bradford North, 1955: William Taylor* and Maurice Webb
- Carmarthen, 1950: Rhys Hopkin Morris* and Lynn Ungoed-Thomas
- Renfrewshire West, 1950: John Maclay* and Thomas Scollan
- Glasgow Kelvingrove, 1950: Walter Elliot* and John Lloyd Williams
- Newport, 1950: Peter Freeman* and Ivor Thomas
- Sudbury and Woodbridge, 1950: John Hare* and Roland Hamilton
- Stafford and Stone, 1950: Hugh Fraser* and Stephen Swingler
- Newark, 1950: George Deer* and Sidney Shephard
- Carlton, 1950: Kenneth Pickthorn* and Florence Paton
- Thurrock, 1950: Hugh Delargy* and Leslie Solley
- Walthamstow West, 1950: Clement Attlee* and Lester Hutchinson
- Walsall, 1950: William Wells* and John Barlow
- Poole, 1950: Mervyn Wheatley* and Evelyn King
- Middlesbrough East, 1950: Hilary Marquand* and Alfred Edwards
- Liverpool West Derby, 1950: David Maxwell Fyfe* and Bertie Kirby
- Gateshead East, 1950: Arthur Moody* and Konni Zilliacus
- Exeter, 1950: John Maude* and Thomas Horabin
- Blackburn West, 1950: Ralph Assheton* and John Edwards
- Stepney, 1950: Walter Edwards* and Philip Piratin
- Shoreditch and Finsbury, 1950: Ernest Thurtle* and John Platts-Mills
- Lewisham East, 1945: Assheton Pownall and Herbert Morrison*
- St. Marylebone, 1945: Alec Cunningham-Reid and Wavell Wakefield*
- Putney, 1945: Hugh Linstead* and Richard Acland
- Harrow West, 1945: Norman Bower* and Hugh Lawson
- Stratford West Ham, 1945: Thomas Groves and Redvers Michael Prior
- Mossley, 1945: Austin Hopkinson and George Woods*
Notes: 1after announcing his retirement as member for Central Fife, long-serving Scottish Labour MP Willie Hamilton obtained his party's nomination in the hopeless prospect of South Hams in southern England. Hamilton insisted that he knew local parties often found themselves without candidates shortly before nominations closed, and was offering because it would help them out of difficulty; however by standing again and being "defeated" he qualified for an additional allowance.
Frequency and duration records
Longest period without a general election
The longest possible duration of a Parliament is currently five years. All period of six years or more between general elections are listed:
- 10 years: 1935 - 1945
- 8 years: December 1910 - 1918
- 6 years: 1812 - 1818
- 6 years: 1820 - 1826
- 6 years: 1841 - 1847
- 6 years: 1859 - 1865
- 6 years: 1868 - 1874
- 6 years: 1874 - 1880
- 6 years: 1886 - 1892
- 6 years: 1900 - 1906
Shortest period between general elections
All period of less than a year between general elections are listed:
- 7 months: November 1806 - June 1807
- 7 months: November/December 1885 - July 1886
- 8 months: September 1830(?) - April/May/June 1831
- 8 months: February - October 1974
- 10 months: December 1923 - October 1924
- 11 months: January - December 1910
Longest period without a change in government
The longest continuous Conservative government was in office for almost 18 years, between 4 May 1979 and 2 May 1997.
The longest continuous Labour government was in office for over 13 years, between 2 May 1997 and 11 May 2010.
The longest continuous Liberal government was in office for over 9 years, between 5 December 1905 and 25 May 1915.
The longest continuous coalition government was in office for almost 14 years, between 24 August 1931 and 26 July 1945, although its components changed significantly during that period.
Currently, all British Parliamentary elections are invariably held on a Thursday. The last general election not held on a Thursday was the 1931 election, which was held on Tuesday 27 October. Prior to this, it was common to hold general elections on any day of the week (other than Sunday), and until the 1918 general election, polling (and the declaration of results) was held over a period of several weeks.
On rare occasions, polling in an individual constituency may be suspended, usually as a result of the death of a candidate. The last occasion was at Thirsk and Malton in 2010, where polling was delayed for three weeks owing to the death of the UKIP candidate.
Previous examples occurred at
- South Staffordshire, 2005
- Barnsley, 1951
- Manchester Moss Side, 1950
- Hull Central, 1945
- Rugby, 1929
- West Derbyshire, 1923
- Kennington, 1918
Causes of general elections
Loss of a vote of confidence
New Prime Minister seeks a mandate
Prime Minister without a working majority seeks to gain one
- October 1974
Prime Minister's choice of date
- 2017 (approved by a motion of the House of Commons under the provisions of the Fixed-term Parliaments Act 2011)
- February 1974
Parliament had run its course
Collapse of cooperation within Government
End of World War
Incumbents fall directly from first place to fourth place
|Constituency||Election||Losing party||Gaining party|
|Norwich South||2015||Liberal Democrat||Labour|
- 1 UUP had been unopposed by DUP at previous elections.
Incumbents fall directly from first place to third place
- 1 The sitting Labour MP had defected to the SDP in 1981.
- 2 The sitting Ulster Unionist Party MP had defected to sit as an Independent Unionist.
- 3 The sitting Independent Labour Party MP had defected to Labour.
Outgoing Government gains seats
When there is a decisive change in electoral sentiment, a tiny number of seats will not only buck the trend by not moving as expected, but may actually move in the opposite direction. Only elections that saw a change of government are listed, since it is fairly common for a few seats to move in divergent directions when an incumbent government is re-elected; 2005 was an exception to this case, when the Labour party scored no gains.
By-election losses regained
- Christchurch, from the Liberal Democrats
- Berwick and East Lothian, from Labour
- East Dunbartonshire, from Labour
- Upminster, from Labour
- Ipswich, from Labour
- North West Norfolk, from Labour
By-election losses regained
- Birmingham Perry Barr, from Labour
- Eton and Slough, from Labour
- Smethwick, from Labour
- South West Norfolk, from Labour
By-election losses regained
- South Dorset, from Labour
- Caithness and Sutherland, from the Liberals
- Berwick upon Tweed, from the Liberals
- Caernarvon, from the Liberals
- Isle of Ely, from the Liberals
- Barnstaple, from the Liberals
By-election losses regained
- Birmingham King's Norton, from Labour
By-election losses regained
- Bethnal Green and Bow, from Respect
- Blaenau Gwent, from an independent
- Chesterfield, from the Liberal Democrats
By-election losses regained
- Glasgow Cathcart, from the Conservatives
- East Dunbartonshire, from the SNP
- Clackmannan and East Stirlingshire, from the SNP
- Carmarthen, from Plaid Cymru
By-election losses regained
- Ashfield, from the Conservatives
- Birmingham Stechford, from the Conservatives
- Walsall North, from the Conservatives
- Workington, from the Conservatives
- Colne Valley, from the Liberals
By-election losses regained
- Birmingham Ladywood, from the Liberals
- Swindon, from the Conservatives
- Oldham West, from the Conservatives
- Dudley, from the Conservatives
- Acton, from the Conservatives
- Hamilton, from the SNP
- Walthamstow West, from the Conservatives
- Glasgow Pollok, from the Conservatives
- Carmarthen, from Plaid Cymru
Incoming Government loses seats
- Enfield North, 2015 to Labour
- Ealing Central and Acton, 2015 to Labour
- Lancaster and Fleetwood, 2015 to Labour
- Dewsbury, 2015 to Labour
- Ilford North, 2015 to Labour
- Wolverhampton South West, 2015 to Labour
- Brentford and Isleworth, 2015 to Labour
- City of Chester, 2015 to Labour
- Wirral West, 2015 to Labour
- Eastbourne, 2010 to the Liberal Democrats
- Wells, 2010 to the Liberal Democrats
- Solihull, 2010 to the Liberal Democrats
- Glasgow Cathcart, 1979 to Labour
- North Antrim, 1970 (from Ulster Unionist) to Protestant Unionist Party
- Fermanagh and South Tyrone, 1970 (from Ulster Unionist) to Unity
- Mid Ulster, 19701 (from Ulster Unionist) to Unity
- Belfast West, 1951 (from Ulster Unionist) to Irish Labour
- Motherwell, 1924 to Labour
- Barrow-in-Furness, 1924 to Labour
- Lincoln, 1924 to Labour
- Liverpool West Toxteth, 1924 to Labour1
- Birmingham King's Norton, 1924 to Labour
- Bilston, 1924 to Labour
- Peckham, 1924 to Labour
- London University, 1924 to Independent
Note: In 2010 the Conservatives entered government as the largest party in a coalition and in 2015 they went from being part of a coalition to being a majority government in their own right.
- Berwick and East Lothian, February 1974 to the Conservatives
- East Dunbartonshire, February 1974 to the Conservatives
- Clackmannan and East Stirlingshire, February 1974 to the SNP
- Dundee East, February 1974 to the SNP
- Blyth, February 1974 to Independent Labour
- Lincoln, February 19741 to Lincoln Democratic Labour
- Cardigan, February 1974 to the Liberals
- Colne Valley, February 1974 to the Liberals
- Rochdale, February 19741 to the Liberals
- Birmingham Perry Barr, 1964 to the Conservatives
- Eton and Slough, 1964 to the Conservatives
- Smethwick, 1964 to the Conservatives
- South West Norfolk, 1964 to the Conservatives
- Carmarthen, 1945 to the Liberals
- Mile End, 1945 to the Communists
- Birmingham King's Norton, 1929 to the Conservatives
- Bethnal Green North East, 1929 to the Liberals
- Newcastle East, 1929 to the Liberals
- Dunfermline and West Fife, 2010 to Labour
- Camborne and Redruth, 2010 to the Conservatives
- Chesterfield, 2010 to the Labour Party
- Cornwall South East, 2010 to the Conservatives
- Harrogate and Knaresborough, 2010 to the Conservatives
- Hereford and South Herefordshire, 2010 to the Conservatives
- Montgomeryshire, 2010 to the Conservatives
- Newton Abbot, 2010 to the Conservatives
- Oxford West and Abingdon, 2010 to the Conservatives
- Richmond Park, 2010 to the Conservatives
- Romsey and Southampton North, 2010 to the Conservatives
- Truro and Falmouth, 2010 to the Conservatives
- Winchester, 2010 to the Conservatives
Note: In 2010 the Liberal Democrats entered government as a junior partner in a coalition.
Liberal Party (pre-Liberal Democrats)
- Ayr Burghs, 1906 to the Conservatives
- Barkston Ash, 1906 to the Conservatives
- Govan, 1906 to the Conservatives
- Hastings, 1906 to the Conservatives
- Maidstone, 1906 to the Conservatives
- North Lonsdale, 1906 to the Liberal Unionists
- Oswestry, 1906 to the Conservatives
- Rye, 1906 to the Conservatives
- St Albans, 1906 to the Conservatives
- St Andrews Burgh, 1906 to the Conservatives
- Whitby, 1906 to the Conservatives
Notes: 1 by-election loss confirmed at the General Election
Seats gained from fourth place*
- Argyll and Bute, 2015 gained by SNP from the Liberal Democrats
- Edinburgh West, 2015 gained by SNP from the Liberal Democrats
- Inverness East, Nairn and Lochaber, 1997 gained by Labour from the Liberal Democrats
- Ceredigion and Pembroke North, 1992 gained by Plaid Cymru from the Liberals
Seats gained from third place*
- Aberdeen South, 2017 gained by the Conservatives from the SNP
- Ayr, Carrick and Cumnock, 2017 gained by the Conservatives from the SNP
- East Renfrewshire, 2017 gained by the Conservatives from the SNP
- Gordon, 2017 gained by the Conservatives from the SNP
- Ochil and South Perthshire, 2017 gained by the Conservatives from the SNP
- Portsmouth South, 2017 gained by Labour from the Conservatives
- Stirling, 2017 gained by the Conservatives from the SNP
- Cambridge, 2015 gained by Labour from the Liberal Democrats
- Belfast East, 2010 gained by Alliance from the DUP
- Brighton Pavilion, 2010 gained by the Greens from Labour
- Watford, 2010 gained by the Conservatives from Labour
- Camborne and Redruth, 2010 gained by the Conservatives from the Liberal Democrats
- Falmouth and Camborne, 2005 gained by the Liberal Democrats from Labour
- Leeds North West, 2005 gained by the Liberal Democrats from Labour
- Lagan Valley, 2005 gained by the DUP from the UUP 1
- West Tyrone, 2001 gained by Sinn Féin from the UUP
- Sittingbourne and Sheppey, 1997 gained by Labour from the Conservatives
- Shrewsbury and Atcham, 1997 gained by Labour from the Conservatives
- St. Albans, 1997 gained by Labour from the Conservatives
- Oldham East and Saddleworth, 1997 gained by Labour from the Conservatives 2
- Leeds North West, 1997 gained by Labour from the Conservatives
- Hastings and Rye, 1997 gained by Labour from the Conservatives
- Falmouth and Camborne, 1997 gained by Labour from the Conservatives
- Conwy, 1997 gained by Labour from the Conservatives
- Bristol West, 1997 gained by Labour from the Conservatives
- Aberdeen South, 1997 gained by Labour from the Conservatives
- Mid Ulster, 1997 gained by Sinn Féin from the DUP
- Cambridge, 1992 gained by Labour from the Conservatives
- Plymouth Devonport, 1992 gained by Labour from the SDP
- Clwyd South West, 1987 gained by Labour from the Conservatives
- Edinburgh South, 1987 gained by Labour from the Conservatives
- Strathkelvin and Bearsden, 1987 gained by Labour from the Conservatives
- Renfrew West and Inverclyde, 1987 gained by Labour from the Conservatives
- Colne Valley, 1983 gained by the Liberals from Labour
- Leeds West, 1983 gained by the Liberals from Labour
- Southwark and Bermondsey, 1983 gained by the Liberals from Labour 3
- Liverpool Mossley Hill, 1983 gained by the Liberals from the Conservatives
- Ross, Cromarty and Skye, 1983 gained by the SDP from the Conservatives 4
- East Dunbartonshire, 1979 gained by Labour from the SNP
- Lincoln, 1979 gained by the Conservatives from Labour
- East Dunbartonshire, October 1974 gained by the SNP from the Conservatives
- Clackmannan and East Stirlingshire, February 1974 gained by the SNP from Labour
- Isle of Wight, February 1974 gained by the Liberals from the Conservatives
- Ross and Cromarty, 1970 gained by the Conservatives from the Liberals
- Ross and Cromarty, 1964 gained by the Liberals from the National Liberals
- * only includes examples of genuine three-or-more party competition; does not include seats gained as a result of pacts
- 1 sitting member had defected from UUP to DUP
- 2 Liberal Democrats had won a by-election in predecessor constituency in which Labour finished second
- 3 by-election gain confirmed at General Election.
- 4 SDP candidate ran for the Alliance in seat with strong Liberal tradition.
General election victors had not contested previous election
It is unusual for a party that had not contested the seat at the previous election to win it. Since the major mainland parties now routinely contest all seats, except the Speaker's, such rare victories tend to come from independents or splinter-parties.
- Fermanagh and South Tyrone, 2015, Ulster Unionist Tom Elliot
- Blaenau Gwent, 2005: Independent Peter Law
- Bethnal Green and Bow, 2005: Respect, George Galloway
- Wyre Forest, 2001: IKHH, Richard Taylor
- North Down, 19973: UKUP, Robert McCartney
- Tatton, 1997: Independent Martin Bell
- Caithness and Sutherland, 1983: SDP, Robert Maclennan
- Belfast West, 1983: Sinn Féin, Gerry Adams
- Mid Ulster, 1983: Democratic Unionist, William McCrea
- Belfast East, 1979: Democratic Unionist, Peter Robinson
- Belfast South, 1979:1 Ulster Unionist, Robert Bradford
- Mid Ulster, 1979:2 United Ulster Unionist, John Dunlop
- Lincoln, February 19743: Democratic Labour, Dick Taverne
- North Antrim, February 19744: DUP, Ian Paisley
- Belfast West, February 19745: SDLP, Gerry Fitt
- Belfast East, February 1974: Vanguard, William Craig
- Belfast South, February 1974: Vanguard, Robert Bradford
- Mid Ulster, February 1974: Vanguard, John Dunlop
- North Antrim, 1970: PUP, Ian Paisley
- Mid Ulster, 1970: Unity, Bernadette Devlin
- Western Isles, 1970: SNP, Donald Stewart
- Caithness and Sutherland, 1964: Liberal, George Mackie
- 1 Vanguard broke up in the late 1970s; the sitting MP joined the Ulster Unionists.
- 2 Vanguard broke up in the late 1970s; the sitting MP joined the United Ulster Unionists.
- 3 By-election gain confirmed at the General Election.
- 4 The Protestant Unionist Party merged into the Democratic Unionist Party in 1970.
- 5 Sitting MP Gerry Fitt had left the Republican Labour Party for the SDLP in 1970; by 1974 Republican Labour had disintegrated.
Incumbent party did not contest
The rare occasions where the party which won the previous election did not contest the seat. Independent candidates are not included, nor are Speakers of the House or Commons. Also excluded are occasions where the party had merged into an organisation which did contest the election, such as when the Social Democratic Party and Liberal Party formed the Liberal Democrats, or the Vanguard Unionist Progressive Party merged into the Ulster Unionist Party.
|1997||North Down||UPUP||Sole UPUP MP had died and party had subsequently collapsed.|
|1983||Mid Ulster||UUUP||UUUP had dissolved and former MP stood down.|
|1974 February||Belfast West||Republican Labour||MP had defected to the Social Democratic and Labour Party and RLP had dissolved.|
|1959||Caithness and Sutherland||Conservative||Stood aside for Independent Conservative David Robertson.|
|1955||Fermanagh and Tyrone||Nationalist||Stood aside for Sinn Féin candidate.|
|1950||Chelmsford||Common Wealth||MP had defected to Labour and party decided not to contest any further elections.|
|1950||Glasgow Camlachie||Ind. Labour Party||MP had defected to Labour, then the ILP had performed badly in the 1948 by-election.|
Major party did not run
- Buckingham, 20151
- Buckingham, 20101
- Glasgow North East, 20051
- Glasgow Springburn, 20011
- West Bromwich West, 19971
- Croydon North East, 19871
- Cardiff West, 19791
- Wirral, October 19741
- Wirral, February 19741
- Greenock, 1970
- Huddersfield West, 1959
- Pembrokeshire, 1955
- Carmarthen, 1955
- Huddersfield West, 1955
- Carmarthen, 1951
- Colne Valley, 1951
- Huddersfield West, 1951
- Carmarthen, 1950
- Huddersfield West, 1950
- Buckingham, 20101
- Glasgow North East, 20051
- Glasgow Springburn, 20011
- West Bromwich West, 19971
- Tatton, 1997
- Cardiff West, 19791
- Chelmsford, 1945
- Woodford, 1945
- Buckingham, 20101
- Glasgow North East, 20051
- Wyre Forest, 2005
- Glasgow Springburn, 20011
- Wyre Forest, 2001
- West Bromwich West, 19971
- Tatton, 1997
Liberal Party (pre-Liberal Democrats)
- 1: An occasion where a major party stood aside against the Speaker of the British House of Commons.
Victories by minor parties
Victories by independent and minor party candidates since 1945. For a complete list, see the list of UK minor party and independent MPs elected.
Independent candidates winning 10% or more
Independent candidates who did not win, but took 10% or more of the vote in their constituency
|Bradford West||2017||Salma Yaqoob||6,345||13.9||3|
|Ealing Southall||2001||Avtar Lit||5,764||12.3||3|
|East Devon||2015||Claire Wright||13,140||24.0||2|
|East Devon||2017||Claire Wright||21,270||35.2||2|
|Fermanagh and South Tyrone||2001||Jim Dixon||6,843||13.2||4|
|Fermanagh and South Tyrone||2010||Rodney Connor||21,300||41.5||2||Supported by the DUP and UUP|
|Hereford and South Herefordshire||2017||Jim Kenyon||5,560||11.0||3|
|Sedgefield||2005||Reg Keys||4,252||10.3||4||Standing against the then-Prime Minister Tony Blair|
|West Bromwich West||1997||Richard Silvester||8,546||23.3||2||Standing against the then Speaker of the House of Commons, Betty Boothroyd|
|West Tyrone||2005||Kieran Deeny||11,905||27.4||2|
Minor parties other strong performance
Parties without representation in Parliament which won 10% or more of the votes cast:
|Alliance||Belfast East||1983||Oliver Napier||9,373||24.1||3|
|Alliance||Belfast East||1987||John Alderdice||10,574||32.1||2|
|Alliance||Belfast East||1992||John Alderdice||10,650||29.8||2|
|Alliance||Belfast East||1997||Jim Hendron||9,288||23.8||3|
|Alliance||Belfast East||2001||David Alderdice||5,832||15.8||3|
|Alliance||Belfast East||2005||Naomi Long||15,443||36.0||2|
|Alliance||Belfast East||2017||Naomi Long||3,746||12.2||3|
|Alliance||Belfast South||1983||David Cook||8,945||23.9||2|
|Alliance||Belfast South||1987||David Cook||6,963||21.3||2|
|Alliance||Belfast South||1992||John Montgomery||5,054||15.0||3|
|Alliance||Belfast South||1997||Steve McBride||5,112||12.9||4|
|Alliance||Belfast South||2010||Anna Lo||5,114||15.0||4|
|Alliance||Belfast South||2017||Paula Bradshaw||7,946||18.2||3|
|Alliance||East Antrim||1983||Seán Neeson||7,620||20.0||3|
|Alliance||East Antrim||1987||Seán Neeson||8,582||25.6||2|
|Alliance||East Antrim||1992||Seán Neeson||9,132||23.3||3|
|Alliance||East Antrim||1997||Seán Neeson||6,929||20.2||2|
|Alliance||East Antrim||2001||John Matthews||4,483||12.5||3|
|Alliance||East Antrim||2005||Seán Neeson||4,869||15.3||3|
|Alliance||East Antrim||2010||Gerry Lynch||3,377||11.1||3|
|Alliance||East Antrim||2017||Stewart Dickson||5,950||15.6||2|
|Alliance||Lagan Valley||1983||Seamus Close||4,593||11.3||3|
|Alliance||Lagan Valley||1987||Seamus Close||5,728||13.8||2|
|Alliance||Lagan Valley||1992||Seamus Close||6,207||12.7||2|
|Alliance||Lagan Valley||1997||Seamus Close||7,635||17.2||2|
|Alliance||Lagan Valley||2001||Seamus Close||7,624||16.6||2|
|Alliance||Lagan Valley||2005||Seamus Close||4,316||10.1||3|
|Alliance||Lagan Valley||2010||Trevor Lunn||4,174||11.4||3|
|Alliance||Lagan Valley||2017||Aaron McIntyre||4,996||11.1||3|
|Alliance||North Antrim||1987||Gareth Williams||5,140||12.4||3|
|Alliance||North Down||1983||John Cushnahan||9,015||22.1||2|
|Alliance||North Down||1987||John Cushnahan||7,932||19.4||3|
|Alliance||North Down||1992||Addie Morrow||6,611||14.7||3|
|Alliance||North Down||1997||Oliver Napier||7,554||20.7||3|
|Alliance||South Antrim||1983||Gordon Mawhinney||4,612||11.9||3|
|Alliance||South Antrim||1987||Gordon Mawhinney||5,808||16.0||2|
|Alliance||South Antrim||1992||John Blair||5,244||12.4||3|
|Alliance||South Antrim||1997||David Ford||4,668||11.6||3|
|BNP||Oldham West and Royton||2001||Nick Griffin||6,552||16.4||3|
|Buckinghamshire Campaign for Democracy||Buckingham||2010||John Stevens||10,331||21.4||2||Standing against the then Speaker of the House of Commons, John Bercow|
|Burnley First||Burnley||2005||Harry Brooks||5,786||14.8||3|
|Green||Brighton Pavilion||2005||Keith Taylor||9,571||22.0||3|
|Green||Lewisham Deptford||2005||Darren Johnson||3,367||11.4||4|
|Green||Norwich South||2010||Adrian Ramsay||7,095||14.9||4|
|Liberal||Liverpool West Derby||2001||Steve Radford||4,601||14.9||2|
|Liberal||Liverpool West Derby||2005||Steve Radford||3,606||11.8||3|
|National Democrats||West Bromwich West||1997||Steve Edwards||4,181||11.4||3||Standing against the then Speaker of the House of Commons, Betty Boothroyd|
|National Health Action||Wyre Forest||2015||Richard Taylor||7,221||14.6||4||Taylor had served as MP for the constituency from 2001 to 2010|
|National Health Action||South West Surrey||2017||Louise Irvine||12,093||20.0||2|
|NI Labour||Belfast East||1974 Oct||David Bleakley||8,122||14.1||3|
|Orkney and Shetland Movement||Orkney and Shetland||1987||John Goodlad||3,095||14.5||4|
|People Before Profit||Belfast West||2015||Gerry Carroll||6,798||19.2||2||Represented in the Dáil|
|People Before Profit||Belfast West||2017||Gerry Carroll||4,132||10.2||3||Represented in the Northern Ireland Assembly and Dáil|
|People's Justice||Birmingham Sparkbrook and Small Heath||2001||Shafaq Hussain||4,770||13.0||3|
|PUP||Belfast East||2001||David Ervine||3,669||10.0||4|
|PUP||Belfast South||1997||David Ervine||5,687||14.4||3|
|Protestant Unionist||Belfast North||1987||George Seawright||5,671||15.4||3|
|Real Unionist||North Down||1987||Bob McCartney||14,467||35.4||2|
|Respect||Birmingham Sparkbrook and Small Heath||2005||Salma Yaqoob||10,498||27.5||2|
|Respect||East Ham||2005||Abdul Khaliq Mian||8,171||20.7||2|
|Respect||Poplar and Canning Town||2005||Oliur Rahman||6,573||17.2||3|
|Respect||West Ham||2005||Lindsey German||6,039||19.5||2|
|Scottish Militant Labour||Glasgow Pollok||1992||Tommy Sheridan||6,287||19.3||2|
|Scottish Socialist||Glasgow Pollok||1997||Tommy Sheridan||3,639||11.1||3|
|Sinn Féin||Belfast North||1997||Gerry Kelly||8,375||20.2||3|
|Sinn Féin||Fermanagh and South Tyrone||1997||Gerry McHugh||11,174||23.1||2|
|Sinn Féin||Foyle||1997||Mitchel McLaughlin||11,445||23.9||2|
|Sinn Féin||Newry and Armagh||1997||Pat McNamee||11,218||21.1||3|
|Sinn Féin||South Down||1997||Mick Murphy||5,127||10.4||3|
|Sinn Féin||Upper Bann||1997||Bernadette O'Hagan||5,773||12.1||3|
|Sinn Féin||West Tyrone||1997||Pat Doherty||14,280||30.9||3|
|Socialist Labour||Glasgow North East||2005||Doris Kelly||4,036||14.2||3||Standing against the then Speaker of the House of Commons, Michael Martin|
|TUV||North Antrim||2010||Jim Allister||7,114||16.8||2|
|UKIP||Buckingham||2010||Nigel Farage||8,410||17.4||3||Standing against the then Speaker of the House of Commons, John Bercow|
|UKIP||South Staffordshire||2005||Malcolm Hurst||2,675||10.4||4||Polling day delayed following death of Liberal Democrat candidate from original ballot.|
Miscellaneous notable results
Party Leaders or Deputy Leaders losing their seats
- 1: McCarthy was defeated in Londonderry City, the seat for which he had sat in the previous Parliament. He also stood in North Longford, where he was elected.
- 2: Gladstone was defeated in South West Lancashire, the seat for which he had sat in the previous Parliament. He also stood in Greenwich, where he was elected.
General elections having historic significance
- 2017: The first general election following the vote to leave the European Union and the subsequent invocation of Article 50. The first early general election to be held under the Fixed-term Parliaments Act.
- 2010: The first Coalition government to arise from a general election result.
- 1997: Blair, New Labour
- 1979: Thatcher, end of the post-war consensus
- 1945: Labour, Welfare State
- 1931: National Government presides over the Great Depression and Appeasement
- 1923: First Labour government emerges
- 1910 (two Liberal general election victories) Establishment of supremacy of the Commons. The Parliament Act 1911.
- 1906: Liberal landslide
First general elections for a new political party
Listed below parties which have returned MPs, either at the listed election or a later one.
- 2005: Respect Party
- 2001: Independent Community and Health Concern
- 1997: UK Independence Party*
- 1992: Liberal Democrats
- 1992: Green Party of England and Wales*
- 1983: SDP
- 1983: Ulster Popular Unionist Party (in Northern Ireland)
- 1979: Scottish Labour Party (only time - formed 1976, dissolved 1981)
- February 1974: Alliance Party (in Northern Ireland)*
- February 1974: Democratic Labour Party
- February 1974: Democratic Unionist Party (in Northern Ireland)
- February 1974: SDLP (in Northern Ireland)
- 1945: Common Wealth Party (only time)
- 1935: Scottish National Party*
- 1931: National Labour Party
- 1931: Empire Free Trade Crusade (only time)
- 1931: National Liberal Party (dissolved 1968)
- 1929: Plaid Cymru (in Wales)*
- 1922: Communist Party
- 1922: National Liberal Party (only time - dissolved 1923)
- 1922: Ulster Unionist Party (in Northern Ireland)
- 1918: National Democratic and Labour Party (only time - dissolved 1922)
- 1918: National Party (only time - formed 1917, dissolved 1921)
- 1918: National Socialist Party (only time - became Social Democratic Federation 1919)
- 1918: Sinn Féin (in Ireland)
- January 1910: All-for-Ireland League
- January 1910: Scottish Prohibition Party*
- 1900: Labour Party
- 1892: Independent Labour Party
- 1892: Irish National Federation
- 1892: Irish Unionist Alliance
- 1886: Liberal Unionist Party
- 1885: Crofters Party (in Scotland)
- 1885: Irish Parliamentary Party (aka Irish Nationalist)
- 1874: Home Rule League (in Ireland)
- 1859: Liberal Party
- 1852: Independent Irish Party
- 1841: Chartist*
- 1835: Conservative Party
Asterisked - first election where party fielded candidates but MPs elected at later general election. Otherwise all parties listed returned MPs at first contested election.
Last general elections for defunct political parties
Listed below are parties which had returned MPs and which ceased to exist after the listed election:
- 2015: Respect Party
- 1992: Ulster Popular Unionist Party (in Northern Ireland)
- 1987: Communist Party
- 1987: Liberal Party *
- 1987: SDP *
- 1979: Democratic Labour Party
- 1966: National Liberal Party (formed 1931 - dissolved 1968)
- 1945: Common Wealth Party
- 1945: Independent Labour Party
- 1935: National Labour Party
- 1931: Scottish Prohibition Party
- 1918: Irish Parliamentary Party (aka Irish Nationalist)
- 1918: Irish Unionist Alliance
- December 1910: All-for-Ireland League
- December 1910: Liberal Unionist Party
- 1895: Crofters Party (in Scotland)
- 1895: Irish National Federation
- 1880: Home Rule League (in Ireland)
- 1859: Chartists
- 1857: Independent Irish Party
- 1857: Radicals (before amalgamation into Liberal Party which continued to be nicknamed "Radicals")
- 1857: Whig Party
- 1832: Tory Party (before reorganisation as Conservative Party which continued to be nicknamed "Tories")
* After the Liberal Party and SDP merged to form the Liberal Democrats, some members opposed to the merger formed new parties, the continuation Liberal Party and continuation Social Democratic Party. These parties are legally distinct from their predecessors and have never won a seat in Parliament.
General elections following electoral developments
Participation in, and outcome of, general elections can be influenced by changes in electoral law or practice.
- 2015:Fixed-term Parliaments Act 2011
- 2010: first general election following lowering of age of candidacy to 18
- 2001: first general election in which hereditary peers could vote, and stand as MPs without disclaiming peerage
- 1970: first general election following reduction of adult voting age to 18
- 1955: first general election in which no seats were uncontested
- 1950: first general election following:
- 1929: first general election where all adult women (aged 21 upwards) were enfranchised
- 1922: first general election following secession of Southern Ireland from the UK
- 1918: first general election in which:
- women (aged 30 upwards) were enfranchised
- all adult males (aged 21 upwards) were enfranchised
- polling was held on single day
- postal voting (for armed forces personnel) was allowed
- 1885: first general election held subject to the Corrupt and Illegal Practices Prevention Act 1883
- 1874: first general election held with secret ballots
- 1868: first general election following enfranchisement of all male heads of household under the Second Reform Act
- 1832: first general election following Great Reform Act which:
- 1830: first general election in which Roman Catholics could stand as MPs (significant in Ireland)
- 1801: first general election in which Irish voters elected MPs to Westminster, following the Act of Union, on same footing to those in England, Scotland and Wales
- United Kingdom by-election records
- Records of members of parliament of the United Kingdom
- List of United Kingdom MPs with the shortest service
- United Kingdom general elections
- swing (politics)
- Craig, F. W. S. (1968). British Parliamentary Election Statistics 1918-1968. Glasgow: Political Reference Publications. p. 20. ISBN 0900178000.
- Clements, Rob. "Electoral swing".
- Election 2015: SNP wins 56 of 59 seats in Scots landslide BBC News 8 May 2015
- Tim Carr, The Politicos Guide to the New House of Commons 2015
- Craig, F. W. S. (1968). British Parliamentary Election Statistics 1918-1968. Glasgow: Political Reference Publications. p. 104. ISBN 0900178000.
- Craig, F. W. S. (1968). British Parliamentary Election Statistics 1918-1968. Glasgow: Political Reference Publications. p. 101. ISBN 0900178000.
- Craig, F. W. S. (1968). British Parliamentary Election Statistics 1918-1968. Glasgow: Political Reference Publications. p. 103. ISBN 0900178000.
- Colin Rallings and Michael Thrasher, British electoral facts (Parliamentary Research Services)
- "Maidenhead parliamentary constituency - Election 2017" – via www.bbc.co.uk.
- "Putney [Archive]". www.politicsresources.net.
- "Islington North parliamentary constituency - Election 2017" – via www.bbc.co.uk.
- Craig, F. W. S. (1968). British Parliamentary Election Statistics 1918-1968. Glasgow: Political Reference Publications. p. 102. ISBN 0900178000.
- Research Paper 05/33: General Election 2005 Archived 27 March 2009 at the Wayback Machine., House of Commons Library
- Craig, F. W. S. (1968). British Parliamentary Election Statistics 1918-1968. Glasgow: Political Reference Publications. p. 65. ISBN 0900178000.
- MacAskill, Ewen; Ratcliffe, Rebecca (8 May 2015). "Mhairi Black: the 20-year-old who beat a Labour heavyweight". the Guardian.
- James Keir Hardie 1856 - 1915 Archived 25 March 2014 at the Wayback Machine. at Hunting Dead
- Chris Pond, Parliament and Religious Disabilities Archived 28 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine.
- Who's Who of British MPs: Volume IV, 1945-1979 by Michael Stenton and Stephen Lees (Harvester, Brighton, 1979) ISBN 0-85527-335-6
- British Parliamentary Constituencies - A Statistical Compendium by Ivor Crewe and Anthony Fox (Faber and Faber, London, 1984) ISBN 0-571-13236-7
- British Political Facts 1900-1994 by David Butler and Gareth Butler (St. Martin's Press, New York, 1994) ISBN 0-312-12147-4